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Revenge can be more fully understood by making distinctions between anger and hatred

  • Aaron N. Sell (a1)


McCullough et al. present a compelling case that anger-based revenge is designed to disincentivize the target from imposing costs on the vengeful individual. Here I present a contrast between revenge motivated by anger (as discussed in the target article) and revenge motivated by hatred, which remains largely unexplored in the literature.



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Petersen, M. B., Sell, A., Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (2010) Evolutionary psychology and criminal justice: A recalibrational theory of punishment and reconciliation. In: Human morality and sociality: Evolutionary and comparative perspectives, ed. Høgh-Olesen, H., pp. 72131. Palgrave MacMillan.
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Schopler, J. & Compere, J. (1971) Effects of being kind or harsh to another on liking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 20(2):155–59.
Sell, A. (2011) The recalibrational theory and violent anger. Aggression and Violent Behavior 16(5):381–89.
Sell, A., Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (2009) Formidability and the logic of human anger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106(35):15073–78.
Tooby, J., Cosmides, L., Sell, A., Lieberman, D. & Sznycer, D. (2008) Internal regulatory variables and the design of human motivation: A computational and evolutionary approach. In: Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation, ed. Elliott, A., pp. 251–72. Erlbaum/Psychology Press.
Waller, J. (2004) Our ancestral shadow: Hate and human nature in evolutionary psychology. Paper presented at the Conference to Establish the Field of Hate Studies, Spokane, WA, March 19, 2004. [Conference held at Gonzaga University and organized by the Institute for Action against Hate.]
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Revenge can be more fully understood by making distinctions between anger and hatred

  • Aaron N. Sell (a1)


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