1Chakos, M, Lieberman, J, Hoffman, E, Bradford, D, Sheitman, B. Effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(4): 518–26.
2Siskind, D, McCartney, L, Goldschlager, R, Kisely, S. Clozapine v. first- and second-generation antipsychotics in treatment-refractory schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2016; 209(5): 385–92.
3Tiihonen, J, Lönnqvist, J, Wahlbeck, K, Klaukka, T, Niskanen, L, Tanskanen, A, et al. 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet 2009; 374(9690): 620–7.
4Frogley, C, Taylor, D, Dickens, G, Picchioni, M. A systematic review of the evidence of clozapine's anti-aggressive effects. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2012; 15(9): 1351–71.
5Swinton, M, Haddock, A. Clozapine in special hospital: a retrospective case-control study. J Forensic Psychiatry 2000; 11(3): 587–96.
6Lokshin, P, Lerner, V, Miodownik, C, Dobrusin, M, Belmaker, RH. Parenteral clozapine: five years of experience. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19(5): 479–80.
7Schulte, PF, Stienen, JJ, Bogers, J, Cohen, D, van Dijk, D, Lionarons, WH, et al. Compulsory treatment with clozapine: a retrospective long-term cohort study. Int J Law Psychiatry 2007; 30(6): 539–45.
8Kasinathan, J, Mastroianni, T. Evaluating the use of enforced clozapine in an Australian forensic psychiatric setting: two cases. BMC Psychiatry 2007; 7(Suppl 1): P13.
9McLean, G, Juckes, L. Parenteral clozapine (Clozaril). Australas Psychiatry 2001; 9(4): 371.
10Silva, E, Till, A, Adshead, G. Ethical dilemmas in psychiatry: when teams disagree. BJPsych Adv 2017; 23(4): 231–9.
11Till, A, Selwood, J, Silva, E. The assertive approach to clozapine: nasogastric administration. BJPsych Bull 2019; 43(1): 21–6.
12Fisher, WA. Elements of successful restraint and seclusion reduction programs and their application in a large, urban, state psychiatric hospital. J Psychiatr Pract 2003; 9(1): 7–15.
13Pereira, S, Beer, D, Paton, C. Enforcing treatment with clozapine: survey of views and practice. Psychiatrist 1999; 23(6): 342–5.
14Fahy, TJ. Martial arts for psychiatrists. Psychiatrist 2000; 24(5): 197–8.
16Henry, R, Massey, R, Silva, E, Qurashi, I. An evaluation of intramuscular clozapine in two forensic services. College of Mental Health Pharmacy Annual Conference, Manchester, 2017.
17Patel, S, Wakelam, J, Davoren, M. A staff attitude survey into the use of intramuscular and nasogastric clozapine in Broadmoor High Secure Hospital. RCPsych Faculty of Forensic Psychiatry Annual Conference, Vienna, 2019.
18Holmes, N. Evaluation of intramuscular clozapine. College of Mental Health Pharmacy Annual Conference, Manchester, 2017.
19Department of Health. Mental Health Act 1983: Code of Practice. TSO, 2015.
20Mason, AS, Granacher, RP. Clinical Handbook of Antipsychotic Drug Therapy. Brunner/Mazel, 1980.
22World Health Organization, International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10). WHO, 1992.
23Rostami-Hodjegan, A, Amin, AM, Spencer, EP, Lennard, MS, Tucker, GT, Flanagan, RJ. Influence of dose, cigarette smoking, age, sex, and metabolic activity on plasma clozapine concentrations: a predictive model and nomograms to aid clozapine dose adjustment and to assess compliance in individual patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004; 24(1): 70–8.
24Correll, CU, Rubio, JM, Inczedy-Farkas, G, Birnbaum, ML, Kane, JM, Leucht, S. Efficacy of 42 pharmacologic cotreatment strategies added to antipsychotic monotherapy in schizophrenia: systematic overview and quality appraisal of the meta-analytic evidence. JAMA Psychiatry 2017; 74(7): 675–84.