I have subtitled this address An Autobiographic View; it is also anecdotal and subjective. I find it fascinating to realize that my own autobiography coincides with, and indeed is part of, the history of behaviour therapy and, indeed, of much of clinical psychology as a profession in Britain. Clinical psychology scarcely existed before the Second World War. Even in 1945 the British Psychological Society listed it among terms not entirely meaningless, but too ambiguous for use by the Society. Between the Wars, there had been great resistance to lay encroachment upon medical territory, although there had been a little intellectual testing in mental hospitals by interested academic researchers. At the end of the war, Hans Eysenck came to the Maudsley having done his pioneer factor analytic work on dimensions of personality at Mill Hill. He was keen to establish a clinical psychology course, but was appalled by the existing main models along psychoanalytic lines, both in the United States of America and in the Tavistock Clinic in London. His most important initial recruit was Monte Shapiro, who became head of the clinical course of which I was an early student member and a relatively early staff member. The early emphasis was on assessment mainly by objective standardized tests. Indeed, much of our early intellectual effort went into disputations about the lack of validity of projective tests, such as the Rorschach. We had no real involvement in treatment. Aubrey Lewis, who was the Professor of Psychiatry at the Institute and the dominant figure at the Maudsley Hospital was very much against non-medical participation in therapy.