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Spain covers an area of some 506 000 km2 and has a population of just over 41 million. It is a high-income country (according to World Bank criteria) and devotes 7.5% of its gross domestic product to health.
Ethiopia, in the Horn of Africa, is one of the ancient independent nations of the world and has a rich diversity of peoples and cultures. The country covers 1.1 million km2 (Central Statistical Authority, 2000a). It has a population of about 70 million people (Central Statistical Authority, 2002), 80 different ethnic groups and some 200 dialects. Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in sub-Saharan Africa, after Nigeria (Hailemariam & Kloos, 1993). Forty-eight per cent of the population are under 15 years of age and over 80% live in rural areas (Central Statistical Authority, 1995). Islam and Christianity are the main religions.
The Philippines, known as the Pearl of the Orient, is an archipelago of 7107 islands, bounded on the west by the South China Sea, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Sulu and Celebes Sea, and on the north by the Bashi Channel. The northernmost islands are about 240 km south of Taiwan and the southernmost islands approximately 24 km from Borneo. The country has a total land area of some 300 000 km2. It is divided into three geographical areas: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. It has 17 regions, 79 provinces, 115 cities, 1495 municipalities and 41 956 barangays (the smallest geographic and political unit). It has over 100 ethnic groups and a myriad of foreign influences (including Malay, Chinese, Spanish and American).
Jordan, one of the most recently established countries in the Middle East, was part of the Ottoman Empire. It was declared a political entity known as Transjordan under the mandate of the British government in 1923, until it gained independence and was declared a Kingdom in 1946. In 1950, Transjordan and the West Bank were united and assumed the current name of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The next major change for the Kingdom came in 1967, when the occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip by Israeli forces caused a massive influx of migrants to the East Bank.
Malawi is a country with an approximate area of 118 000 km2. Its population is estimated at 13 million and the gender ratio (men per hundred women) is 98. The proportion of the population under the age of 15 years is 47% and the proportion above the age of 60 years is 5%. The literacy rate is 75.5% for men and 48.7% for women (World Health Organization, 2005).
The intense historical relationship linking Jamaica and Britain to 300 years of the transatlantic slave trade and 200 years of colonialism has left 2.7 million souls living in Jamaica, 80% of African origin, 15% of mixed Creole background and 5% of Asian Indian, Chinese and European ancestry. With a per capita gross domestic product of US$4104 in 2007, one-third of the population is impoverished, the majority struggling for economic survival. The prevailing religion is Protestant, although the presence of African retentions such as Obeah and Pocomania are still widely and profoundly experienced, and the powerful Rastafarian movement emerged as a countercultural religious force after 1930. The paradox and contradictions of five centuries of Jamaican resistance to slavery and colonial oppression have spawned a tiny, resilient, creative, multicultural island people, who have achieved a worldwide philosophical, political and religious impact, phenomenal sporting prowess, astonishing musical and performing creativity, and a criminal underworld that has stunned by its propensity for violence.
With an area of 450 000 km2, Sweden is one of the largest countries in Western Europe. It is 1500 km from north to south. It has nearly 9 million inhabitants (20 per km2). It is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary government. Sweden is highly dependent on international trade to maintain its high productivity and good living standards. Many public services are provided by Sweden's 289 municipalities and 21 county councils. Municipal responsibilities include schools, child care and care of the elderly, as well as social support for people with a chronic mental illness. The county councils are mainly responsible for healthcare, including psychiatric care, and public transport at the regional level. Sweden is characterised by an even distribution of incomes and wealth. This is partly a result of the comparatively large role of the public sector.
Mongolia is a country with an approximate area of 1.5 million km2. Its population is 2.5 million, nearly 90% of whom are ethnically Mongolian. Khalkh Mongols form the largest subgroup (approximately 79% of the population); the next largest subgroup is the Kazakhs (5.3%), followed by smaller groups such as Tuvins, Uzbeks, Uighurs, Russian and Chinese. The population is young, with 35.9% under the age of 15 years. The official language is Mongolian. Just under half the population live in rural areas and around a fifth live a nomadic life. About 80% of the land area is suitable for agriculture, mostly for animal husbandry.
How many members of the College know about the state of psychiatry in Nigeria or Egypt? Perhaps just a few. How many would be interested in knowing more? Perhaps many. The country profiles section of International Psychiatry attempts to narrow this information-and-awareness gap.
Country profiles provide summary information on mental health policy, services, training and research in the country, along with key references for more details. The aim is to give a bird's eye view of the situation within about 1500 words. It is hoped that this will not only increase the reader's awareness of distant and often forgotten countries, but also provide an opportunity for learning from others’ experiences. The profiles can also open possibilities for further dialogue and even collaboration.
Uzbekistan is a landlocked central Asian country with an area of 447 400 km2. It borders Kazakhstan in the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the east, Turkmenistan in the west and Afghanistan in the south. Uzbekistan has 14 regions (provinces). In 1991 it emerged as a sovereign country after more than a century of Russian rule — first as part of the Russian empire and then as a component of the Soviet Union.
The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria – in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.
Nigeria is a huge country. It covers an area of 924 000 km2 on the west coast of Africa. It has a population of about 110 million, which means that every one in six Africans is a Nigerian. It is a country of diverse ethnicity, with over 200 spoken languages, even though three of those are spoken by about 60% of the population. Administratively, it is divided into 36 states and operates a federal system of government, with constitutional responsibilities allocated to the various tiers of government – central, state and local. There are two main religions, Islam (predominantly in the north) and Christianity (predominantly in the south). However, a large proportion of the people still practise traditional religions exclusively or in addition to either Islam or Christianity.
The Islamic Republic of Iran is located in the Middle East between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. Iran's total land area is 1 648 000 km2. Its total population in 2003 was about 68 920 000 (UNICEF, 2003). The population growth rate is 1.41%. Of the total population, 60.4% live in urban and 39.6% in rural areas (Yasamy et al, 2001).
Modern mental healthcare in Poland has its foundations in the 19th century, when the country was subject to three different organisational and legal systems — of the Austrian, Prussian and Russian Empires. These differences prevailed even after the First World War. Professionals lobbying for a mental health act had no success. The Second World War left mental healthcare with significant losses among its professional groups. More than half of all Polish psychiatrists lost their lives; some of them were exterminated as Jews, some as prisoners of the Soviets. The Nazi occupation in Poland had dramatic consequences for people with a mental disturbance, as Action T4 turned into genocide on the Polish territory. The majority of psychiatric in-patients were killed. After the Second World War, the mental health system had to be rebuilt, almost from scratch. Major political changes in the country across the second part of the 20th century and revolutionary changes in mental healthcare around the world influenced psychiatric services. The purpose of this paper is to describe mental healthcare in Poland today.
Relative to its economic indicators, Sri Lanka has a high health status. The life expectancy in the year 2001 was 70.7 years for males and 75.4 years for females. Maternal and infant mortality rates have shown a downward trend over the past half century and now are around 2.3 per 10 000 live births and 16 per 1000 live births, respectively. These trends are mainly due to the high literacy rate and comparatively large investments made in health and social welfare.
The Korean peninsula is located between China and Japan. After the Second World War, the Republic of Korea was established in the southern half of the Korean peninsula. South Korea has a total area of 98 480 km2 and a population of 48 598 175 (July 2004 estimate). The per capita gross domestic product (GDP), in terms of purchasing power parity, is US$17 700 (2003 estimate) (Central Intelligence Agency, 2004). The illiteracy rate (among those aged over 15 years) is 1.9% (0.7% for males and 3% for females) (2003 estimate). Life expectancy at birth is 75.6 years (72.0 years for males and 79.5 years for females) and the infant mortality rate is 7.2 per 1000 births (2004 estimate). The unemployment rate is 3.4% (2003 estimate). The proportion of the population aged 65 and over is currently 8.7% (2004 estimate) (Korea National Statistics Office, 2003). Over 40% of the total Korean population (i.e. some 20 million) lives in Seoul and its vicinity. South Korea is highly urbanised and modernised. Besides central government, local government is based on seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) is located on the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. It has an area of 51 210 km2 and a population of 3 972 000. According to the Dayton Agreement of November 1995, which ended the 1992-95 war, BH comprises two ‘entities’ - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBH) and the Republic of Srpska (RS) - and the District of Brcko. The administrative arrangements for the management and financing of mental health services reflect this. The FBH, with 2 325 018 residents, is a federation of 10 cantons, which have equal rights and responsibilities. The RS has 1 487 785 residents and, in contrast, a centralised administration. Brcko District has just under 80 000 residents.