Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

How different code-switching types modulate bilinguals’ executive functions: A dual control mode perspective

  • Julia Hofweber (a1), Theodoros Marinis (a2) and Jeanine Treffers-Daller (a3)

Abstract

Most existing studies on the relationship between code-switching and executive functions have focused on experimentally induced language-switching, which differs fundamentally from naturalistic code-switching. This study investigated whether and how bilinguals’ code-switching practices modulate different aspects of executive functioning. Our findings suggest that existing processing models of code-switching should be extended by a dual control mode perspective, differentiating between reactive and proactive monitoring. Bilinguals engaging in code-switching types that keep languages more separate (Alternation) displayed inhibitory advantages in a flanker task inducing reactive control. Dense code-switching, which requires bilinguals to constantly monitor cross-linguistic competition, explained performance in proactive monitoring conditions. Furthermore, a correlation between Dense code-switching and response inhibition suggests that linguistic co-activation may persist during articulatory stages of language processing. Crucially, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at those aspects of the executive system that were trained by their most frequent code-switching habits. This underlines the importance of sociolinguistic variables in bilingualism research.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Julia Hofweber, E-mail: j.hofweber@ucl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Abutalebi, J and Green, D (2007) Bilingual language production: The neurocognition of language representation and control. Journal of neurolinguistics 20, 242275.
Antoniou, K, Grohmann, KK, Kambanaros, M and Katsos, N (2016) The effect of childhood bilectalism and multilingualism on executive control. Cognition 149, 1830.
Backus, A (2014) Towards a usage-based account of language change: Implications of contact linguistics for linguistic theory. Questioning language contact: Limits of contact, contact at its limits, 91118.
Badiola, L, Delgado, R, Sande, A and Stefanich, S (2018) Code-switching attitudes and their effects on acceptability judgment tasks. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 8, 524.
Bak, TH (2016) Cooking pasta in La Paz. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 6, 699717.
Beatty-Martínez, AL, Valdes Kroff, JR and Dussias, PE (2018) From the Field to the Lab: A Converging Methods Approach to the Study of Codeswitching. Languages 3, 19.
Bhatt, RM and Bolonyai, A (2011) Code-switching and the optimal grammar of bilingual language use. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14, 522546.
Blumenfeld, HK and Marian, V (2014) Cognitive control in bilinguals: Advantages in Stimulus–Stimulus inhibition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 17, 610629.
Bialystok, E (2009) Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and cognition 12, 311.
Bialystok, E, Craik, FI, Grady, C, Chau, W, Ishii, R, Gunji, A and Pantev, C (2005) Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: Evidence from MEG. NeuroImage 24, 4049.
Bialystok, E, Craik, F and Luk, G (2008) Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition 34, 859873.
Bialystok, E, Craik, FI and Luk, G (2012) Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends in cognitive sciences 16, 240250.
Bock, K and Griffin, ZM (2000) The Persistence of Structural Priming: Transient Activation or Implicit Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 129, 177192.
Botero, C, Bullock, B, Davis, K and Toribio, AJ (2004) Perseverative phonetic effects in bilingual code-switching. In 34th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages, University of Utah, March.
Botvinick, MM, Braver, TS, Barch, DM, Carter, CS and Cohen, JD (2001) Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological review 108, 624652.
Braver, TS (2012) The variable nature of cognitive control: a dual mechanisms framework. Trends in cognitive sciences 16, 106113.
Carlson, SM and Meltzoff, AN (2008) Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental science 11, 282298.
Clyne, MG (2003) Dynamics of language contact: English and immigrant languages. Cambridge University Press.
Colzato, LS, Bajo, MT, van den Wildenberg, W, Paolieri, D, Nieuwenhuis, S, La Heij, W and Hommel, B (2008) How does bilingualism improve executive control? A comparison of active and reactive inhibition mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 34, 302312
Costa, A, Hernández, M and Sebastián-Gallés, N (2008) Bilingualism aids conflict resolution: Evidence from the ANT task. Cognition 106, 5986.
Costa, A, Hernández, M, Costa-Faidella, J and Sebastián-Gallés, N (2009) On the bilingual advantage in conflict processing: Now you see it, now you don't. Cognition 113, 135149.
De Bruin, A and Della Sala, S (2016) The importance of language use when studying the neuroanatomical basis of bilingualism. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 31, 335339.
De Groot, AM and Christoffels, IK (2006) Language control in bilinguals: Monolingual tasks and simultaneous interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 9, 189201.
De Pisapia, N and Braver, TS (2006) A model of dual control mechanisms through anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex interactions. Neurocomputing 69, 13221326.
Deuchar, M, Muysken, P and Wang, SL (2007) Structured variation in codeswitching: towards an empirically based typology of bilingual speech patterns. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 10, 298340.
Dewaele, JM and Wei, L (2014) Attitudes towards code-switching among adult mono-and multilingual language users. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 35, 235251.
Duñabeitia, JA, Hernández, JA, Antón, E, Macizo, P, Estévez, A, Fuentes, LJ and Carreiras, M (2014) The inhibitory advantage in bilingual children revisited: Myth or reality?. Experimental psychology 61, 234251
Eppler, EM (2005) The syntax of German–English code-switching (Doctoral dissertation, University of London).
Eppler, ED (2010) “Ich spreche Englisch, ich spreche Deutsch, aber was ist das für eine Sprache?” Emigranto–a grammatical approach to code-switching. AAA-Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 35, 165187
Field, A (2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS. London: Sage publications.
Fisher, RA (1955) Statistical methods and scientific induction. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (B) 17, 6978.
Friedman, NP, Miyake, A, Young, SE, DeFries, JC, Corley, RP and Hewitt, JK (2008) Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137, 201225.
Gardner-Chloros, P (2009) Code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner-Chloros, P, McEntee-Atalianis, L and Paraskeva, M (2013) Code-switching and pausing: an interdisciplinary study. International Journal of Multilingualism 10, 126.
Gleitman, LR, January, D, Nappa, R and Trueswell, JC (2007) On the give and take between event apprehension and utterance formulation. Journal of Memory and Language 57, 544569.
Goral, M, Campanelli, L and Spiro, A (2015) Language dominance and inhibition abilities in bilingual older adults. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 18, 7989.
Green, DW (1986) Control, activation, and resource: A framework and a model for the control of speech in bilinguals. Brain and language 27, 210223.
Green, DW (1998) Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and cognition 1, 6781.
Green, DW and Abutalebi, J (2013) Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 25, 515530.
Green, DW and Wei, L (2014) A control process model of code-switching. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29, 499511.
Grosjean, F (2016) The complementarity principle and its impact on processing, acquisition, and dominance. In Silva-Corvalán, C and Treffers-Daller, J (eds), Language Dominance in Bilinguals: Issues of Measurement and Operationalization. Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press, pp. 6684.
Grosjean, F and Miller, JL (1994) Going in and out of languages: An example of bilingual flexibility. Psychological science 5, 201206.
Guo, T, Liu, H, Misra, M and Kroll, JF (2011) Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese–English bilinguals. NeuroImage 56, 23002309.
Hartanto, A and Yang, H (2016) Disparate bilingual experiences modulate task-switching advantages: A diffusion-model analysis of the effects of interactional context on switch costs. Cognition 150, 1019.
Hofweber, J, Marinis, T and Treffers-Daller, J (2016) Effects of dense code-switching on executive control. Linguistic approaches to bilingualism 6, 648668.
Hofweber, J, Marinis, T & Treffers-Daller, J (2019) Predicting executive functions in bilinguals using ecologically valid measures of code-switching behaviour. In: Sekerina, IA, Spradlin, L, and Valian, V (eds), Bilingualism, Executive Functions, and Beyond. Questions and Insights. Studies in Bilingualism. Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 181205.
Kang, C & Lust, B (2019) Code-switching does not predict Executive Function performance in proficient bilingual children: Bilingualism does. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition 22, 366382.
Khakimov, N (2014) ‘Muslim-y'and ‘Katholik-en’: Explaining variation in plural marking of German noun insertions in Russian sentences. Language Contact: The State of the Art, 4445.
Kleinman, D and Gollan, TH (2016) Speaking two languages for the price of one: Bypassing language control mechanisms via accessibility-driven switches. Psychological science 27, 700714.
Kroll, JF, Bobb, SC and Wodniecka, Z (2006) Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 9, 119135.
Kroll, JF, Dussias, PE, Bogulski, CA and Kroff, JRV (2012) Juggling two languages in one mind: What bilinguals tell us about language processing and its consequences for cognition. In Psychology of learning and motivation. Academic Press, Vol. 56, pp. 229262.
Kupisch, T and Van de Weijer, J (2016) The role of the childhood environment for language dominance: A study of adult simultaneous bilingual speakers of German and French. In: Silva-Corvalan, C and Treffers-Daller, J (eds), Language Dominance in Bilinguals. Issues of Measurement and Operationalization. Cambridge University Press, pp. 174195.
Lehtonen, M, Soveri, A, Laine, A, Järvenpää, J, de Bruin, A and Antfolk, J (2018) Is bilingualism associated with enhanced executive functioning in adults? A meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin 144, 394425.
Levelt, WJ, Roelofs, A and Meyer, AS (1999) A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and brain sciences 22, 138.
Li, P, Zhang, F, Tsai, E and Puls, B (2014) Language history questionnaire (LHQ 2.0): A new dynamic web-based research tool. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 17(3), 673680.
Luk, G, Anderson, JA, Craik, FI, Grady, C and Bialystok, E (2010) Distinct neural correlates for two types of inhibition in bilinguals: Response inhibition versus interference suppression. Brain and cognition 74, 347357.
Luk, G and Bialystok, E (2013) Bilingualism is not a categorical variable: Interaction between language proficiency and usage. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 25, 605621.
Marian, V, Spivey, M and Hirsch, J (2003) Shared and separate systems in bilingual language processing: Converging evidence from eyetracking and brain imaging. Brain and language 86, 7082.
Martin-Rhee, MM and Bialystok, E (2008) The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: language and cognition 11, 8193.
Morales, J, Yudes, C, Gómez-Ariza, CJ and Bajo, MT (2015) Bilingualism modulates dual mechanisms of cognitive control: Evidence from ERPs. Neuropsychologia 66, 157169.
Muysken, P (2000) Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge University Press.
Muysken, P (2013) Language contact outcomes as the result of bilingual optimization strategies. Bilingualism: Language and cognition 16, 709730.
Myers-Scotton, C (2006) Natural codeswitching knocks on the laboratory door. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 9, 203212.
Ooi, S, Goh, W, Sorace, A and Bak, T (2018) From Bilingualism to Bilingualisms: Bilingual experience in Edinburgh and Singapore affects attentional control differently. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 21, 867879. doi:10.1017/S1366728918000020.
Paap, KR and Greenberg, ZI (2013) There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing. Cognitive psychology 66, 232258.
Paap, KR, Myuz, HA, Anders, RT, Bockelman, MF, Mikulinsky, R and Sawi, OM (2017) No compelling evidence for a bilingual advantage in switching or that frequent language switching reduces switch cost. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 29, 89112.
Poarch, GJ and Bialystok, E (2015) Bilingualism as a model for multitasking. Developmental Review 35, 113124.
Prior, A and Gollan, TH (2011) Good language-switchers are good task-switchers: Evidence from Spanish–English and Mandarin–English bilinguals. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 17, 682691.
Raven, JC (1998) Raven's progressive matrices and vocabulary scales. Oxford pyschologists Press.
Rodriguez-Fornells, A, Kramer, U, Lorenzo-Seva, U, Festman, J and Münte, TF (2012) Self-assessment of individual differences in language switching. Frontiers in Psychology 2, 388.
Ruigendijk, E, Hentschel, G and Zeller, JP (2016) How L2-learners’ brains react to code-switches: an ERP study with Russian learners of German. Second Language Research 32, 197223.
Seidlhofer, B (2001) Closing a conceptual gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11, 133158.
Soveri, A, Rodriguez-Fornells, A and Laine, M (2011) Is there a relationship between language switching and EFs in bilingualism? Introducing a within group analysis approach. Frontiers in Psychology 2, 183.
Struys, E, Surmont, J, Van de Craen, P, Kepinska, O and Van den Noort, M (2019) Bilingual language control across modalities: The relationship between mixed-language comprehension and production. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 127.
Treffers-Daller, J (1992) French-Dutch codeswitching in Brussels: social factors explaining its disappearance, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13, 143156.
Treffers-Daller, J (1998) The IC model and code-switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 1, 9899.
Treffers-Daller, J (2009) Code-switching and transfer: an exploration of similarities and differences. In: Bullock, BE and Toribio, JA (eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Codeswitching. Cambridge University Press, pp. 5874.
Van Hell, J, Fernandez, CB, Kootstra, GJ, Litcofsky, KA and Ting, CY (2018) Electrophysiological and experimental-behavioral approaches to the study of intra-sentential code-switching. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism 8, 134161.
Valk, PO (2014) Convergent developments in Dutch Turkish word order–A comparative study using ‘elicited production'and ‘judgment'data: Converging evidence?. Applied Linguistics Review 5, 353374.
Verreyt, N, Woumans, E, Vandelanotte, D, Szmalec, A and Duyck, W (2016) The influence of language-switching experience on the bilingual executive control advantage. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 19, 181190.
Wechsler, D (1997) Wechsler memory scale (WMS-III) (Vol. 14). San Antonio, TX: Psychological corporation.
Weissberger, GH, Wierenga, CE, Bondi, MW and Gollan, TH (2012) Partially overlapping mechanisms of language and task control in young and older bilinguals. Psychology and Aging 27, 959974.
Woumans, E and Duyck, W (2015) The bilingual advantage debate: Moving toward different methods for verifying its existence. Cortex 73, 356357.
Yim, O and Bialystok, E (2012) Degree of conversational code-switching enhances verbal task switching in Cantonese–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15, 873883.

Keywords

How different code-switching types modulate bilinguals’ executive functions: A dual control mode perspective

  • Julia Hofweber (a1), Theodoros Marinis (a2) and Jeanine Treffers-Daller (a3)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.