Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The time course of cross-language activation in deaf ASL–English bilinguals*

  • JILL P. MORFORD (a1) (a2), CORRINE OCCHINO-KEHOE (a1) (a2), PILAR PIÑAR (a3) (a2), ERIN WILKINSON (a4) (a2) and JUDITH F. KROLL (a5) (a2)...

Abstract

What is the time course of cross-language activation in deaf sign–print bilinguals? Prior studies demonstrating cross-language activation in deaf bilinguals used paradigms that would allow strategic or conscious translation. This study investigates whether cross-language activation can be eliminated by reducing the time available for lexical processing. Deaf ASL–English bilinguals and hearing English monolinguals viewed pairs of English words and judged their semantic similarity. Half of the stimuli had phonologically related translations in ASL, but participants saw only English words. We replicated prior findings of cross-language activation despite the introduction of a much faster rate of presentation. Further, the deaf bilinguals were as fast or faster than hearing monolinguals despite the fact that the task was in their second language. The results allow us to rule out the possibility that deaf ASL–English bilinguals only activate ASL phonological forms when given ample time for strategic or conscious translation across their two languages.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Jill P. Morford, Department of Linguistics, MSC03 2130, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA morford@unm.edu

Footnotes

Hide All
*

We would like to thank the participants of our research, as well as Selina Agyen, Benjamin Anible, Richard Bailey, Brian Burns, Yunjae Hwang, Teri Jaquez, Carla Ring, and Paul Twitchell for help in programming, data collection, coding and analysis. Portions of this study were presented at the 11th Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research Conference in London, England. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Science of Learning Center Program, under cooperative agreement numbers SBE-0541953 and SBE-1041725. The writing of this article was also supported in part by NIH Grant HD053146 and NSF Grants BCS-0955090 and OISE-0968369 to Judith F. Kroll. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Allen, T. E., Clark, M. D., del Giudice, A., Koo, D., Lieberman, A., Mayberry, R., & Miller, P. (2009). Phonology and reading: A response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul. American Annals of the Deaf, 154, 338345.
Bakker, I., Takashima, A., van Hell, J. G., Janzen, G., & McQueen, J. M. (2014). Competition from unseen or unheard novel words: Lexical consolidation across modalities. Journal of Memory and Language, 73, 116130.
Battison, R. (1978). Lexical borrowing in American Sign Language. Silver Spring, MD: Linstok Press.
Bélanger, N. N., Baum, S. R., & Mayberry, R. I. (2012). Reading difficulties in adult deaf readers of French: Phonological codes, not guilty! Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 263285.
Bijeljac Babic, R., Biardeau, A., & Grainger, J. (1997). Masked orthographic priming in bilingual word recognition. Memory & Cognition, 25, 447457.
Bishop, M., & Hicks, S. (2005). Orange Eyes: Bimodal bilingualism in hearing adults from Deaf families. Sign Language Studies, 5, 188230.
Brysbaert, M., Van Dyck, G., & Van de Poel, M. (1999). Visual word recognition in bilinguals: Evidence from masked phonological priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 137148.
Chamberlain, C., & Mayberry, R. I. (2008). ASL syntactic and narrative comprehension in skilled and less skilled adults readers: Bilingual-bimodal evidence for the linguistic basis of reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 537549.
Colin, S., Magnan, A., Ecalle, J., & Leybaert, J. (2007). Relation between deaf children's phonological skills in kindergarten and word recognition performance in first grade. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 139146.
De Groot, A. M., & Nas, G. L. (1991). Lexical representation of cognates and noncognates in compound bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 90123.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 175197.
Eddington, C. M., & Tokowicz, N. (2015). How meaning similarity influences ambiguous word processing: The current state of the literature. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1337.
Emmorey, K., Borinstein, H. B., Thompson, R., & Gollan, T. H. (2008). Bimodal bilingualism. Bilingualism: Language and cognition, 11, 4361.
Guo, T., Misra, M., Tam, J. W., & Kroll, J. F. (2012). On the time course of accessing meaning in a second language: An electrophysiological and behavioral investigation of translation recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 11651186.
Gutierrez, E., Williams, D., Grosvald, M., & Corina, D. (2012). Lexical access in American Sign Language: An ERP investigation of effects of semantics and phonology. Brain Research, 1468, 6383.
Hauser, P. C., Paludnevičienė, R., Supalla, T., & Bavelier, D. (2008). American Sign Language-Sentence Reproduction Test. In de Quadros, R. M. (ed.), Sign languages: Spinning and unraveling the past, present and future. TISLR 9, forty-five papers and three posters from the 9. Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research Conference, Florianopolis, Brazil, December 2006, pp. 160172. Petrópolis/RJ, Brazil: Editora Arara Azul.
Hermans, D., Knoors, H., Ormel, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2008). The relationship between the reading and signing skills of deaf children in bilingual education programs. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 13, 518530.
Hoffmeister, R. J., & Caldwell-Harris, C. L. (2014). Acquiring English as a second language via print: The task for deaf children. Cognition, 132, 229242.
Hoshino, N., & Kroll, J. F. (2008). Cognate effects in picture naming: Does cross-language activation survive a change of script? Cognition, 106, 501511.
Jared, D., & Kroll, J. F. (2001). Do bilinguals activate phonological representations in one or both of their languages when naming words? Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 231.
Johnson, J. M., Watkins, R. V., & Rice, M. L. (1992). Bimodal bilingual language development in a hearing child of deaf parents. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 3152.
Kubuş, O., Villwock, A., Morford, J. P., & Rathmann, C. (2015). Word recognition in deaf readers: Cross-language activation of German Sign Language and German. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36, 831854, doi:10.1017/S0142716413000520.
Kuntze, M. (2004). Literacy acquisition and deaf children: A study of the interaction of ASL and written English. PhD dissertation, Stanford University.
Lemhöfer, K., Dijkstra, T., Schriefers, H., Baayen, R. H., Grainger, J., & Zwitserlood, P. (2008). Native language influences on word recognition in a second language: A megastudy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 1231.
Leybaert, J. (1993). Reading in the deaf: The roles of phonological codes. In Marschark, M. & Clark, M. D. (eds.), Psychological perspectives on deafness, pp. 269309. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Marian, V., & Spivey, M. J. (2003). Competing activation in bilingual language processing: Within- and between-language competition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 97115.
Martin, C. D., Costa, A., Dering, B., Hoshino, N., Wu, Y. J., & Thierry, G. (2012). Effects of speed of word processing on semantic access: The case of bilingualism. Brain And Language, 120, 6165.
Mayberry, R. I., del Giudice, A. A., & Lieberman, A. M. (2011). Reading achievement in relation to phonological coding and awareness in deaf readers: A meta-analysis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16, 164188.
Morford, J. P., Kroll, J. F., Piñar, P., & Wilkinson, E. (2014). Bilingual word recognition in deaf and hearing signers: Effects of proficiency and language dominance on cross-language activation. Second Language Research, 30, 251271.
Morford, J. P., Wilkinson, E., Villwock, A., Piñar, P., & Kroll, J. F. (2011). When deaf signers read English: Do written words activate their sign translations? Cognition, 118, 286292.
Nas, G. (1983). Visual word recognition in bilinguals: Evidence for a cooperation between visual and sound based codes during access to a common lexical store. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 22, 526534.
Ormel, E. (2008). Visual word recognition in bilingual deaf children. PhD dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen.
Ormel, E., Hermans, D., Knoors, H., & Verhoeven, L. (2012). Cross-Language effects in visual word recognition: The case of bilingual deaf children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 288303.
Perfetti, C. A., & Sandak, R. (2000). Reading optimally builds on spoken language: Implications for deaf readers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5, 3250.
Perfetti, C. A., & Tan, L. H. (1998). The time course of graphic, phonological, and semantic activation in Chinese character identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 101118.
Piñar, P., Dussias, P. E., & Morford, J. P. (2011). Deaf readers as bilinguals: An examination of deaf readers’ print comprehension in light of current advances in bilingualism and second language processing. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5, 691704.
Shook, A., & Marian, V. (2012). Bimodal bilinguals co-activate both languages during spoken comprehension. Cognition, 124, 314324.
Shook, A., & Marian, V. (2013). The Bilingual Language Interaction Network for Comprehension of Speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 304324.
Stokoe, W., Croneberg, C., & Casterline, D. (1965). A dictionary of American Sign Language on linguistic principles. Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press.
Sunderman, G., & Kroll, J. F. (2006) First language activation during second language lexical processing: An investigation of lexical form meaning and grammatical class. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 387422.
Supalla, S. J., Wix, T. R., & McKee, C. (2001). Print as a primary source of English for deaf learners. In Nicol, J. & Langendoen, D. T. (eds.), One Mind, Two Languages: Studies in Bilingual Language Processing, pp. 177190. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Talamas, A., Kroll, J. F., & Dufour, R. (1999). From form to meaning: Stages in the acquisition of second-language vocabulary. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 4558.
Thierry, G., & Wu, Y. J. (2004). Electrophysiological evidence for language interference in late bilinguals. NeuroReport, 15, 15551558.
Thierry, G., & Wu, Y. J. (2007). Brain potentials reveal unconscious translation during foreign-language comprehension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 1253012535.
Van Wijnendaele, I., & Brysbaert, M. (2002). Visual word recognition in bilinguals: Phonological priming from the second to the first language. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 616627.
Wilcox, S. (2004). Cognitive iconicity: Conceptual spaces, meaning, and gesture in signed languages. Cognitive Linguistics, 15, 119147.
Wu, Y. J., Cristino, F., Leek, C., & Thierry, G. (2013). Non-selective lexical access in bilinguals is spontaneous and independent of input monitoring: Evidence from eye tracking. Cognition, 129, 418425.
Wu, Y., & Thierry, G. (2010). Chinese-English bilinguals reading English hear Chinese. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 76467651.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed