‘Depot antipsychotics' (‘long-acting injectable antipsychotic medications' or LAIs) are underused in the treatment of schizophrenia (including first episodes) and, possibly, of schizophrenia with comorbid substance use disorders. Patients' and clinicians' beliefs and attitudes, and service barriers, affect best practice and evidence-based care in LAI prescription. Poor medication adherence is a key reason for LAI prescription, but patients receiving LAIs may still relapse or experience significant side-effects. Patients' and clinicians' attitudes towards antipsychotic medication, as well as the quality of their recovery-focused relationship, are key factors in adherence. Clinicians should avoid a dichotomous ‘oral v. LAI’ choice: LAIs may have a place at various stages in the continuum of care and they should be one of the options discussed with any patient requiring long-term treatment, even early in the illness course. Many clinicians need better education about LAIs and greater familiarity with schizophrenia treatment guidelines.