Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Comparison of Spanish morphology in monolingual and Spanish–English bilingual children with and without language impairment*

  • GARETH P. MORGAN (a1), M. ADELAIDA RESTREPO (a2) and ALEJANDRA AUZA (a3)

Abstract

This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish–English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children. Significant differences were observed between bilingual TD and LI groups on all tasks; however, no differences were observed between bilinguals with TD and monolinguals with LI except on a sum-score across all tasks. There were no observed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals with TD; however, 60% of bilinguals with TD were misclassified as LI when using a cut score derived from monolingual-only data. Results support evidence that Spanish morphosyntax is vulnerable to error in monolingual and bilingual Spanish–English children with LI. However, the grammatical deficit seems clinically relevant only when children are compared to the same language peer group (i.e., bilinguals compared to bilinguals).

Copyright

Corresponding author

Addressed for correspondence: Gareth P. Morgan, 151 Essex Street, Haverhill, MA 01832, USAgpmorgan12@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All
*

The research in this article was supported by grants from the Institute of Education Sciences: Spanish Screener for Language Impairments in Children (PI: Restrepo, IES# R324A080024) and Post-doctoral Training Grant in Special Education (PI: Vaughn, IES# R324B080008).

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th edn.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Anderson, R. T. (1996). Assessing the grammar of Spanish-speaking children: A comparison of two procedures. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 333344.
Anderson, R. T. (1999a). Impact of first language loss on grammar in a bilingual child. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21, 416.
Anderson, R. T. (1999b). Noun phrase gender agreement in language attrition: Preliminary results. Bilingual Research Journal, 23 (4), 318337.
Anderson, R. T. (2001). Lexical morphology and verb use in child first language loss: A preliminary case study investigation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5 (4), 377.
Anderson, R. T. (2012). First language loss in Spanish-speaking children: Patterns of loss and implications for clinical practice. In Goldstein (ed.), pp. 193–212.
Anderson, R. T., & Marquez, A. (2009). The article paradigm in Spanish-speaking children with SLI in language contact situations. In Grinstead (ed.), pp. 29–56.
Anderson, R. T., & Souto, S. (2005). The use of articles by monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 621647.
Auza, A. (2009). Uso de artículos y sus funciones semánticas en niños con y sin trastorno del lenguaje. Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro.
Auza, A., & Hernández, A. (2005). El procesamiento dinámico en la adquisición de la morfología derivativa. In Mayor, M. A., Zubiauz, B. & Díez, E. (eds.), Estudios sobre la adquisición del Lenguaje (Colección Aquilafuente 90), pp. 189203. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.
Bedore, L. M., & Leonard, L. B. (1998). Specific language impairment and grammatical morphology: A discriminant function analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41 (5), 11851192.
Bedore, L. M., & Leonard, L. B. (2001). Grammatical morphology deficits in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44 (4), 905924.
Bedore, L. M., & Leonard, L. B. (2005). Verb inflections and noun phrase morphology in the spontaneous speech of Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26 (2), 195225.
Bedore, L. M., & Peña, E. D. (2008). Assessment of bilingual children for identification of language impairment: Current findings and implications for practice. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11 (1), 1.
Blake, R. (1983). Mood selection among Spanish-speaking children, ages 4 to 12. Bilingual Review, 10 (1), 2132.
Bortolini, U., Caselli, M. C., Deevy, P., & Leonard, L. B. (2002). Specific language impairment in Italian: The first steps in the search for a clinical marker. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 37 (2), 7793.
Bosch, L., & Serra, M. (1997). Grammatical morphology deficits of Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Amsterdam Series in Child Language Development, 6 (69), 3345.
Crago, M., & Paradis, J. (2003). Two of a kind? Commonalities and variation in languages and language learners. In Levy, Y. & Schaeffer, J. (eds.), Language competence across populations: Towards a definition of specific language impairment, pp. 97110. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dawson, J. I., Stout, C. E., & Eyer, J. A. (2003). Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test: Third Edition. DeKalb, IL: Janelle Publications.
De Jong, J. (2010). Notes on the nature of bilingual specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 273277.
Dollaghan, C., & Horner, E. (2011). Bilingual language assessment: A meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 10771088.
Eng, N., & O'Connor, B. (2000). Acquisition of definite articles + noun agreement of Spanish–English bilingual children with specific language impairment. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21, 114124.
Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Goldstein, B. A. (ed.) (2012). Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish–English speakers. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Green, S. B., Lissitz, R. W., & Muliak, S. A. (1977). Limitations of coefficient alpha as an index of test unidimensionality. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 827838.
Grinstead, J. (ed.) (2009). Hispanic child languages: Typical and impaired development. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Guiberson, M. M., Barret, K. C., Jancosek, E. G., & Itano, C. (2006). Language maintenance and loss in preschool-age children of Mexican immigrants: Longitudinal study. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 28 (1), 417.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. (2002). Narratives in two languages: Assessing performance of bilingual children. Linguistics and Education, 13 (2), 175197.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. (2004). Narrative development and disorders in bilingual children. In Goldstein (eds.), pp. 235–256.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., Restrepo, M. A., Bedore, L. M., Peña, E., & Anderson, R. T. (2000). Language sample analysis in Spanish-speaking children: Methodological considerations. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 31, 8898.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., Restrepo, M. A., & Simon-Cereijido, G. (2006). Evaluating the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure with Spanish-speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49 (6), 1209.
Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F., & Simon-Cereijido, G. (2007). The discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure with Latino English-speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 968981.
Hammer, C. S., Lawrence, F. R., & Miccio, A. W. (2008). Exposure to English before and after entry into Head Start: Bilingual children's receptive language growth in Spanish and English. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11 (1), 3056.
Hernández-Pina, F. (1984). Teorías psicosociolingüísticas y su aplicación a la adquisición del español como lengua materna. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Jacobson, P. F. (2012). The effects of language impairment on the use of direct object pronouns and verb inflections in heritage Spanish speakers: A look at attrition, incomplete acquisition and maintenance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15 (1), 2238.
Jacobson, P. F., & Schwartz, R. G. (2002). Morphology in incipient bilingual Spanish-speaking preschool children with specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 23 (1), 2341.
Kapantzoglou, M., Restrepo, M. A., & Thompson, M. S. (2012). Dynamic assessment of word learning skills: Identifying language impairment in bilingual children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43, 8196.
Kaufman, A., & Kaufman, N. (2004). Kaufman assessment battery for children (2nd edn.). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Kohnert, K. (2008). Language disorders in bilingual children and adults. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.
López Ornat, S., Fernández, A., Gallo, P., & Mariscal, S. (1994). La adquisición de la lengua española. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Merino, B. J. (1983). Language development in normal and language handicapped Spanish-speaking children. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 5 (4), 379.
Merino, B. J. (1992). Acquisition of syntactic and phonological features in Spanish. In Butler, K. G. (eds.), Hispanic children and adults with communication disorders: Assessment and intervention, 5798. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers.
Montrul, S. (2004). The acquisition of Spanish: Morphosyntactic development in monolingual and bilingual L1 acquisition and adult L2 acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Montrul, S. (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism: Re-examining the age factor. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Montrul, S., & Potowski, K. (2007). Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish–English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11 (3), 301328.
Morgan, G. P., Restrepo, M. A., & Auza, A. (2009). Variability in the grammatical profiles of Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. In Grinstead (ed.), pp. 283–302.
Numeroff, L. J., & Bond, F. (1985). If you give a mouse a cookie. New York: Laura Geringer Book.
Paradis, J. (2010). The interface between bilingual language development and specific language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 227252.
Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2000). Tense and temporality: Similarities and differences between language impaired and second language children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 834848.
Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004). Comparing L2 and SLI grammars in French: Focus on DP. In Prévost, P. & Paradis, J. (eds.), The acquisition of French in different contexts: Focus on functional categories, pp. 89108. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Paradis, J., Crago, M., & Genesee, F. (2005/2006). Domain-specific versus domain general theories of the deficit in SLI: Object pronoun acquisition by French–English bilingual children. Language Acquisition, 13, 3362.
Paradis, J., Crago, M., Genesee, F., & Rice, M. (2003). Bilingual children with specific language impairment: How do they compare with their monolingual peers? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 115.
Paradis, J., Nicoladis, E., Crago, M., & Genesee, F. (2010). Bilingual children's acquisition of the past tense: A usage-based approach. Journal of Child Language, 37, 125.
Peña, E. (2001). Dynamic assessment of diverse children: A tutorial. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 212224.
Peña, E., Iglesias, A., & Lidz, C. (2001). Reducing test bias through dynamic assessment of children's word learning ability. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10, 138154.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T. (1998). The acquisition of mood selection in Spanish relative clauses. Journal of Child Language, 25 (3), 585604.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T. (2001). Subjunctive mood in Spanish child relatives: At the interface of linguistic and cognitive development. In Nelson, K. E. (ed.), Children's language (vol. II), pp. 6993. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Castilla, A. P., & Brunner, J. (2011). General and specific effects of lexicon in grammar: Determiner and object pronoun omissions in child Spanish. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55 (2), 2012.
Pérez-Leroux, A. T., Pirvulescu, M., & Roberge, Y. (2009). Bilingualism as a window into the language faculty: The acquisition of objects in French-speaking children in bilingual and monolingual contexts. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12 (1), 97112.
Perona, K., Plante, E., & Vance, R. (2005). Diagnostic accuracy of the Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test: Third Edition. Language Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36, 103115.
Plante, E., & Vance, R. (1994). Selection of preschool language tests: A data-based approach. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 25, 1524.
Restrepo, M. A. (1998). Identifiers of predominantly Spanish-speaking children with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41 (6), 1998.
Restrepo, M. A., Castilla, A. P., Schwanenflugel, P. J., Neuharth-Pritchett, S., Hamilton, C. E., & Arboleda, A. (2010). Effects of a supplemental Spanish oral language program on sentence length, complexity, and grammaticality in Spanish-speaking children attending English-only preschools. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 313.
Restrepo, M. A., & Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. (2001). Article use in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment. Journal of Child Language, 28 (2), 433452.
Restrepo, M. A., & Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. (2012). Grammatical impairments in Spanish–English speaking children. In Goldstein (ed.), pp. 213–232.
Restrepo, M. A., & Kruth, K. (2000). Grammatical characteristics of a Spanish–English bilingual child with specific language impairment. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 21 (2), 66.
Restrepo, M. A., & Silverman, S. W. (2001). Validity of the Spanish preschool language scale-3 for use with bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10 (4), 382393.
Rice, M. L., & Wexler, K. (2001). Test of Early Grammatical Impairment: Examiner's manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Roseberry, C. A., & Connell, P. J. (1991). The use of an invented language rule in the differentiation of normal and language-impaired Spanish-speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 34, 594603.
Sackett, D. L., Haynes, R. B., Guyatt, G. H., & Tugwell, P. (1991). Clinical epidemiology: A basic science for clinical medicine (2nd edn.). Boston, MA: Little Brown.
Sánchez-Naranjo, J., & Pérez-Leroux, A. T. (2010). In the wrong mood at the right time: Children's acquisition of the Spanish subjunctive in temporal clauses. Canadian Journal of Linguistics, 55 (2), 227255.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (1991). Spanish language attrition in a contact situation with English. In Seliger, H. W. & Vago, R. (eds.), First language attrition: Structural and theoretical perspectives, pp. 151171. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (1994). Language contact and change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silva-Corvalán, C. (2003). Linguistic consequences of reduced input in bilingual first language acquisition. In Montrul, S. & Ordoñez, F. (eds.), Linguistic theory and language development in Hispanic languages, pp. 375397. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Simon-Cereijido, G., & Gutiérrez-Clellen, V. F. (2007). Spontaneous language markers of Spanish language impairment. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 317339.
Wiig, E. H., Semel, E., & Secord, W. A. (2006). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals – 4 Spanish (SCELF–4). Needham Heights, MA: The Psychological Corporation.
Windsor, J., & Hwang, M. (1999). Derivational suffix productivity for students with and without language-learning disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42 (1), 220230.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed