Skip to main content Accessibility help

A new psychobiological theory of attachment: Primum non nocere

  • Charles B. Nemeroff (a1) and Sherryl H. Goodman (a2)



Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Achenbach, T. (1990) Conceptualization of developmental psychopathology. In: Handbook of developmental psychopathology, ed. Lewis, M. & Miller, S. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1967) Infancy in Uganda. John Hopkins Press. [JK]
Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1978) Toward a general theory of infantile attachment: A comparative review of aspects of the social bond. (Commentary on Rajecki et al.) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:436–38. [aGWK]
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978) Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Erlbaum. [aGWK, JK, CBN]
Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Witing, B. A. (1969) Attachment and exploratory behavior of one year olds in a strange situation. In: Determinants of infant behavior, ed. Foss, B. M.. Methuen. [aGWK]
Alba, J. W. & Hasher, L. (1983) Is memory schematic? Psychological Bulletin 93:203–31. [MS]
Alberts, J. R. & Cramer, C. P. (1988) Ecology and experience: Sources of means and meaning of development change. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 9: Developmental psychobiology and developmental neurobiology, ed. Blass, E. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Altman, S. A. (1962) A field of study of the sociobiology of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 102:330435. [DGF]
Anderson, C. O., Kenney, M. A. & Mason, W. A. (1977) Effects of maternal mobility, partner, and endocrine state on social responsiveness of adolescent rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 10:421–34. [aGWK]
Anderson, C. O. & Mason, W. A. (1974) Early experience and complexity of social organization in groups of young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 87:681–90. [aGWK]
Anderson, C. O. & Mason, W. A. (1978) Competitive social strategies in groups of deprived and experienced rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 11:289–99. [aGWK]
Anisman, H. & Zacharko, R. (1982) Depression: The predisposing influence of stress. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:89137. [aGWK]
Aoki, C. & Siekevitz, P. (1988) Plasticity in brain development. Scientific American 259(6):5664. [aGWK]
Argiolas, A., Collu, M., Gessa, G. L., Melis, M. R. & Serra, G. (1988) The oxytocin antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)-Orn8-vasotocin inhibits male copulatory behavior in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 149:389–92. [TRI]
Ayres, A. J. (1975) Sensory integration and learning disorders. Western Psychological Services. [rGWK]
Ayres, A. J. (1989) Sensory integration and the child. Western Psychological Services. [rGWK]
Bachevalier, J. (1991) Memory loss and socio-emotional disturbances following neonatal damage of the limbic system in monkeys: An animal model of childhood autism. In: Advances in neuro psychiatry and psychopharmacology, vol. 1: Schizophrenia, ed. Tamminga, C. A. & Schulz, S. C.. Raven Press. [aGWK]
Bachevalier, J. & Mishkin, M. (1986) An early and late developing system for learning and retention in infant monkeys. Behavioral and Brain Research 20:249–61. [aGWK, WAM]
Barlow, H. B. (1972) Single units and sensations: A neuron doctrine for perceptual physiology. Perception 1:371–94. [aGWK]
Barrett, J. E. (1972) Schedules of electric shock presentation in the behavioral control of imprinted ducklings. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 18:305–21. [LAE]
Barry, H. IIIChild, I. L. & Bacon, M. K. (1959) Relation of child training to subsistence economy. American Anthropologist 61:5163. [DGF]
Bear, M. F. & Singer, W. (1986) Modulation of visual cortical plasticity by acetylcholine and noradrenaline. Nature 320:172–76. [aGWK]
Beauchamp, A. J., Gluck, J. P., Fouty, H. E. & Lewis, M. H. (1991) Associative processes in differentially reared rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): Blocking. Developmental Psychobiology 24:175–89. [arGWK]
Beck, A. T. (1975) Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. International Universities Press. [aGWK]
Benhar, E. E., Carlton, P. L. & Samuel, D. (1975) A search for mirror-image reinforcement and self-recognition in the baboon. Contemporary Primatology. Karger. [MLB]
Bernstein, I. S. & Ehardt, C. (1986) The influence of kinship and socialization on aggressive behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behaviour 34:739–47. [aGWK]
Bertenthal, B. I. & Campos, J. J. (1987) New directions in the study of early experience. Child Development 58:560–67. [aGWK]
Björk, A. (1989) Is social stress in pigs a detrimental factor to health and growth that can be avoided by amperozide treatment? Applied Animal Behavioral Science 23:3947. [THS]
Black, I. B. (1991) Information in the brain: A molecular perspective. MIT Press. [BJ]
Boccia, M. L. (1989) Preliminary report on the use of a natural foraging task to reduce aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pigtailed macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 28 (1):34. [aGWK]
Boccia, M. L. & Campos, J. J. (1989) Maternal emotional communication, social referencing and infants' reactions to strangers. In: New directions in child development, empathy and related emotional responses, ed. Eisenberg, N.. Jossey-Bass. [MLB]
Boccia, M. L., Reite, M.Kaemingk, K., Held, P. & Laudenslager, M. (1989) Behavioral and autonomic responses of peer-reared pigtail macaques to separation. Developmental Psychobiology 22:447–61. [MLB]
Boccia, M. L., Reite, M.Kaemingk, K., Held, P. & Laudenslager, M. (1991a) Social context and responses of peer-reared pigtail macaques to separation. Primates 32:255–63. [MLB]
Boccia, M. L., Reite, M. L. & Laudenslager, M. L. (1991b) Early social environment may alter the development of attachment and social support: Two case reports. Infant Behavior and Development 14:253–60. [MLB]
Bolhuis, J., Johnson, M., Horn, G. & Bateson, P. (1989) Long-lasting effects of IMHV lesions on social preferences in domestic fowl. Behavioral Neuroscience 103:438–41. [EAS]
Bowlby, J. (1951) Maternal care and mental health. World Health Organization. [arGWK]
Bowlby, J. (1960) Grief and mourning in infancy and early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 15:952. [aGWK]
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and loss: Attachment. Basic Books. [arGWK JPC. HDEJK]
Bowlby, J. (1973) Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety, and anger. Basic Books. [aGWK, MS]
Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and loss: Loss, sadness, and depression. Basic Books. [aGWK]
Bowlby, J. (1982a) Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 52:664–78. [arGWK]
Bowlby, J. (1982b) Attachment and loss, vol. I: Attachment, 2nd ed. (Original work published 1969). Basic Books. [CBN]
Bowlby, J. (1988) A secure base. Basic Books. [arGWK]
Brake, S. C., Shair, H. & Hofer, M. A. (1988) Exploiting the nursing niche: The infant's sucking and feeding in the context of the mother-infant interaction. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 9: Developmental psychobiology and behavioral ecology, ed. Blass, E. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Bråten, S. (1988) Dialogic mind: The infant and adult in protoconversation. In: Nature, cognition and system, ed. Cavallo, M.. Kluwer Academic. [CT]
Brazelton, T. B. (1986) Development of newborn behavior. In: Human growth: A comprehensive treatise, ed. Falkner, F. & Tanner, J. M.. Plenum Press. [BJ]
Brazelton, T. B., Koslowski, B. & Main, M. (1974) The origins of reciprocity in mother-infant interaction. In: The effect of the infant on its caregiver, ed. Lewis, M. & Rosenblum, L. A.. Wiley Interscience. [aGWK]
Bretherton, I. (1985) The ontogenesis of attachment theory. In: Growing points of attachment theory and research, ed. Bretherton, I. & Waters, E.. University of Chicago Press. [aGWK]
Bretherton, I. & Waters, E., eds. (1985) Growing points in attachment theory and research. University of Chicago Press. [DGF]
Brothers, L. (1991) The social brain: A project for integrating primate behavior and neurophysiology in a new domain. Concepts in Neuroscience 1:2751. [aGWK]
Brown, G. L. & Linnoila, M. (1990) CSF serotonin metabolite (5-HIAA) studies in depression, impulsivity, and violence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51 (4 suppl):3141. [BJ]
Brown, G. W., Bifulco, A. & Harris, T. O. (1987) Life events, vulnerability and onset of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:3042. [CBN]
Bryant, C. E., Rupniak, N. M. J. & Iversen, S. D. (1988) Effects of different environmental enrichment devices on cage stereotypies and autoaggression in captive cynomolgus monkeys. Journal of Medical Primatology 17:257–69. [aGWK]
Buijs, R. (1978) Intra- and extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin pathways in the rat: Pathways to the limbic system, medulla oblongata and spinal cord. Cell Tissue Research 252:355–65. [TRI]
Buijs, R. M. & van Heerikhuize, J. J. (1982) Vasopressin and oxytocin release in the brain — a synaptic event. Brain Research 252:7176. [TRI]
Burford, B. (1988) Action cycles: Rhythmic actions for engagement with children and young adults with profound mental handicap. European Journal of Special Needs Education 3(4): 189206. [CT]
Bushnell, I. W. R., Sai, F. & Mullin, J. T. (1989) Neonatal recognition of the mother's face. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 7:315. [HDE]
Butler, P. D. & Nemeroff, C. B. (1988) Corticotropin-releasing factor as a possible cause of comorbidity in anxiety and depressive disorders. In: Comorbidity in anxiety and mood disorders, ed. Maser, J. D. & Cloninger, C. R.. American Psychiatric Association Press. [CBN]
Butler, P. D., Weiss, J. M., Stout, J. C. & Nemeroff, C. B. (1990) Corticotropin-releasing factor produces fear-enhancing and behavioral activating effects following infusion into the locus coeruleus. Journal of Neuroscience 10:176–83. [CBN]
Caine, N. G., Earle, H. & Reite, M. (1983) Personality traits of adolescent pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina): An analysis of social rank and early separation experience. American Journal of Primatology 4:253–60. [JPC]
Caine, N. G. & Reite, M. (1983) Infant abuse in captive pig-tailed macaques: Relevance to human child abuse. In: Child abuse: The nonhuman primate data, ed. Reite, M. & Caine, N.. Alan R. Liss. [JPC]
Capitanio, J. P. (1985) Early experience and social processes in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): II. Complex social interaction. Journal of Comparative Psychology 99:133–44. [aGWK, JPC]
Capitanio, J. P. (1986) Behavioral pathology. In: Comparative primate biology, vol. 2A: Behavior, conservation, and ecology, ed. Mitchell, G. & Erwin, J.. Alan R. Liss. [JPC]
Capitanio, J. P., Rasmussen, K. L. R., Snyder, D. S., Laudenslager, M. & Reite, M. (1986) Long-term follow-up of previously separated pigtail macaques: Group and individual differences in response to novel situations. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27:531–38. [JPC]
Capitanio, J. P. & Reite, M. (1984) The roles of early separation experience and prior familiarity in the social relations of pigtail macaques: A descriptive multivariate study. Primates 25:475–84. [JPC]
Castellucci, V. F. & Schacher, S. (1990) Synaptic plasticity and behavioral modifications in the marine mollusk Aplysia. Progress in Brain Research 86:105–15. [DP]
Chamove, A. S., Anderson, J. R. & Nash, V. J. (1984) Social and environmental influences on aggression in rhesus monkeys. Primates 25 (3):319–25. [aGWK]
Chapais, B. (1988) Rank maintenance in female Japanese macaques: Experimental evidence for social dependency. Behavior 104:4159. [DP]
Chappell, P. B., Smith, M. A., Kilts, C. D., Bissette, G., Ritchie, J., Anderson, C. & Nemeroff, C. B. (1986) Alterations in corticotropinreleasing factor-like immunoreactivity in discrete rat brain regions after acute and chronic stress. Journal of Neuroscience 6:2908–14. [CBN]
Cheney, D., Seyfarth, R., & Smuts, B. (1986) Social relationships and social cognition in nonhuman primates. Science 234:1361–66. [aGWK]
Churchland, P. M. (1989) A neurocomputational perspective: The nature of mind and the structure of science. MIT Press. [aGWK]
Churchland, P. M. & Churchland, P. S. (1990) Could a machine think? Scientific American 262:3237. [aGWK]
Churchland, P. S. (1986) Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind-brain. MIT Press. [aGWK]
Churchland, P. S. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1988) Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. Science 242:741–45. [aGWK]
Cohen, N. J. (1984) Preserved learning capacity in amnesia: Evidence for multiple memory systems. In: Neuropsychology of memory, ed. Squire, L. R. & Butters, N.. Guilford Press. [aGWK]
Cooper, C. R. & Aslin, R. N. (1989) The language environment of the young infant. Implications for early perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Psychology 43:247–66. [BJ]
Cynander, M. & Mitchell, D. E. (1980) Prolonged sensitivity to monocular deprivation in dark reared cats. Journal of Neurophysiology 43:1026–40. [aGWK]
Darlington, C. D. (1959) The origin of Darwinism. Scientific American 6066. [JKK]
Darwin, C. (1882) The descent of man, 2nd ed. John Murray (first published in 1871). [JKK]
DeCasper, A. J. & Fifer, W. P. (1980) Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers' voices. Science 208:1174–76. [BJ, MS]
DeCasper, A. J. & Prescott, P. A. (1984) Human newborns' perception of male voices: Preference, discrimination, and reinforcing value. Developmental Psychobiology 17:481–91. [BJ]
DeCasper, A. J. & Spence, M. J. (1986) Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development 9:133–50. [BJ, CT]
Desimone, R., Albright, T. D., Gross, C. G. & Bruce, C. (1984) Stimulus selective properties of inferior temporal neurons in the macaque. Journal of Neuroscience 4:2051–62. [aGWK]
Diamond, A. & Goldrnan-Rakic, P. S. (1989) Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's AB task: Evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research 74:2440. [rGWK]
Diamond, M. C. (1988) Enriching heredity: The impact of the environment on the anatomy of the brain. Free Press. [BJ]
Dziurawiec, S. & Ellis, H. D. (1986) Neonates' attention to face-like stimuli: Goren, Sarty and Wu revisited. Paper presented at the annual conference of the British Psychological Society, Developmental Section, Exeter. [HDE]
Ebert, M. H. & Perlow, M. J. (1977) Utility of cerebrospinal fluid measurements in studies of brain monoamines. In: Structure and function of brain monoamine systems, ed. Usdin, E., Weiner, N. & Youdin, M. B. H.. Marcel Dekker. [aGWK]
Edelman, G. M. (1989) Topobiology. Scientific American 260:7689. [aGWK]
Eiserer, L. A. (1978a) Anomalous effects in psychology: Parallels between the brain stimulation and imprinting literatures. Psychological Record 28:557–70. [LAE]
Eiserer, L. A. (1978b) Maltreatment effects and learning processes in infantile attachment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:445. [LAE]
Elands, J., Beetsma, A., Barberis, C. & de Kloet, E. R. (1988) Topography of the oxytocin receptor system in rat brain: An autoradiographical study with a selective radioiodinated oxytocin antagonist. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 1:293302. [TRI]
Ellis, H. D. & Ellis, D. M. (1989) Questions of innateness and plasticity in physiognomic processing. European Bulletin of Cognitive Psychology 9:7073. [HDE]
Engel, A. K., König, P., Kreitner, A. K. & Singer, W. (1991) Interhemispheric synchronization of oscillatory neural responses in cat visual cortex. Science 252:1177–79. [CT]
Erikson, E. (1980) Identity and the life cycle. Norton. [aGWK]
Fahrbach, W. E., Morrell, J. I. & Pfaff, D. W. (1985) Possible role for endogenous oxytocin in estrogen-facilitated maternal behavior in rats. Neuroendocrinology 40:526–32. [TRI]
Fernald, A. (in press) Prosody in speech to children: Prelinguistic and linguistic functions. In: Annals of child development, ed. R. Vasta. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. [BJ]
Field, T. M. (1979) Visual and cardiac responses to animate and inanimate faces by young and preterm infants. Child Development 50:188–94. [HDE]
Field, T. M. (1985) Attachment as psychobiological attunement: Being on the same wavelength. In: The psychobiology of attachment and separation, ed. Reite, M. & Field, T.. Academic Press. [aGWK]
Field, T. M., Cohen, D., Garcia, R. & Greenberg, R. (1984) Mother-stranger face discrimination by the newborn. Infant Behavior and Development 7:1925. [HDE]
Fisher, A. E. (1955) The effects of differential early treatment on the social and exploratory behavior of puppies. Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. [LAE]
Floeter, M. K. & Greenough, W. T. (1979) Cerebellar plasticity: Modification of Purkinje cell structure by differential rearing in rhesus monkeys. Science 206:227–28. [aGWK]
Foote, S. L. & Morrison, J. H. (1987a) Development of noradrenergic, serotonergic, and dopaminergic innervation of neocortex. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 21:391423. [aGWK]
Foote, S. L. & Morrison, J. H. (1987b) Extrathalamic modulation of cortical function. Annual Reviews in Neuroscience 10:6795. [aGWK]
Freedman, D. G. (1990) The theory of logical typing: Context and paradox. Human Ethology Newsletter 5:46. [DGF]
Freedman, D. G., Cox, S. & Berg, L. (1988) Affective attunement and intersubjectivity in cross-cultural perspective: Methodological issues. Paper presented at the International Conference for Infant Studies, Washington, D.C. [DGF]
Freedman, D. G. & Gorman, J. (1992) Internal working models, cultural transmission and human evolution. (Unpublished manuscript.) [DGF]
Freud, S. (1930) Civilization and its discontents. Hogarth Press. [aGWK]
Freud, S. (1969) An outline of psychoanalysis. Translation, James Strachey. Norton. [aGWK]
Frisch, J. E. (1968) Individual behavior and inter-troop variability in Japanese macaques. In: Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability, ed. Jay, P. C.. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [DGF]
Gallup, G. G. (1982) Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. American Journal of Primatology 2:237–48. [MLB]
Geertz, C. (1973) The interpretation of cultures. Basic Books. [aGWK]
Gertz, L. L. & Hofman, J. E. (1986) Social organization in free living prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18:275–82. [TRI]
Gibson, J. J. (1986) The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum. [JPC]
Ginsberg, S. D., Hof, P. R., Young, W. G., Kraemer, G. W., McKinney, W. T. & Morrison, J. H. (1991) Quantitative analysis of transmitter identified systems in the monkey paraventricular nucleus: Effects of differential rearing conditions. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:85. [aGWK]
Glavin, G. B. (1985) Stress and brain noradrenaline. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9:233–43. [aGWK]
Gluck, J. P., Harlow, H. F. & Schlitz, K. A. (1973) Differential effect of early enrichment and deprivation on learning in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 84 (3):598604. [arGWK]
Gluck, J. P. & Sackett, G. E. (1974) Frustration and self-aggression in social isolate rhesus monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83:331–34. [rGWK]
Gluck, J. P. & Sackett, G. E. (1976) Extinction deficits in socially isolated rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Developmental Psychology 12:173–74. [arGWK]
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1984) Modular organization of the prefrontal cortex. Trends in Neuroscience 7:419–24. [aGWK]
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1987) Development of cortical circuitry and cognitive function. Child Development 58:601–22. [arGWK]
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. & Brown, R. M. (1982) Postnatal development of monoamine content and synthesis in cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys. Developmental Brain Reserch 4:339–49. [arGWK, WAM]
Goren, C. C., Sarty, M. & Wu, P. Y. K. (1975) Visual following and pattern discrimination of face-like stimuli by newborn infants. Pediatrics 56:544–49. [HDE]
Greenough, W. T., Black, J. E. & Wallace, C. S. (1987) Experience and brain development. Child Development 58:539–59. [aGWK, WAM]
Grieser, D. L. & Kuhl, P. K. (1988) Maternal speech to infants in tonal language. Support for universal prosodic features in motherese. Developmental Psychology 24:1420. [CT]
Grossberg, S. & Stone, G. (1986) Neural dynamics of word recognition and recall: Attentional priming, learning, and resonance. Psychological Review 93:4674. [aGWK]
Grossmann, K. E. & Grossman, K. (1981) Parent-infant attachment relationships in Bielefeld. In: Behavioral development: The Bielefeld interdisciplinary project, ed. Immelmann, K., Barlow, G., Petrovich, L. & Main, M.. Cambridge University Press. [CBN]
Guralnick, M. J. (1991) The next decade of research on the effectiveness of early intervention. Exceptional Children 58(1): 174–83. [rGWK]
Haracz, J. L. (1984) A neural plasticity hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Reviews 8:5571. [aGWK]
Harlow, H. F. (1958) The nature of love. American Psychologist 13:673–85. [aGWK]
Harlow, H. F. & Harlow, M. K. (1965a) The affectional systems. In: Behavior of nonhuman primates, vol. 2, ed. Foss, B. M.. Academic Press. [arGWK]
Harlow, H. F. & Harlow, M. K. (1965b) Effects of various mother-infant relationships on rhesus monkey behaviors. In: Determinants of infant behavior (IV), ed. Foss, B. M.. Methuen. [rGWK]
Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K. & Hansen, E. W. (1963) The maternal affectional system of rhesus monkeys. In: Maternal behavior in mammals, ed. Rheingold, H. L.. Wiley. [aGWK]
Harlow, H. F., Harlow, M. K. & Suomi, S. J. (1971) From thought to therapy: Lessons from a primate laboratory. American Scientist 59:538–49. [arGWK]
Harlow, H. F., Plubell, P. E. & Baysinger, C. M. (1973) Induction of psychological death in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 3:299307. [aGWK]
Harlow, H. F. & Suomi, S. J. (1970) The nature of love — simplified. American Psychologist 25:161–68. [LAE]
Hebb, D. O. (1949) The organization of behavior. Wiley. [aGWK]
Hebb, D. O. (1982) The conceptual nervous system. Pergamon Press. [arGWK]
Held, R. (1965) Plasticity in sensory-motor behavior. Scientific American 213:8494. [aGWK]
Herdt, G. (1987) The Sambia: Ritual and gender in New Guinea. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [rGWK]
Higley, J. D., Hasert, M. F., Suomi, S. J. & Linnoila, M. (1991) Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: Effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 88:7261–65. [BJ]
Hinde, R. A. (1977) Mother-infant separation and the nature of interindividual relationships: Experiment with rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B) 196:2950. [rGWK]
Hinde, R. A. (1982) Attachment: Some conceptual and biological issues. In: The place of attachment in human behavior, ed. Parkes, C. & Stevenson-Hinde, J.. Basic Books. [arGWK]
Hinde, R. A. & Spencer-Booth, Y. (1971) Towards understanding individual differences in rhesus mother-infant interaction. Animal Behaviour 19:165–73. [aGWK]
Hirsch, H. V. (1986) The tunable seer: Activity-dependent development of vision. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 8: Developmental psychobiology and developmental neurobiology, ed. Blass, E. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Hofer, M. A. (1984) Relationships as regulators: A psychobiological perspective on bereavement. Psychosomatic Medicine 46:183–97. [aGWK]
Hofer, M. A. (1987) Early social relationships: A psychobiologist's view. Child Development 58:633–47. [arGWK]
Horn, G. (1985) Memory, imprinting, and the brain. Clarendon Press. [DGF, EAS]
Horowitz, M. J. (1991) Person schemas and maladaptive interpersonal patterns. University of Chicago Press. [MS]
Hubel, D. H. (1978) Effects of early deprivation on the visual cortex of cat and monkey. Harvey Lectures 72:151. [aGWK]
Hubel, D. & Wiesel, T. N. (1970) The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. Journal of Physiology 206:419–36. [aGWK]
Hubel, D. & Wiesel, T. N. (1977) Functional architecture of macaque visual cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 198:159. [aGWK]
Huebner, R. A. (1992) Autistic disorder: A neuropsychological enigma. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 46:487501. [rGWK]
Humphrey, N. K. (1976) The social function of intellect. In: Growing points in ethology, ed. Bateson, P. & Hinde, R. A.. Cambridge University Press. [aGWK]
Insel, T. R. (in press) Oxytocin: A neuropeptide for affiliation — evidence from behavioral, receptor autoradiographic, and comparative studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology. [TRI, CBN]
Insel, T. R., Gelhard, R. E. & Shapiro, L. E. (1991) The comparative distribution of neurohypophyseal peptide receptors in monogamous and polygamous mice. Neuroscience 43:623–30. [TRI]
Insel, T. R. & Harbaugh, C. R. (1989) Lesions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus disrupt the initiation of maternal behavior. Physiology & Behavior 45:1033–41. [TRI]
Insel, T. R. & Winslow, J. T. (1991) Central oxytocin administration reduces rat pup isolation calls. European Journal of Pharmacology 203:149–52. [TRI]
Iversen, S. (1984) Cortical monoamines and behavior. In: Monoamine innervation of the cerebral cortex, ed. Descarries, L. & Jasper, H. H.. Alan R. Liss. [aGWK]
Jackson, J. H. (1958) Selected writings, ed. Taylor, J.. Basic Books. [aGWK]
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology, vol. 1. (reprinted 1950). Dover. [arGWK, MS]
Jannet, F. J. (1980) Social dynamics in the montane vole (Microtus montanus) as a paradigm. The Biologist 62:319. [TRI]
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983) Mental models: Toward a cognitive science of language, inference and consciousness. Harvard University Press. [MS]
Johnston, M. H., Dziurawiec, S., Ellis, H. D. & Morton, J. (1991) Newborns' preferential tracking of face-like stimuli and its subsequent decline. Cognition 40:121. [HDE]
Johnston, M. H. & Morton, J. (1991) Biological and cognitive development: A case of face recognition. Blackwell. [HDE]
Kagan, J. & Moss, H. A. (1983) Birth to maturity. Wiley. [arGWK]
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S. & Snidman, N. (1988) Biological basis of childhood shyness. Science 240:167–71. [BJ]
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S. & Snidman, N. (1990) The temperamental qualities of inhibition and lack of inhibition. In: Handbook of developmental psychopathology, ed. Lewis, M. & Miller, S. M.. Plenum Press. [arGWK]
Kalil, R. (1989) Synapse formation in the developing brain. Scientific American 261:7686. [aGWK]
Kalin, N. & Shelton, S. E. (1989) Defensive behaviors in rhesus monkeys: Environmental cues and neurochemical regulation. Science 243:1718–21. [rGWK]
Kalin, N., Shelton, S. E. & Takahashi, L. K. (1991) Defensive behaviors in rhesus monkeys: Ontogeny and context-dependent selective expression. Child Development 62:1175–83. [rGWK]
Kasamatsu, T., Itakura, T., Johnson, G., Hegglund, P., Pettigrew, J., Nakai, K. et al. , (1984) Neuronal plasticity in cat visual cortex: A proposed role for the central noradrenaline system. In: Monoamine innervation of cerebral cortex, ed. Descarries, L. & Jasper, H. H.. Alan R. Liss. [aGWK]
Kasamatsu, T. & Petigrew, J. D. (1976) Depletion of brain catecholamines: Failure of occular dominance shift after monocular occlusion in kittens. Science 194:206–09. [aGWK]
Kaufman, I. C. (1977) Developmental considerations of anxiety and depression: Psychobiological studies in monkeys. In: Psychoanalysis and contemporary science, ed. Shapiro, T.. International Universities Press. [aGWK]
Kaufman, I. C. & Rosenblum, L. A. (1967) The reaction to separation in infant monkeys: Anaclitic depression and conservation-withdrawal. Psychosomatic Medicine 29:649–75. [aGWK, EAS]
Kawai, M. (1965) On the system of social ranks in a natural troop of Japanese monkeys (1): Basic rank and dependent rank. In: Japanese monkeys, a collection of translations, ed. Imanishi, K. & Altmann, S. A.. S. A. Altmann. [DP]
Kazdin, A. E. (1989) Developmental psychopathology: Current research, issues, and directions. American Psychologist 44(2): 180–87. [rGWK]
Kendrick, K. M., Keverne, E. B. & Baldwin, B. A. (1987) Intracerebroventricular oxytocin stimulates maternal behaviour in the sheep. Neuroendocrinology 46:5661. [TRI]
Koford, C. B. (1963) Group relations in an island colony of rhesus monkeys. In: Primate social behavior, ed. Southwick, C. H.. Van Nostrand. [DGF]
Konner, M. (1982) The tangled wing: Biological constrains on the human spirit. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [aGWK]
Konorski, J. (1967) The integrative activity of the brain. University of Chicago Press. [aGWK]
Kovach, J. K. (1987) Quantitative genetics and developmental psychology: Shall the twain ever meet? Commentary on “Why are children in the same family so different from one another?” by Plomin & Daniels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:2829. [JKK]
Kraemer, G. W. (1982) Neurochemical correlates of stress and depression: Depletion or disorganization? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:110. [rGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. (1985) Effects of differences in early social experience on primate neurobiologcal development. In: The psychobiology of attachment, ed. Reite, M. & Field, T.. Academic Press. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. (1986) Causes of changes in brain noradrenaline systems and later effects on responses to social stressors in rhesus monkeys: The cascade hypothesis. Antidepressants and receptor function (CIBA Foundation Symposium 123). Wiley. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. (1988) Speculations on the developmental neurobiology of protest and despair. In: Inquiry into schizophrenia and depression: Animal models of psychiatric disorders, ed. Simon, P., Soubrie, P. & Widlocher, D.. Karger. [arGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. & Clarke, A. S. (1990) The behavioral neurobiology of selfinjurious behavior in rhesus monkeys. Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 14 (suppl):141–68. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Lake, C. R. & McKinney, W. T. (1983) Amphetamine challenge: Effects in previously isolated monkeys and implications for animal models of schizophrenia. In: Ethopharmacology: Primate models of neuropsychiatric disorders, ed. Miczek, K.. Alan R. Liss. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Lake, C. R. & McKinney, W. T. (1984a) Hypersensitivity to d-amphetamine several years after early social deprivation in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology 82:266–71. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Lake, C. R. & McKinney, W. T. (1984b) Cerebrospinal fluid changes associated with pharmacological alteration of the despair response to social separation in rhesus monkeys. Psychiatry Research 11:303–15. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E. & McKinney, W. T. (1989). A longitudinal study of the effects of different rearing environments on cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine and biogenic amine metabolites in rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 2:175–89. [arGWK]
Kraemer, G. W., Ebert, M. H., Schmidt, D. E. & McKinney, W. T. (1991) Strangers in a strange land: A psychobiological study of infant monkeys before and after separation from real or inanimate mothers. Child Development 62:548–66. [arGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. & McKinney, W. T. (1979) Interactions of pharmacological agents which alter biogenic amine metabolism and depression: An analysis of contributing factors within a primate model of depression. Journal of Affective Disroders 1:3354. [aGWK]
Kraemer, G. W. & McKinney, W. T. (1988) Animal models in psychiatry: Contributions of research on synaptic mechanisms. In: Receptors and ligands in psychiatry and neurology, ed. Sen, A. K. & Lee, T.. Cambridge University Press. [aGWK]
Lamb, M. E. (1977) Father-infant and mother-infant interaction in the first year of life. Child Development 48:167–81. [CBN]
Lamb, M. E., Thompson, R. A., Gardner, W. P., Charnov, E. L. & Estes, D. (1984) Security of infantile attachment as assessed in the “strange situation”: Its study and biological interpretation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):127–71. [aGWK]
Lashley, K. S. (1950) In search of the engram. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 4:454582. [aGWK, CBN]
Laudenslager, M. L., Held, P. E., Boccia, M. L., Reite, M. L. & Cohen, J. J. (1990) Behavioral and immunological consequences of brief motherinfant separation: A species comparison. Developmental Psychobiology 23:247–64. [MLB]
Leckman, J. F. (1989) Research on children and adolescents with mental, behavioral and developmental disorders. Report of the Institute of Medicine chartered by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press. [rGWK]
LeDoux, J. (1986) Sensory systems and emotion: A model of affective processing. Integrative Psychiatry 4:237–48. [aGWK]
LeDoux, J. E., Romanski, L. & Xagoraris, A. (1989) Indelibility of subcortical emotional memories. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1:238–43. [aGWK]
LeVay, S., Wiesel, T. N. & Hubel, D. (1980) The development of ocular dominance columns in normal and visually deprived monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology 191:151. [aGWK]
LeVine, R. A. & Miller, P. M. (1990) Commentary. Human Development 33:7380. [DGF]
Lewis, J. K., McKinney, W. T., Young, L. D. & Kraemer, G. W. (1975) Mother-infant separation in rhesus monkeys as a model of human depression: A reconsideration. Archives of General Psychiatry 33:699705. [aGWK]
Lewis, M. (1990) Challenges to the study of developmental psychopathology. In: Handbook of developmental psychopathology, ed. Lewis, M. & Miller, S. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Lewis, M. H., Gluck, J. P., Beauchamp, A. J., Keresztury, M. F. & Mailman, R. B. (1990) Long-term effects of early isolation in Macaca mulatta: Changes in dopamine receptor function following apomorphine challenge. Brain Research 513:6773. [aGWK]
Livingstone, M., Rosen, G. D., Drislane, F. W. & Galaburda, A. M. (1991) Physiological and anatomical evidence for a magnocellular defect in developmental dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 88(18): 7943–47. [rGWK]
Luria, A. R. (1976) Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundationns. Harvard University Press. [aGWK]
Main, M. (1991) Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In: Attachment across the life cycle, ed. Marris, P., Stevenson-Hinde, J. & Parkes, C.. Routledge Press. [MS]
Main, M. & Goldwyn, R. (1984) Predicting rejection of her infants from mother's representation of her own experience: Implications for the abused-abusing intergenerational cycle. International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect 8:203–17. [DGF]
Main, M. & Weston, D. R. (1981) The quality of the toddler's relationships to mother and to father: Related to conflict behavior and the readiness to establish new relationships. Child Development 52:932–40. [CBN]
Martin, L. J., Lewis, M. H., Gluck, J. P. & Cork, L. (1990) Aberrant compartmental organization of the striatum in isolation reared monkeys. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 49:284. [aGWK]
Martin, L. J., Spicer, D. M., Lewis, M. H., Gluck, J. P. & Cork, L. C. (1991) Social deprivation of infant rhesus monkeys alters the chemoarchitecture of the brain: 1. Subcortical regions. The Journal of Neuroscience 11:3344–58. [arGWK, CBN]
Marvin, R. S. & Stewart, R. B. (1990) A family systems framework for the study of attachment. In: Attachment in the preschool years, ed. Greenberg, M. T., Cicchetti, D. & Cummings, E. M.. University of Chicago Press. [DGF]
Mason, W. A. (1968) Early social deprivation in the nonhuman primates: Implications for human behavior. In: Environmental influences, ed. Glass, D. C.. Rockefeller University Press & Russell Sage Foundation. [aGWK]
Mason, W. A. (1970) Information processing and experimental deprivation: A biologic perspective. In: Early experience and visual information processing in perceptual and reading disorders, ed. Young, F. A. & Lindsley, D. B.. National Academy of Sciences Press. [JPC]
Mason, W. A. (1978) Social experience and primate cognitive development. In: The development of behavior: Comparative and evolutionary aspects, ed. Burghardt, G. M. & Berkoff, M.. Garland Press. [aGWKJK]
Mason, W. A. (1979) Development of social interaction: Maternal attributes and primate cognitive development. In: Human ethology: Claims and limits of a new discipline, ed. von Cranach, M., Foppa, K., Lepenies, W. & Ploog, D.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aGWK]
Mason, W. A. (1982) Primate social intelligence: Contributions from the laboratory. In: Animal mind — human mind, ed. Griffin, D. R.. Springer-Verlag. [aGWK]
Mason, W. A. (1985) Experiential influences on the development of expressive behaviors in rhesus monkeys. In: The development of expressive behavior: Biologyenvironment interactions, ed. Zivin, G.. Academic Press. [aGWK]
Mason, W. A. & Capitanio, J. P. (1988) Formation and expression of filial attachment in rhesus monkeys raised with living and inanimate mother substitutes. Developmental Psychobiology 21:401–30. [aGWK, JPC]
McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E. (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, vol. 2: Applications. MIT Press. [aGWK]
McKenna, J. J. (1990a) Evolution and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Part I: Infant responsivity to parental contact. Human Nature 1:145–77. [JPC]
McKenna, J. J. (1990b) Evolution and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Part II: Why human infants? Human Nature 1:179206. [JPC]
McKenna, J. J. & Mosko, S. (1990) Evolution and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Part III: Infant arousal and parent-infant co-sleeping. Human Nature 1:291330. [JPC]
McKenna, J. J., Mosko, S., Dungy, C. & McAninch, J. (1990) Sleep and arousal patterns of co-sleeping human mother/infant pairs: A preliminary physiological study with implications for the study of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83:331–47. [JPC]
McKinney, W. T. & Moran, E. C. (1981) Animal models of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 31:422–26. [aGWK]
Mehler, J., Jusczyk, P., Lambertz, G., Halsted, N.Bertoncini, J. & Amiel-Tison, C. (1988) A precursor of language acquisition in young infants. Cognition 29:143–78. [BJ]
Meltzoff, A. N. & Moore, M. K. (1977) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 196:7578. [HDE]
Miller, R. E., Caul, W. F. & Mirsky, I. A. (1971) Patterns of eating and drinking in socially isolated rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 7:127–34. [aGWK]
Miller, R. E., Mirsky, I. A., Caul, W. F. & Sakata, T. (1969) Hyperphagia and polydipsia in socially isolated monkeys. Science 165:231–39. [aGWK]
Mineka, S. & Suomi, S. J. (1978) Social separation in monkeys. Psychology Bulletin 85:13761400. [aGWK]
Mirsky, I. A. (1968) Communication of affects in rhesus monkeys. In: Environmental influences, ed. Glass, D. C.. Rockefeller University Press & Russel Sage Foundation. [aGWK]
Mishkin, M. & Appenzeller, T. (1987) The anatomy of memory. Scientific American 256:8089. [aGWK]
Mishkin, M., Malamut, B. & Bachevalier, J. (1984) Memories and habits: Two neural systems. In: Neurobiology of learning and memory, ed. Lynch, G., McGaugh, J. L. & Weinberger, N. M.. Guilford Press. [aGWK]
Miyake, K., Chen, S. & Campos, J. J. (1985) Infant temperament, mother's mode of interaction, and attachment in Japan: An interim report. In: Growing points in attachment theory and research, ed. Bretherton, I. & Waters, E.. University of Chicago Press. [DGF]
Moran, T. (1988) Environment and neural determinants of behavior in development. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 9: Developmental psychobiology and developmental neurobiology, ed. Blass, E. M.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Morse, P. A. (1972) The discrimination of speech and nonspeech stimuli in early infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 14:477–92. [BJ]
Morton, J. & Johnston, M. H. (1991) CONSPEC and CONLERN: A twoprocess theory of infant face recognition. Psychological Review 98:164–81. [HDE]
Mountcastle, V. (1979) An organizing principle for cerebral function: The unit module and the distributed system. In: The neurosciences: Fourth study program, ed. Schmitt, F. O. & Worden, F. G.. MIT Press. [aGWK]
Mower, G. D., Christen, W. G. & Caplan, C. J. (1983) Very brief visual experience eliminates plasticity in the cat visual cortex. Science 221:178–80. [aGWK]
Murray, E. & Mishkin, M. (1985) Amygdalectomy impairs crossmodal association in monkeys. Science 228:604–5. [aGWK]
Murray, L. (1988) Effects of postnatal depression on infant development: Direct studies of early mother-infant interactions. In: Motherhood and mental illness, vol. 2, ed. Brockington, I. & Kumar, R.. John Wright. [CT]
Murray, L. & Trevarthen, C. (1985) Emotional regulation of interactions between two-month-olds and their mothers. In: Social perception in infants, ed. Field, T. & Fox, N.. Ablex. [CT]
Neale, M. C., Walters, E., Heath, A. C., Kessler, R. C., Pérusse, D., Eaves, L. J. & Kendler, S. K. (in press) Depression and parental bonding: Cause, consequence, or genetic covariance? Genetic Epidemiology. [DP]
Nemeroff, C. B. (1992) New vistas in neuropeptide research in neuropsychiatry: Focus on corticotropin-releasing factor. Neuropsychopharmacology 6(2). [CBN]
Nichols, M. P. & Schwartz, R. C. (1991) Family therapy. Allyn & Bacon. [DGF]
Novak, M. A. (1979) Social recovery of monkeys isolated for the first year of life: 2. Long-term assessment. Developmental Psychology 15:5061. [aGWK]
Novak, M. A. & Harlow, H. F. (1975) Social recovery of monkeys isolated for the first year of life: 1. Rehabilitation and therapy. Developmental Psychology 11:453–65. [aGWK]
Numan, N. (1988) Maternal behavior. In: The physiology of reproduction, ed. Knobil, E. et al. Raven Press. [THS]
Oades, R. D. (1985) The role of noradrenaline in tuning and dopamine in switching between signals in the CNS. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Reviews 9:261–82. [aGWK]
O'Neill, P. (1988) Developing effective social and environment enrichment strategies for macaques in captive groups. Lab Animal May/June:2336. [aGWK]
Parker, G. (1979) Parental characteristics in relation to depressive disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 134:138–47. [DP]
Parker, G. (1990) The parental bonding instrument: A decade of research. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 25:281–82. [DP]
Pavlicevic, M., Duncan, J. & Trevarthen, C. (submitted) Improvisational music therapy and the rehabilitation of chronic schizophrenics. [CT]
Pavlicevic, M. & Trevarthen, C. (1989) A musical assessment of psychiatric states in adults. Psychopathology 22:325–34. [CT]
Pedersen, C. A. & Prange, A. J. Jr., (1979) Induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats after intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 76:6661–65. [TRI, THS]
russe, D., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C. & Eaves, L. J. (submitted) Human parental behavior: Evidence for genetic influence and implication for gene-culture transmission.
Petigrew, J. D. & Kasamatsu, T. (1978) Local perfusion of noradrenaline maintains visual cortical plasticity. Nature 271:761–63. [aGWK]
Piaget, J. (1963) The origins of intelligence in children. Norton. [rGWK]
Pipp, S.Harmon, R. J. (1987) Attachment as regulation: A commentary. Child Development 58:648–52. [aGWK]
Plomin, R. (1989) Environment and genes: Determinants of behavior. American Psychologist 44:105–11. [rGWK]
Plomin, R. & Daniels, D. (1987) Why are children in the same family so different from each other? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10:160. [JKK]
Prescott, J. W. (1971) Early somatosensory deprivation as an ontogenic process in the abnormal development of brain and behavior. Medical primatology: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates. Karger. [aGWK]
Raggenbass, M., Charpak, S., Dubois-Dauphin, M. & Dreifuss, J. J. (1988) Electrophysiological evidence for oxytocin receptors on neurones located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve in the rat brainstem. Journal of Receptor Research 8:273–82. [TRI]
Rajecki, D. W., Lamb, M. E. & Obmascher, P. (1978) Toward a general theory of infantile attachment: A comparative review of aspects of the social bond. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:417–64. [aGWK, LAE]
Ratner, A. M. (1976) Modification of ducklings filial behavior by aversive stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 2:266–84. [LAE]
Reite, M. (1987) Some additional influences shaping the development of behavior. Child Development 58:596600. [aGWK]
Reite, M. & Capatanio, J. P. (1985) On the nature of social separation and social attachment. In: The psychobiology of attachment and separation, ed. Reite, M. & Field, T.. Academic Press. [aGWK]
Reite, M., Kaemingk, K. & Boccia, M. L. (1989) Maternal separation in bonnet monkey infants: Altered attachment and social support. Child Development 60:473–80. [MLB]
Robertson, J. & Bowlby, J. (1952) Responses of young children to separation from their mothers. Courrier Centre Internationale d'Enfance 2:131–42. [aGWK]
Rolls, E. T. (1984) Neurons in the cortex of the temporal lobe and in the amygdala of the monkey with responses selective for faces. Human Neurobiology 3:209–22. [aGWK]
Rolls, E. T. (1991) A theory of emotion, and its application to understanding the neural basis of emotion. Cognition and Emotion 4:161–90. [aGWK]
Rosenblatt, J. S., Turkewitz, G. & Schneirla, T. C. (1961) Early socialization in the domestic cat as based on feeding and other relationships between female and young. In: Determinants of infant behaviour, ed. Foss, B. M.. Methuen. [EAS]
Rosenblum, L. A. (1982) The influence of the social and physical environment on mother-infant relations. Annali dell Istituto Superiore di Sanita 18:215–22. [aGWK]
Rosenblum, L. A. & Kaufman, I. C. (1968) Variations in infant development and response to maternal loss in monkeys. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 3:123–32. [MLB]
Rosenblum, L. A. & Paully, G. S. (1984) The effects of varying environmental demands on maternal and infant behavior. Child Development 55:305–14. [arGWK]
Rosenblum, L. A. & Plimpton, E. H. (1981) The infant's effort to cope with separation. In: The uncommon child, ed. Lewis, M. & Rosenblum, L. A.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Rutter, M. (1972) Maternal deprivation reassessed. Penguin Education. [aGWK]
Rutter, M. (1979a) Maternal deprivation, 1972–1978: New findings, new concepts, new approaches. Child Development 50:283305. [aGWK]
Rutter, M. (1979b) Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. In: Primary prevention of psychopathology, vol. 3: Social competence in children, ed. Kent, M. W. & Rolf, J. G.. University Press of New England. [aGWK]
Rutter, M. (1985) Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 147:598611. [rGWK]
Sackett, G. P. (1970) Unlearned responses, differential rearing experiences, and the development of social attachments in rhesus monkeys. In: Primate behavior: Developments infield and laboratory research, vol. 1. Academic Press. [arGWK]
Sackett, G. P. (1972) Isolation rearing in monkeys: Diffuse and specific effects on later behavior. In: Animal models of human behavior, ed. Chauvin, R.. Colloques Internationaux du C.N.R.S. [aGWK]
Sackett, G. P. (1982) Can single processes explain effects of postnatal influences on primate development? In: The development of attachment and affiliative systems, ed. Emde, R. N. & Harmon, R. J.. Plenum Press. [aGWK]
Sackett, G. P., Ruppenthal, G. C., Fahrenbruch, C. E., Holm, R. A. & Greenough, W. T. (1981) Genotype determines social isolation rearing effects in rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychology 17:313–18. [aGWK]
Salzen, E. A. (1962) Imprinting and fear. Symposium of the Zoological Society, London 8:199217. [EAS]
Salzen, E. A. (1967) Imprinting in birds and primates. Behaviour 28:232–54. [EAS]
Salzen, E. A. (1969) Contact and social attachment in domestic chicks. Behaviour 33:3851. [EAS]
Salzen, E. A. (1970) Imprinting and environmental learning. In: Development and evolution of behavior, ed. Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Lehrman, D. S. & Rosenblatt, J. S.. Freeman. [EAS]
Salzen, E. A. (1978) Social attachment and a sense of security - a review. Social Science Information 17:555627. [rGWK, EAS]
Salzen, E. A., Parker, D. M. & Williamson, A. J. (1975) A forebrain lesion preventing imprinting in domestic chicks. Experimental Brain Research 24:145–57. [EAS]
Salzen, E. A., Parker, D. M. & Williamson, A. J. (1978) Forebrain lesions and retention of imprinting in domestic chicks. Experimental Brain Research 31:107–16. [EAS]
Sapolsky, R. M. (1990) Stress in the wild. Scientific American 262:116–23. [aGWK]
Scanlan, J. S., Boccia, M. L., Laudenslager, M. L. & Broussard, C. (1990) Presence of social support affects behavioral and immunological response to maternal separation in infant bonnet macaques. American Journal of Primatology 20:230–31. [MLB]
Schneider, M. L. (1987) A rhesus monkey model of human individual differences. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin. [aGWK]
Schneider, M. L. (in press) Delayed object permanence development in prenatally stressed rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta). Occupational Therapy Journal of Research. [rGWK]
Schneider, M., Kraemer, G. W. & Suomi, S. J. (1991) The effects of vestibular proprioceptive stimulation on motor maturation and response to challenge in rhesus monkeys. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research 11:135–54. [aGWK]
Searle, J. R. (1990) Is the brain's mind a computer program? Scientific American 262:2631. [aGWK]
Seay, B., Alexander, B. K. & Harlow, H. F. (1964) Maternal behavior of socially deprived monkeys. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 69:345–54. [aGWK]
Servan-Schreiber, D., Printz, H. & Cohen, J. D. (1990) A network model of catecholamine effects: Gain, signal-to-noise ratio, and behavior. Science 249:892–95. [aGWK]
Seyfarth, R. M. & Cheney, D. L. (1988) Empirical tests of reciprocity theory: Problems in assessment. Ethology and Sociobiology 9:181–87. [aGWK]
Shapiro, L. E. & Insel, T. R. (1990a) Infant's response to social separation reflects adult differences in affiliative behavior: A comparative developmental study in prairie and montane voles. Developmental Psychobiology 23:375–94. [TRI]
Shapiro, L. E. & Insel, T. R. (1990b) Oxytocin receptor distribution reflects species-typical patterns of social behavior. Society for Neuroscience 16th Annual Meeting Abstract 186.6 [TRI]
Siegel, S. J., Hof, P. R., Young, W. G., Kraemer, G. W., McKinney, W. T. & Morrison, J. H. (1991) Effects of maternal deprivation on neuronal populations in hippocampus. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 17:895. [aGWK]
Sigman, M. & Mundy, P. (1989) Social attachments in autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 28:7481. [MS]
Singer, W., Tretter, F. & Yinon, W. (1982) Central gating of developmental plasticity in kitten visual cortex. Journal of Physiology 324:221–37. [CT]
Smith, C. (1985) Sleep states and learning: A review of the animal literature. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Reviews 9:157–68. [aGWK]
Soubrie, P. (1986) Reconciling the role of central serotonin neurons in human and animal behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:319–64. [aGWK]
Spitz, R. (1945) Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 1:5373. [rGWK]
Spitz, R. (1946) Anaclitic depression: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood, II: The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child 2:313–42. [aGWK]
Squire, L. R. (1986) Mechanisms of memory. Science 232:1612–19. [aGWK]
Squire, L. R. (1987) Memory and brain. Oxford University Press. [aGWK]
Sroufe, L. A. (1986) Bowlby's contribution to psychoanalytic theory and developmental psychology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 27:841–49. [aGWK]
Sroufe, L. A. & Fleeson, J. (1986) Attachment and the construction of relationships. In: The nature and development of relationships, ed. Hartup, W. W. & Rubin, Z.. Erlbaum. [DGF]
Sroufe, L. A. & Waters, E. (1977) Attachment as an organized construct. Child Development 48:1184–89. [aGWK]
Steklis, H. D. & Kling, A. (1985) Neurobiology of affiliative behavior in nonhuman primates. In: The psychobiology of attachment and separation, ed. Reite, M. & Field, T.. Academic Press. [aGWK]
Stern, D. N. (1985) The interpersonal world of the infant. Basic Books. [aGWK]
Stevenson-Hinde, J., Stillwell-Barnes, R. & Zunz, M. (1980) Subjective assessment of rhesus monkeys over successive years. Primates 21:6682. [JPC]
Stone, E. A. (1983) Problems with current catecholamine hypotheses of antidepressant agents: Speculations leading to a new hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:535–77. [aGWK]
Stone, E., Bonnet, K. & Hofer, M. A. (1976) Survival and development of maternally deprived rats: Role of body temperature. Psychosomatic Medicine 39:242–49. [aGWK]
Struble, R. G. & Riesen, A. H. (1978) Changes in cortical dendritic branching subsequent to partial social isolation in stumptail monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 11:479–86. [aGWK]
Suomi, S. J. (1991) Early stress and adult emotional reactivity in rhesus monkeys. In: The childhood environment and adult disease (CIBA Foundation Symposium 156), ed. Bock, G. R. & Whelan, J.. Wiley. [BJ]
Suomi, S. J. & Harlow, H. F. (1972) Social rehabilitation of isolate-reared monkeys. Developmental Psychology 6:453–65. [aGWK]
Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F. & Domek, C. J. (1970) Effect of repetitive infantinfant separation of young monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 76:161–72. [rGWK]
Suomi, S. J., Harlow, H. F. & Novak, M. A. (1974) Reversal of social deficits produced by isolation rearing in monkeys. Journal of Human Evolution 3:527–34. [aGWK]
Suomi, S. J. & Ripp, C. (1983) A history of motherless mother monkey mothering at the University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory. In: Child abuse: The nonhuman primate data, ed. Reite, M. & Caine, N.. Alan R. Liss. [JPC]
Svensson, T. H. (1987) Peripheral autonomic regulation of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons in brain: Putative implications for psychiatry and psychopharmacology. Psychopharmacology 92:17. [aGWK]
Swanson, L. W. (1977) Immunohistochemical evidence for a neurophysincontaining autonomic pathway arising in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Brain Research 128:346–53. [TRI]
Szentágothai, J. (1987) The brain-mind relation: A pseudoproblem? In: Mindwaves: Thoughts on intelligence, identity and consciousness, ed. Blakemore, C. & Greenfield, S.. Basil Blackwell. [aGWK]
Trevarthen, C. (1979) Communication and cooperation in early infancy. A description of primary intersubjectivity. In: Before speech: The beginning of human communication, ed. Bullowa, M.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [CT]
Trevarthen, C. (1984) Emotions in infancy: Regulators of contacts and relationships with persons. In: Approaches to emotion, ed. Scherer, K. & Ekman, P.. Erlbaum. [CT]
Trevarthen, C. (1985a) Facial expressions of emotion in mother-infant interaction. Human Neurobiology 4:2132. [CT]
Trevarthen, C. (1985b) Neuroembryology and the development of perceptual mechanisms. In: Human growth, 2nd ed., ed. Faulkner, F. & Tanner, J. M.. Plenum Press. [CT]
Trevarthen, C. (1989) Development of early social interactions and the affective regulations of brain growth. In: Neurobiology of early infant behaviour, ed. von Euler, C. & Forssberg, H.. (Wenner-Gren International Symposia Series). Macmillan. [CT]
Trevarthen, C. (1990) Growth and education of the hemispheres. In: Brain circuits and functions of the mind: Essays in honor of Roger W. Sperry, ed. Trevarthen, C.. Cambridge University Press. [CT]
Trevarthen, C. & Marwick, H. (1986) Signs of motivation for speech in infants, and the nature of a mother's support for development of language. In: Percursors of early speech, ed. Lindblom, B. & Zetterstrom, R.. Macmillan. [CT]
Tribollet, E., Audigier, S., Dubois-Dauphin, M. & Dreifuss, J. J. (1990) Gonadal steroids regulate oxytocin receptors but not vasopressin receptors in the brain of male and female rats. An autoradiographical study. Brain Research 511:129–40. [TRI]
Tribollet, E., Barberis, C., Jard, S., Dubois-Dauphin, M. & Dreifuss, J. J. (1988) Localization and pharmacological characterization of high affinity binding sites for vasopressin and oxytocin in the rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography. Brain Research 442:105–18. [TRI]
Turketwitz, G. (1988) A prenatal source for the development of hemispheric specialization. In: Brain lateralization in children: Developmental implications, ed. Molfese, D. & Segalowitz, S. J.. Guilford. [BJ]
Turner, C. H., Davenport, R. K. & Rogers, C. M. (1969) The effect of early deprivation on social behavior of adolescent chimpanzees. American Journal of Psychiatry 125:8590. [aGWK]
van Wimersma Greidanus, T. B., Kroodsma, J. M., Pot, M. L. H., Stevens, M. & Maigret, C. (1990) Neurohypophyseal hormones and excessive grooming behavior. European Journal of Pharmacology 187:18. [TRI]
Voorn, P. & Buijs, R. M. (1983) An immuno-electronmicroscopical study comparing vasopressin, oxytocin, substance P and enkephalin containing nerve terminals in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat. Brain Research 270:169–73. [TRI]
Vygotsky, L. S. (1987) Problems of general psychology. In: The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky, vol. 1, ed. Rieber, R. W. & Carton, A. S.. Plenum Press. [arGWK]
Waters, E., Wippman, J. & Sroufe, L. A. (1979) Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: Two studies in construct validation. Child Development 50:821–29. [MS]
Weiss, J. M. & Simson, P. G. (1986) Depression in an animal model: Focus on the locus coeruleus. CIBA Foundation symposium, 123: Antidepressants and receptor function. Wiley. [aGWK]
Werner, E. E. (1989a) Children of the garden island. Scientific Americ 260 (4):106–11. [rGWK]
Werner, E. E. (1989b) High risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 59(1):7281. [rGWK]
Williams, J., Carter, C. S. & Insel, T. R. (in press) Oxytocin induces pair bonding in a monogamous mammal. In: Oxytocin in maternal, sexual, and social behaviors, ed. C. Pederson, J. Caldwell, G. F. Jirikowski & T. R. Insel. New York Academy of Science Press. [TRI]
Wise, S. P. & Desimone, R. (1988) Behavioral neurophysiology: Insights into seeing and grasping. Science 242:736–41. [aGWK]
Witt, D. M. & Insel, T. R. (1991) A selective oxytocin antagonist attenuates progesterone facilitation of female sexual behavior. Endocrinology 128:3269–76. [TRI]


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed