Skip to main content Accessibility help

Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: a review from a conservation perspective



The East Asian-Australasian Flyway supports the greatest diversity and populations of migratory birds globally, as well as the highest number of threatened migratory species of any flyway, including passerines (15 species). However it is also one of the most poorly understood migration systems, and little is known about the populations and ecology of the passerine migrants that breed, stop over and winter in the habitats along this flyway. We provide the first flyway-wide review of diversity, ecology, and conservation issues relating to 170 species of long-distance and over 80 short-distance migrants from 32 families. Recent studies of songbird migration movements and ecology is limited, and is skewed towards East Asia, particularly Mainland China, Taiwan, Russia, Japan and South Korea. Strong evidence of declines exists for some species, e.g. Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola, but tends to be fragmentary, localised or anecdotal for many others. More species have small breeding ranges (< 250,000 km2) and/or are dependent on tropical forests as wintering habitat than those in any other Eurasian migratory system, and are thus more vulnerable to habitat loss and degradation throughout their ranges. Poorly regulated hunting for food and the pet trade, invasive species and collisions with man-made structures further threaten migratory songbirds at a number of stop-over or wintering sites, while climate change and habitat loss may be of increasing concern in the breeding ranges. A key conservation priority is to carry out intensive field surveys across the region while simultaneously tapping into citizen science datasets, to identify important stop-over and wintering sites, particularly for poorly-known or globally threatened species across South-East Asia and southern China for targeted conservation actions. Additionally, the advent of miniaturised tracking technology, molecular and isotopic techniques can provide novel insights into migration connectivity, paths and ecology for species in this migration system, complementing data from banding exercises and observation-based surveys, and could prove useful in informing conservation priorities. However, until most states along the East Asian-Australasian flyway ratify the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and other cross-boundary treaties, the relative lack of cross-boundary cooperation, coordination and information sharing in the region will continue to present a stumbling block for effective conservation of migratory passerines.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: a review from a conservation perspective
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: a review from a conservation perspective
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: a review from a conservation perspective
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence: e-mail:


Hide All
Abe, N. and Kurosawa, O. (1982) A remarkable fall of migrant passerine on the ship. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 14: 5967. (In Japanese).
Alerstam, T., Backman, J., Strandberg, R., Gudmundur, A., Gudmundsson, A. H., Henningsson, S. S., Karlsson, H. and Rosen, M. (2008) Great-circle migration of Arctic passerines. Auk 125: 831838.
Alonzo-Pasicolan, S. (1992) The bird-catchers of Dalton’s Pass. Oriental Bird Club Bulletin 15: 3336.
Alström, P., Saitoh, T., Williams, D., Nishiumi, I., Shigeta, Y., Ueda, K., Irestedt, M., Björklund, M. and Olsson, U. (2011) The Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis–three anciently separated cryptic species revealed. Ibis 153: 395410.
Amano, T. and Yamaura, Y. (2007) Ecological and life-history traits related to range contraction among breeding birds in Japan. Biol. Conserv. 37: 271282.
Amano, T., Szekely, T., Koyama, K., Amano, H. and Sutherland, W. J. (2010) A framework for monitoring the status of populations: An example from wader populations in the East Asian–Australasian flyway. Biol. Conserv. 143: 22382247.
Anderson, P. K. (2011) Wireless telecommunications and night flying birds: We may be sacrificing millions of migrants for convenience, entertainment and profit. Biodiversity 4: 1017.
Anon, . (2007) Preliminary study on bird migration on Po Toi Island (Spring 2007). Hong Kong, China: Report by the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society to the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.
Anon, . (2012) Hunan cracking down on illegal bird hunting. China Daily (Accessed online from
Askins, R. A. (2000) Restoring North America's birds: Lessons from landscape ecology. New Haven, USA: Yale University Press.
Azman, N. M., Abdul Latip, N. S., Mohd Sah, S. A., Md Akil, M. A. M., Shafie, N. J. and Khairuddin, N. L. (2011) Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the Kerian River basin, Perak, Malaysia. Trop. Life Sci. Res. 22: 4564.
Bakewell, D. (2007) April 2nd, Bukit Mertajam rice-fields. (Accessed online from
Bakewell, D. (2013) Chuping, Perlis: 19 November 2013. (Accessed online from
Bairlein, F. (1985) Body weights and fat deposition of Palaearctic passerine migrants in the central Sahara. Oecologia 66: 141146.
Bairlein, F. and Schaub, M. (2009) Ringing and the study of mechanism of migration. Ring. Migr. 24: 162168.
Bauer, S. and Hoye, B. J. (2014) Migratory animals couple biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. Science 344: 5462.
Berthold, P. (1993) Bird migration: a general survey. Second Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bing, G-C., Choi, C-Y., Nam, H-Y., Park, J-G., Hong, G-P., Sung, J-K., Chae, H-Y and Choi, Y-B. (2012) Causes of mortality in birds at stopover islands. Korean J. Ornithol. 19: 2331. (In Korean).
Bird, J. P., Lees, A. C., Chowdhury, S. U., Martin, R. and Haque, E. U. (2010) A survey of the Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus in Bangladesh and key future research and conservation recommendations. Forktail 26: 18.
Bird Conservation Society of Thailand (2013) 12th Thailand Bird Fair 2013. (Accessed online http://
Birdfair Asia (2011) Asian bird fair. (Accessed online
BirdLife International (2012) BirdLife taxonomic checklist Version 5.1. (Accessed online from
BirdLife International. (2013) BirdLife data zone. (Accessed online from
Boer, B. W., Rothwell, D. R. and Ramsay, R. (1998) International environmental law in the Asia Pacific. London, UK: Kluwer Law International.
Boere, G. C. and Stroud, D. A. (2006) The flyway concept: what it is and what it isn’t. Pp. 4047 in Boere, G. C., Galbraith, C. A., and Stroud, D. A.. eds. Waterbirds around the world. Edinburgh, UK: The Stationery Office.
Bolshakov, C. V. (2001) Results of the large-scale study of nocturnal bird migration in the arid and mountainous zone of western Central Asia (Asia programme). Pp. 372393 in Kurochkin, E. N. and Rakhimov, I. I., eds. Achievements and Problems of Ornithology of Northern Eurasia on the Border between the Centuries. Kazan, Russia: Magarif. (In Russian).
Both, C., Bouwhuis, S., Lessells, C. M. and Visser, M. E. (2006) Climate change and population decline in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature 441: 8183.
Bradshaw, C. J. A., Warkentin, I. G. and Sodhi, N. S. (2009) Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24: 541548.
Brazil, M. (2009) Birds of East Asia. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.
Bruderer, B. (1997) The study of bird migration by radar. Part 2: major achievements. Naturwissenschaften 84: 4554.
Butler, R. (2009) Laos emerges as key source in Asia’s illicit wildlife trade. Yale Environment 360. (Accessed online from
Cao, L., Barter, M. and Lewthwaite, R. (2008a) The declining importance of the Fujian coast, China, for wintering waterbirds. Waterbirds 31: 645650.
Cao, L., Barter, M. and Lei, G. (2008b) New Anatidae population estimate for eastern China: implication for current flyway estimates. Biol. Conserv. 141: 23012309.
Carey, G. J., Chalmers, M. L., Diskin, D. A., Kennerley, P. R., Leader, P. J., Leven, M. R., Lewthwaite, R. W., Melville, D. S., Turnbull, M. and Young, L. (2001) The avifauna of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong Bird Watching Society.
Chabot, A. A., Hobson, K. A., van Wilgenburg, S. L., McQuat, G. J. and Lougheed, S. C. (2012) Advances in linking wintering migrant birds to their breeding-ground origins using combined analyses of genetic and stable isotope markers. PLoS One 7(8): e43627.
Chan, S. (2004) Yellow-breasted Bunting Emberiza aureola . BirdingASIA 1: 1617.
Chasen, F. N. (1932) Notes on some migratory birds from Pulau Pisang, west coast of Johore. Bull. Raffles Mus. 7: 37.
Chen, X., Li, B-L. and Lin, Z-S. (2003) The acceleration of succession for the restoration of the mixed-broadleaved Korean pine forests in northeast China. Forest Ecol. Manage. 177: 503514.
Chen, S. (2009) Rudong to set up more clean power projects. China Daily. 22 September. (Accessed online at
Cheng, M. C., Lee, M. S., Ho, Y. H., Chyi, W. L. and Wang, C. H. (2010) Avian influenza monitoring in migrating birds in Taiwan during 1998–2007. Avian Dis. 54: 109114.
Chernetsov, N. (2012) Passerine migration: stopovers and flight. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
China Ornithologists’ Society (2008) China bird report. Beijing: China Ornithologists’ Society.
Choi, C-Y. (2004). First record of the Spotted Bush Warbler (Bradypterus thoracicus davidi) in Korea. Korean J. Ornithol. 11: 9599. (In Korean).
Choi, Y-S., Kim, S-H., Son, J-S., Kang, S-G., Hur, W-H and Han, S-H. (2013) Seasonal patterns of bird migration at a stopover site during the migratory period. Korean J. Ornithol. 20: 4966. (In Korean).
Coates, B. J. and Bishop, K. D. (1997) A guide to the birds of Wallacea: Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Alderly, Australia: Dove Publications.
Coates, B. J. and Peckover, W. S. (2001) Birds of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago: a photographic guide. Alderly, Australia: Dove Publications.
Convention on Migratory Species (2014) Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. (Accessed online from
Corlett, R. T. (2007) The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica 39: 292303.
Corlett, R. T. (2009) The ecology of tropical East Asia. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Crosby, M. J. and Chan, S. (2006) Threatened waterbird species in eastern and southern Asia and actions needed for their conservation. Pp. 332338 in Boere, G. C., Galbraith, C. A., and Stroud, D. A.. eds. Waterbirds around the world. Edinburgh, UK: The Stationery Office.
Dale, S. and Hansen, K. (2013) Population decline in the Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica in Norway. Ornis Fennica 90: 193202.
Dänhardt, J., Green, M., Lindström, Å., Rundlöf, M. and Smith, H. G. (2010) Farmland as stopover habitat for migrating birds–effects of organic farming and landscape structure. Oikos 119: 11141125.
DeCandido, R., Nualsri, C., Allen, D. and Bildstein, K. L. (2004) Raptor migration at Chumphon, Thailand: a globally significant raptor watch site. Forktail 20: 4954.
De Klemm, C. (1994) The problem of migratory species in international law. Pp. 6777 in Bergensen, H. O., and Parmann, G., eds. Green globe yearbook of international cooperation on environment and development 1994. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Dinata, Y., Nugroho, A., Haidir, I. A. and Linkie, M. (2008) Camera trapping rare and threatened avifauna in west-central Sumatra. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 18: 3037.
Dingle, H. (2004) The Australo-Papuan bird migratory system: another consequence of Wallace’s line. Emu 104: 95108.
Dolnik, V. R., ed. (1987) Study of bird migration in the arid and mountainous regions of Middle Asia and Kazakhstan. Leningrad, USSR: Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, Akademiya Nauk. (In Russian).
Dudgeon, D. (2000) Large-Scale Hydrological Changes in Tropical Asia: Prospects for Riverine Biodiversity. BioScience 50: 793806.
Du, M., Yu, Y. Wang, X., Lin, Z., Wu, C. and Wang, L. (2006) Preliminary study on the migration of passerines in autumn in Laotieshan Mountain, Liaoning province, China. Chinese J. Zool. 41: 7479. (In Chinese).
East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership (2012) Partnership for the conservation of migratory waterbirds and the sustainable use of their habitats in the East Asian – Australasian flyway. (Accessed online from
Ellis, D. H., Kepler, A. K. and Kepler, C. B. (1990) Evidence for a fall raptor migration pathway across the South China Sea. J. Raptor Res. 24: 1218.
Emmanuel, B. and Yordan, K. (2013) First record of Japanese Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata for Java. Kukila: Indonesian J. Ornithol. 17: 3032.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations) (2005) Forest Resources Assessment 2005. Rome: FAO.
Feng, Y. (2012) Market trade is fuelling the killing of migratory birds in China. ChinaDialogue, 10 October. (Accessed online at
Fitzherbert, E. B., Struebig, M. J., Morel, A., Danielsen, A., Brühl, C. A., Donald, P. F. and Phalan, B. (2008) How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity? Trends Ecol. Evol. 23: 538545.
Fransson, T., Kolehmainen, T. and Staav, R. (2007) Svensk ringmärkning. Pp. 19–25 in P. G. Bentz and A. Wirdheim, eds. Fågelåret 2006. Stockholm, Sweden: Sveriges Ornitologiska Förening. (In Swedish).
Fujioka, M., Lee, S. D., Kurechi, M. and Yoshida, H. (2010) Bird use of rice fields in Korea and Japan. Waterbirds 33: 829.
Gan, X., Choi, C., Wang, Y., Ma, Z., Chen, J. and Li, B. (2010) Alteration of habitat structure and food resources by invasive smooth cordgrass affect habitat use by wintering saltmarsh birds at Chongming Dongtan, East China. Auk 127: 317327.
Germi, F., Young, G. S., Salim, A., Pangimangen, W. and Schellekens, M. (2009) Over-ocean raptor migration in a monsoon regime: spring and autumn 2007 on Sangihe, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forktail 25: 105117.
Gibson-Hill, C. (1950) Birds recorded from Pulau Jarak, Malacca Strait. Bull. Raffles Mus. 23: 263299.
Gilbert, M., Sokha, Chea, Joyner, P. H., Thomson, R. L. and Poole, C. (2012) Characterizing the trade of wild birds for merit release in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and associated risks to health and ecology. Biol. Conserv. 153: 1016.
Gill, F. and Donsker, D. (2013) IOC world bird list (v. 3.5). (Accessed online at http//
Gluschenko, Y. N., Nechaev, V. A. and Gluschenko, V. P (2010) Birds of Primorsky Krai: Fauna, distribution, protection and bibliography. Far Eastern J. Ornithol. 1: 3150. (In Russian).
Gluschenko, Y. N., Korobov, D. V. and Kalnitskaya, I. N. (2011) Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi of the Кhanka-Razdolnaya Plain: peculiarities of biology, morphology and population dynamics. Far Eastern J. Ornithol. 2: 812.
Gombobaatar, S., Brown, H. J., Sumiya, D., Tseveenmyadag, N., Boldbaatar, S., Baillie, J. E. M., Batbayar, G., Monks, E. M. and Stubbe, M. (2011) Summary conservation action plans for Mongolian birds. UK: Zoological Society of London, Mongolian Ornithological Society and National University of Mongolia. (Regional Red List Series Volume 8).
Greenberg, R. and Marra, P. R. (2005) Birds of two worlds: the ecology and evolution of migration. Baltimore, USA: The John Hopkins University Press.
Greenwood, J. J. D. (2007) Citizen, science and bird conservation. J. Ornithol. 148, Suppl. 1: 77124.
Hahn, S., Bauer, S. and Liechti, F. (2009) The natural link between Europe and Africa – 2.1 billion birds on migration. Oikos 118: 624626.
Han, L-X., Huang, S-L, Yuan, Y. C. and Qiu, Y. L. (2007) Fall migration dynamics of birds on Fenghuang Mountain, Yunnan Province, China. Zool. Res. 28: 3540. (In Chinese).
Harris, J. C. B., Yong, D. L., Sodhi, N. S., Subaraj, R., Fordham, D. and Brook, B. W. (2013) Changes in autumn arrival dates of long-distance migratory birds in Southeast Asia. Clim. Res. 57: 133141.
Heim, W., Smirenski, S. M., Siegmund, A. and Eidam, F. (2012) Results of an autumnal bird ringing project at Muraviovka Park (Amur Region) in 2011. Avian Ecol. Behav. 21: 2740.
Higuchi, H. and Morishita, E. (1999) Population declines of tropical migratory birds in Japan. Actinia 12: 5159.
Higuchi, H., Shiu, H. J., Nakamura, H., Uematsu, A., Kuno, K., Saeki, M., Hotta, M., Tokita, K., Moriya, E., Morishita, E. and Tamura, M. (2005) Migration of Honey-buzzards Pernis apivorus based on satellite tracking. Ornithol. Sci. 4: 109115.
Higuchi, H. (2012) Bird migration and the conservation of the global environment. J. Ornithol. 153 Suppl. 1: 314.
Higuchi, H. (2013) The journey of birds – satellite tracking bird migration. Tokyo, Japan: SELC Co. Ltd.
Hirano, T. (1996) Changes in breeding avifauna during the past 25 years at Tomatsuriyama in Utsunomiya City, central Japan. Strix 14: 2531.
Holmes, R. T. (2007) Understanding population change in migratory songbirds: long-term and experimental studies of Neotropical migrants in breeding and wintering areas. Ibis 149(S2): 213.
Hong, G-P., Bing, G-C., Choi, C-Y., Nam, H-Y., Won, I-J., Kim, S-J., Park, J-G. and Chae, H-Y. (2010) Migrating Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus feeding on passerines on a stopover island, Korea. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 41: 200203.
Hüppop, O., Dierschke, J., Klaus-Michael, E., Fredrick, E. and Hill, R. (2006) Bird migration studies and potential collision risk with offshore wind turbines. Ibis 148: 90109.
Imanishi, S., Obata, Y., Murata, K., Edagawa, T., Iwasaki, K. and Ohmura, H. (2009) Differential timing of autumn migration of three species of leaf warblers Phylloscopus in Central Japan. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 40: 96103. (In Japanese).
Iqbal, M., Ajiman, , Noske, R. A. and Setiawan, D. (2014) Hunting of a very large aggregation of Eye-browed Thrushes Turdus obscurus in Sumatra. Kukila: J. Indonesian Ornithol. 17: 6871.
Irwin, D. E. and Irwin, J. H. (2005) Siberian migratory divides: the role of seasonal migration in speciation. Pp. 2840 in Greenberg, R., and Marra, P. R., eds. Birds of two worlds: the ecology and evolution of migration. Baltimore, USA: The John Hopkins University Press.
IUCN-WCPA (2011) Protected areas in East Asia: Evaluating and strengthening implementation of the CBD programme of work on protected areas and the East Asian regional action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Jeyarajasingham, A. and Pearson, A. (2012) Field guide to the birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, M. D., Sherry, T. W., Holmes, R. T. and Marra, P. P. (2006) Assessing habitat quality for a migratory songbird wintering in natural and agricultural habitats. Conserv. Biol. 20: 14331444.
Karr, J. R. (1976) On the relative abundance of migrants from the north temperate zone in tropical habitats. Wilson Bull. 88: 433458.
Kennedy, R. S., Gonzales, P. C., Dickinson, E. C., Miranda, H. and Fisher, T. H. (2000) A guide to the birds of the Philippines. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Kim, D-W. (2009) Breeding birds and bird migration pattern at Hataedo Island in Spring. Korean J. Ornithol. 16: 93106. (In Korean).
Kim, D-W. and Yoo, J-C. (2010) Assessment of the stopover quality of Hongdo island for Passeriformes: study using the capture-recapture method. Korean J. Ornithol. 17: 179185. (In Korean).
Kim, E-M., Choi, C-Y. and Kang, C-W. (2013) Causes of injury and mortality of Fairy Pitta Pitta nympha on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Forktail 29: 145148.
Kirby, J. S. (2010) Review 2: Review of current knowledge of bird flyways, principal knowledge gaps and conservation priorities. Bonn, Germany: CMS Scientific Council: Flyway Working Group Reviews.
Kirby, J. S., Stattersfield, A. J., Butchart, S. H. M., Evans, M. I., Grimmett, R. F. A., Jones, V. R., O’Sullivan, J., Tucker, G. M. and Newton, I. (2008) Key conservation issues for migratory land- and waterbird species of the world’s major flyways. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 18: 4973.
Koike, S. and Higuchi, H. (2002) Long-term trends in the egg-laying date and clutch size of Red-cheeked Starlings Sturnia philippensis . Ibis 144: 150152.
Komeda, S. and Ueki, Y. (2002) Long term monitoring of migratory birds at Otayama banding station (1973–1996). J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 34: 96111. (In Japanese).
Kondrashov, L. G. (2004) Russian Far East forest disturbances and socio-economic problems of restoration. Forest Ecol. Manage. 201: 6574.
Knystautas, A. (1993) Collins guide to the birds of Russia. London, UK: HarperCollins.
Kuo, Y., Lin, D-L., Chuang, F-M., Lee, P-F. and Ding, T-S. (2013) Bird species migration ratio in East Asia, Australia and surrounding islands. Naturwissenschaften 100: 729738.
Kuroda, N. (1971) Bird survey in the Ryu Kyus. Oct, 1970. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 6: 260285. (In Japanese).
Kurosawa, R. and Askins, R. A. (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds in deciduous forests in Japan. Conserv. Biol. 17: 695707.
Kwok, H. K. and Corlett, R. T. (2000) The bird communities of a natural secondary forest and a Lophostemon confertus plantation in Hong Kong, South China. Forest Ecol. Manage. 130: 227234.
Kwon, Y-S., Kim, D-W., Lee, W-S., Kwon, I-K., Paek, W-K. and Yoo, J-C. (2007) Birds of Hongdo Island used as a breeding or stopover site in Korea. Korean J. Ornithol. 14: 5160. (In Korean).
Laaksonen, T. and Lehikoinen, A. (2013) Population trends in boreal birds: continuing declines in agricultural, northern and long-distance migrant species. Biol. Conserv. 168: 99107.
Leader, P. J. and Carey, G. J. (2012) Zappey's Flycatcher Cyanoptila cumatilis, a forgotten Chinese breeding endemic. Forktail 28: 121128.
Li, H., Aide, M., Ma, Y., Liu, W. and Cao, M. (2007) Demand for rubber is causing the loss of high diversity rain forest in SW China. Biodivers. Conserv. 16: 17311745.
Li, J. (2012) Poaching of wild birds threaten some species. The South China Morning Post, 28 October. (Accessed online at
Li, J. (2013) Yellow-breasted bunting ‘endangered’ as Guangdong diners refuse to stop eating it. The South China Morning Post, 23 November. (Accessed online at
Li, X. Y., Liang, L., Gong, P., Liu, Y. and Liang, F. F. (2013) Bird watching in China reveals bird distribution changes. Chinese Sci. Bull. 58: 649656.
Liang, W., Cai, Y. and Yang, C. C. (2013) Extreme levels of hunting of birds in a remote village of Hainan Island, China. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 23: 4552.
Lim, K. C. and Lim, K. S. (2009) State of Singapore’s wild birds and bird habitats: A review of the annual bird census, 1996–2005. Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore).
Linkie, M., Smith, R. J. and Leader-Williams, N. (2004) Mapping and predicting deforestation patterns in the lowlands of Sumatra. Biodivers. Conserv. 13: 18091818.
Liu, Y., Keller, I. and Heckel, G. (2011) Range-wide genetic population structure of common pochard (Aythya ferina): a potentially important vector of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Ecol. Evol. 1: 529545.
Lobkov, E. G. (2011) Kamchatka Wagtail Motacilla (alba) lugens (Gloger, 1829): variability, relationships with the Spectacled White Wagtail Motacilla alba ocularis (Swinhoe, 1860) and the taxonomic status. Far East. J. Orn. 2: 2755.
Loss, S. R., Will, T., Loss, S. S. and Marra, P. P. (2014) Bird-building collisions in the United States: Estimates of annual mortality and species vulnerability. Condor 116: 823.
Low, B. W., Yong, D. L. and Chia, Y. S. A. (In prep) Bird-building collisions on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: A preliminary study from Singapore.
Luo, S. T., Wu, Y. C., Chang, Q., Liu, Y., Yang, X. J., Zhang, Z. W. and Zou, F. S. (2014) Deep phylogeographic divergence of a migratory passerine in Himalayan and Siberian forests: the Red-flanked Bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus) complex. Ecol. Evol. 4: 977986.
Ma, Z. J., Li, B. and Chen, J. K. (2005) Study on the utilisation of stopover sites and migration strategies of migratory birds. Acta Ecol. Sinica. 25: 14041412. (In Chinese).
Ma, Z. J., Gan, X., Choi, C. Y., Jing, K., Tang, S., Li, C. and Chen, J. K. (2007) Wintering bird communities in newly formed wetland in the Yangtze River estuary. Ecol. Res. 22: 115124.
Ma, Z. J., Cheng, Y., Wang, J. and Fu, X. (2013) The rapid development of birdwatching in mainland China: a new force for bird study and conservation. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 23: 259269.
MacKinnon, J. and Phillipps, K. (1993) A field guide to the birds of Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
MacKinnon, J. and Phillipps, K. (2000) A field guide to the birds of China. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
MacKinnon, J., Xie, Y., Lysenko, I., Chape, S., May, I. and Brown, C. (2005) GIS Assessment of the status of protected areas in East Asia. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland : UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.
Mahood, S. P., Eaton, J. A. and Leader, P. J. (2013a) Second record of Rufous-headed Robin Luscinia ruficeps outside its breeding range and a description of its first-winter plumage. BirdingAsia 19: 4347.
Mahood, S. P., Delonglée, S., Klingel, F., Wicker, F. and Robson, C. (2013b) The status of Brown-chested Jungle Flycatcher Rhinomyias brunneata in Vietnam. Forktail 29: 2026.
Malhi, Y., Adu-Bredu, S., Asare, R. A., Lewis, S. L. and Mayaux, P. (2013) African rainforests: past, present and future. Philos. T. R. Soc. B 368: 20120312.
Marra, P. P., Hobson, K. A. and Holmes, R. T. (1998) Linking winter and summer events in a migratory bird using stable carbon isotopes. Science 282: 18841886.
McClure, H. E. (1967) The composition of mixed species flocks in lowland and submontane forests of Malaya. Wilson Bull. 79: 131154.
McClure, H. E. (1974) Migration and survival of the birds of Asia. Bangkok, Thailand: Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand.
McClure, H. E. and Chaiyaphun, S. (1971) The sale of birds at the Bangkok “Sunday Market” Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 24: 4178.
McClure, H. E. and Ratanaworabhan, N. (1973) Some ectoparasites of the birds of Asia. Bangkok, Thailand: Applied Scientific Research Corporation of Thailand.
McKinnon, E. A., Fraser, K. C. and Stutchbury, B. J. M. (2013) New discoveries in landbird migration using geolocators, and a flight plan for the future. Auk 130: 211222.
McCulloch, M. N., Tucker, G. M. and Baillie, S. R. (1992) The hunting of migratory birds in Europe: a ringing recovery analysis. Ibis 134: 5565.
Medway, L. (1970) A ringing study of the migratory brown shrike in West Malaysia. Ibis 112: 184198.
Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S. C. (2010) Deforestation rates in insular Southeast Asia between 2000 and 2010. Glob. Change Biol. 17: 22612270.
Mizuta, T., Utsunomiya, H., Torikai, H. and Abe, Y. (2009) A record of Gray’s Grasshopper Warbler found on a ferry sailing from Kyushu to Amami-Oshima Island. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 41: 6568. (In Japanese).
Moores, N. (2012) The distribution, abundance and conservation of avian biodiversity in Yellow Sea habitats in the Republic of Korea. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Newcastle.
Moores, N. (2013) “Forest Bird Workshop”, March 21st-23rd, Seoul, ROK. (Accessed online at
Moreau, R. E. (1972) The Palearctic-African bird migration systems. London, UK: Academic Press.
Morel, G. J. and Morel, M-Y. (1992) Habitat use by Palearctic migrant passerine birds in West Africa. Ibis 134 Suppl. 1: 8388.
Nakamura, T. and Ishizawa, J. (1965) Studies on the migration of Locustella fasciolata II. Duration of migration, flock formation and physiology. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 4: 217220. (In Japanese).
Nam, H-Y., Choi, C-Y., Park, J-G., Hong, G-P., Won, I-J., Kim, S-J. Bing, G-C. and Chae, H-Y. (2011) Protandrous migration and variation in morphological characters in Emberiza buntings at an East Asian stopover site. Ibis 153: 494501.
Nash, S. V. (1993) Sold for a song: the trade in Southeast Asian non-CITES birds. Cambridge, UK: Traffic International.
Newton, I. (2004) Population limitation in migrants. Ibis 146: 197226.
Newton, I. (2007) The migration ecology of birds. London, UK: Academic Press.
Nisbet, I. C. T. and Medway, L. (1974) Dispersion, population ecology and migration of Eastern Great Reed Warblers Acrocephalus orientalis wintering in Malaysia. Ibis 114: 451494.
Norris, D. R., Marra, P. P., Kyser, T. K., Sherry, T. W. and Ratcliffe, L. M. (2004) Tropical winter habitat limits reproductive success on the temperate breeding grounds in a migratory bird. Proc. R. Soc. B. Biol. Sci. 271: 5964.
Ogden, L. J. E. (1996) Collision course: the hazards of lighted structures and windows to migrating birds. Toronto, Canada: World Wildlife Fund Canada and the Fatal Light Awareness Program.
Ornat, A. L. and Greenberg, R. (1990) Sexual segregation by habitat in migratory warblers in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Auk 107: 539543.
Ozaki, K. (2008) Monitoring and banding activities in Japan. Pp. 5359 in: Proceeding of the 2nd International Symposium on Migratory Birds. Changwon: Monitoring Climate Changes, Migratory Birds and Wetlands in Stopover Islands.
Park, J-G., Hong, G-P. and Chae, H-Y. (2008) Morphological traits and migratory patterns of Narcissus Flycatcher (Ficedula narcissina) in Korea. Korean J. Ornithol. 15: 115. (In Korean).
Pearson, D. J. and Lack, P. C. (1992) Migration patterns and habitat use by passerines and near-passerine migrant birds in eastern Africa. Ibis 134 Suppl.: 8998.
Pronkevich, V. V., Averin, A. A., Svetlakov, A. N., Mannanov, I. A., Roslakov, A. G., Tagirova, V. T. and Kapitonova, L. V. (2007) Studies of bird migrations in the Middle Amur lowland by capturing birds with mistnets. Pp. 6667 in Third International Conference on Migratory Birds of the Pacific North. Yakutsk, Russia: Publishing House of the Yakutia Science Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. (In Russian).
Pronkevich, V. V. (2011) Spring migration of birds in the Lower Ussuri basin in 2005. Amurian Zool. J. 3: 6477. (In Russian).
Rappole, J. H., Morton, E. S., Lovejoy, T. E. and Ruos, J. S. (1983) Nearctic avian migrants in the Neotropics. Washington DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.
Rappole, J. H., King, D. I. and Diez, J. (2003) Winter versus breeding habitat limitation for an endangered avian migrant. Ecol. Appl. 13: 735742.
Rasmussen, P. R. and Anderton, J. (2005) Birds of South Asia: The Ripley guide. Volume 2. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions.
Rich, C. and Longcore, T. eds. (2005) Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Washington DC, USA: Island Press.
Robson, C. (2000) A guide to the birds of Southeast Asia. New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press.
Round, P. D. (2010) An analysis of records of three passage migrants in Thailand: Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus, Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Ficedula zanthopygia and Mugimaki Flycatcher F. mugimaki . Forktail 26: 2430.
Round, P. D. and Rumsey, S. J. (2003) Habitat use, moult and biometrics in the Manchurian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus tangorum wintering in Thailand. Ringing and Migr. 21: 215221.
Round, P. D. and Fisher, T. H. (2009) Records of Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps from Luzon, Philippines. Forktail 25: 159160.
Round, P. D., Hansson, B., Pearson, D. J., Kennerley, P. R. and Bensch, S. (2007) Lost and found: the enigmatic Large-billed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus orinus rediscovered after 139 years. J. Avian Biol. 38: 133138.
Round, P. D., Pierce, A. J., Sankamethawee, W. and Gale, G. A. (2011) The avifauna of the Mo Singto forest dynamics plot, Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam. Soc. 57: 5780.
Ruth, J. M., Diehl, R. H. and Felix, R. K. (2012) Migrating birds' use of stopover habitat in the southwestern United States. Condor 114: 698710.
Sabah Wildlife Department (2004) Protected species. (Accessed online
Salovarov, V. O. and Kuznetsova, D. V. (2006) Impact of coal mining on bird distribution in Upper Angara region. Biol. Bull. 33: 248251.
Sam, V. (1999) Survey for Sarus Crane and other endangered bird species in southern Kampong Thom province, Cambodia. Bedford, UK: Unpublished report to the Oriental Bird Club.
Sands, P. (2003) Principles of international environmental law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Sanderson, F. J., Donald, P. F., Pain, D. J., Burfield, I. J. and van Bommel, F. P. J. (2006) Long-term population declines in Afro-Palearctic migrant birds. Biol. Conserv. 131: 93105.
Severinghaus, L. L. (1996) Territory strategy of the migratory Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus . Ibis 138: 460475.
Severinghaus, L. L. and Chi, L. (1999) Prayer animal release in Taiwan. Biol. Conserv. 89: 301304.
Sheehy, J., Taylor, C. M. and Norris, D. R. (2011) The importance of stopover habitat for developing effective conservation strategies for migratory animals. J. Ornithol. 152 Suppl. 1: 161168.
Shepherd, C. R., Sukumaran, J. and Wich, S. A. (2004) Open season: an analysis of the pet trade in Medan, Sumatra 1997–2001. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: TRAFFIC Southeast Asia.
Shepherd, C. R. (2006) The bird trade in Medan, North Sumatra: an overview. BirdingASIA 5: 1624.
Sherry, T. W. and Holmes, R. T. (1995) Summer versus winter limitation of populations: What are the issues and what is the evidence? Pp. 85120 in Martin, T. E., and Finch, D. M., eds. Ecology and management of Neotropical migratory birds: a synthesis and review of critical issues. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Sherry, T. W. and Holmes, R. T. (1996) Winter habitat quality, population limitation, and conservation of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant birds. Ecology 77: 3648.
Shiu, H-J. and Lee, P-F. (2003) Seasonal variation in bird species richness along elevational gradients in Taiwan. Acta Zool. Taiwan. 14: 121.
Shiu, H-J., Tokita, K., Morishita, E., Hiraoka, E., Wu, Y. Y., Nakamura, H. and Higuchi, H. (2006) Route and site fidelity of two migratory raptors: Grey-faced buzzard Butastur indicus and Honey buzzards Pernis apivorus . Ornithol. Sci. 5: 151156.
Simpson, D. M. (1983a) Autumn migration of landbirds off north Borneo in 1981. Sea Swallow 32: 4853.
Simpson, D. M. (1983b) Birds seen at the Tembungo gas flare, North Borneo during the development of Typhoon ‘Clara’. Sea Swallow 32: 8283.
Sivay, M. V., Sayfutdinova, S. G., Sharshov, K. A., Alekseev, A., Yurlov, A. K., Runstadler, J. and Shestopalov, A. M. (2012) Surveillance of Influenza A virus in wild birds in the Asian portion of Russia in 2008. Avian Dis. 56: 456463.
Sodhi, N. S. and Sharp, I. (2006) Winged invaders: Pest birds of the Asia-Pacific. Singapore: Singapore National Publishers.
Sodhi, N. S., Posa, M. R. C., Lee, T. M., Bickford, D., Koh, L. P. and Brook, B. W. (2010) The state and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity. Biodivers. Conserv. 19: 317328.
Song, G., Alström, P., Zhang, Y., Gao, X., Gong, H., Holt, P. I., Quan, Q., Yin, Z. and Lei, F. (2013) Rediscovery of an enigmatic Chinese passerine, the Blackthroat Calliope obscura: plumage, vocalizations, distribution, habitat choice, nesting and conservation. J. Ornithol. 155: 347356.
Stafford, J. D., Kaminski, R. M. and Reinecke, K. J. (2010) Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields. Waterbirds 33: 133150.
Sutherland, W. J. (1996) Predicting the consequences of habitat loss for migratory populations. Proc. R. Soc. B. Biol. Sci. 263: 13251327.
Tordoff, A. W., Appleton, T., Eames, J. C., Eberhardt, K., Hla, H., Thwin, K. M. M., Zaw, S. M., Moses, S. and Aung, S. M. (2007) Avifaunal surveys in the lowlands of Kachin State, Myanmar, 2003–2005. Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc. 55: 235306.
Tang, W., Deng, X. J. and Wang, B. (2003) Research on migratory birds via Daniaoao of Longhui County in Hunan. J. Hunan Polytechn. Environ. Biol. 9: 2933. (In Chinese).
Townsend, T. (2012) Illegal mist nets in China. (Accessed online from
Townsend, T. (2013) Beijing’s wild bird markets. (Accessed online from
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2014) US-Japan migratory birds convention. (Accessed online from
Valencia, M. J. (2007) The East China Sea dispute: context, claims, issues, and possible solutions. Asian Perspective 31: 127167.
Valchuk, O., Yuasa, S. and Morosova, E. (2005) Migration of Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica at the eastern edge of Asia. Alauda 73: 323.
Valchuk, O. and Huettmann, F. (2006) Morphometric data from avian influenza sampling in the southern Primorye Region, fall 2006. (Digital dataset available online from
Vickery, J. A., Ewing, S. R., Smith, K. W., Pain, D. J., Bairlein, F., Skorpilova, J. and Gregory, R. D. (2014) The decline of Afro-Palaearctic migrants and an assessment of potential causes. Ibis 156: 122.
Wang, N., Zhang, Y. and Zheng, G. (2006a) Home ranges and habitat vegetation characters in breeding season of Narcissus Flycatcher and Yellow-rumped Flycatcher. J. Beijing Norm. Univ. (Nat. Sci.) 42: 295299. (In Chinese).
Wang, Y., Finch, D. M., Moore, F. R. and Kelly, J. F. (1998) Stopover ecology and habitat use of migratory Wilson’s Warblers. Auk 115: 829841.
Wang, Y., Chang, J. C., Moore, F. R., Su, L., Cui, L. and Yang, X. (2006b) Stopover ecology of Red-flanked Bush Robin (Tarsiger cyanurus) at Maoershan, northeast China. Acta Ecol. Sinica 26: 638646. (In Chinese).
Wells, D. R. (2006) Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Volume 2. London, UK: Academic Press.
Won, I-J., Park, J-G., Hong, G-P., Kim, S-J., Choi, C-Y., Bing, G-C., Nam, H-Y. and Chae, H-Y. (2010) Migratory patterns of birds on Hongdo and Heuksando Islands. J. Nat. Park Res. 1: 2944. (In Korean).
Won, P-O., Woo, H-C., Ham, K-W. and Yoon, M-B. (1966) Seasonal distribution and ecology of migrant bird populations by mist-netting and banding in Korea (I). J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 8: 405444. (In Korean).
Wood, C., Sullivan, B., Iliff, M., Fink, D. and Kelling, S. (2011) eBird: Engaging birders in science and conservation. PLoS Biol. 9: e1001220.
Wong, T.S. (2014) A snap shot of caged birds in Balikpapan, Indonesian Borneo. (Accessed online from
Xiao, F. Z., Li, M. J. and Jiang, Y. (2005) The study of migratory birds passage in Suichuan. Jiangxi For. Sci. Technol. 3: 810. (In Chinese).
Xie, W. and Gao, S. (2013) Invasive Spartina alterniflora-induced factors affecting distribution in coastal salt marsh, China. Acta Oceanol. Sinica 32: 8188.
Yamamoto, Y. and Seto, N. (1997) Decrease of summer visiting birds in Yamaguchi Prefecture analysed from records of regular birding events. Strix 15: 1523.
Yamaura, Y., Amano, T., Koizumi, T., Mitsuda, Y., Taki, H. and Okabe, K. (2009) Does land-use change affect biodiversity dynamics at a macroecological scale? A case study of birds over the past 20 years in Japan. Anim. Conserv. 12: 110119.
Yanagawa, H. and Shibuya, T. (1998) Causes of wild bird mortality in eastern Hokkaido III Bird-window collisions. Res. Bull. Obihiro Univ, Nat. Sci. 20: 253258. (In Japanese).
Yang, T., Yang, X., Wang, Z., Liu, L., An, Q., Zhang, H., Li, G. and Shi, W. (2009) Influencing factors of birds captured at night in Ailao Mountain, Xinping County, Yunnan Province. Zool. Res. 30: 411417. (In Chinese).
Yap, F., Yong, D. L., Low, B. W., Lim, K. K., Foley, C., Cros, E. and Rheindt, F. E. (2014) First wintering record of the Sakhalin Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus borealoides in South-East Asia, with notes on vocalisations. BirdingAsia 21: 7681.
Yong, D. L. (2013) Bidadari now. Nature Watch 21: 39.
Yong, D. L., Lim, K. C. and Lee, T. K. (2013) Naturalist’s guide to the birds of Singapore. Oxford, UK: John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd.
Yong, D. L. and Liu, Y. (In press) Passage of the brown-chested jungle-flycatcher in Singapore, with notes on wintering status in Southeast Asia. Forktail .
Yoshii, M., Sato, F., Ozaki, K., Shigeta, Y., Komeda, S., Yoshiyasu, K. and Mitamura, A. (1989) Japanese bird banding now and past. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornithol. 21: 309325. (In Japanese).
Yu, Y. T., Chan, K. T., Fong, H. H. N. and Tse, I. W. L. (2013) International Black-faced Spoonbill census 2013. Hong Kong, China: Black-faced Spoonbill Research Group, The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society.
Zhao, X. M. (2006) Bird migration and bird flu in the mainland of China. Beijing, China: China Forestry Publishing House. (In Chinese).
Zhou, D., Fung, T. and Chu, L. M. (2012) Avian community structure of urban parks in developed and new growth areas: A landscape-scale study in Southeast Asia. Landscape Urban Plan. 108: 91102.
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Yong supplementary material
Tables S1-S2, 3 and Figure S1

 Word (208 KB)
208 KB

Migratory songbirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway: a review from a conservation perspective



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed