Ornithological surveys were conducted in Tanzanian submontane forest at Nilo Forest Reserve in the East Usambaras and Nguu North Forest Reserve in the Nguu Mountains in July-September 1995. Information on the ecology of poorly known bird species of conservation interest was collected and combined with previously published information to assess their conservation status. Sixteen species of conservation interest were recorded during fieldwork, including five Vulnerable (Usambara Eagle Owl Bubo vosseleri, East Coast Akalat Sheppardia gunningi, Amani Sunbird Anthreptes pallidigaster, Banded Green Sunbird Anthreptes rubritorques and Usambara Weaver Ploceus nicolli); three Near-threatened (Southern Banded Snake Eagle Circaetus fasciolatus, Fischer's Turaco Tauraco fischeri and Moreau's Sunbird Nectarinia moreaui); one regionally Endangered (Southern Hyliota Hyliota australis); one regionally Vulnerable (Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes neglectus), two regionally Near-threatened (Lemon Dove Aplopelia lavata and Evergreen Forest Warbler Bradypterus barratti); and 10 in total as restricted-range species (Fischer's Turaco, Usambara Eagle Owl, Sharpe's Akalat Sheppardia sharpei, Red-capped Forest Warbler Orthotomus metopias, Spot-throat Modulatrix stictigula, Amani Sunbird, Banded Green Sunbird, Moreau's Sunbird, Kenrick's Starling Poeoptera kenricki and Usambara Weaver). New information on the ecology of these species is presented in this paper. It is recommended that the conservation status of East Coast Akalat and Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird be changed to globally Near-threatened and regionally Near-threatened, respectively. Should further work confirm that the Usambara race of Southern Hyliota deserves specific status it is strongly recommended that it be considered globally Endangered. All other species recorded should retain their current status and continue to be monitored. The Nguus represented a new locality for several species. Sharpe's Akalat, Spot-throat, Red-Capped Forest Warbler, otherwise widely distributed throughout the east Tanzania, were absent from the Nguus.