Skip to main content Accessibility help

Implications of the “initial brain” concept for brain evolution in Cetacea

  • Ilya I. Glezer (a1), Myron S. Jacobs (a2) and Peter J. Morgane (a3)


We review the evidence for the concept of the “initial” or prototype brain. We outline four possible modes of brain evolution suggested by our new findings on the evolutionary status of the dolphin brain. The four modes involve various forms of deviation from and conformity to the hypothesized initial brain type. These include examples of conservative evolution, progressive evolution, and combinations of the two in which features of one or the other become dominant. The four types of neocortical organization in extant mammals may be the result of selective pressures on sensory/motor systems resulting in divergent patterns of brain phylogenesis. A modular “modification/multiplication” hypothesis is proposed as a mechanism of neocortical evolution in eutherians. Representative models of the initial ancestral group of mammals include not only extant basal Insectivora but also Chiroptera; we have found that dolphins and large whales have also retained many features of the archetypal or initial brain. This group evolved from the initial mammalian stock and returned to the aquatic environment some 50 million years ago. This unique experiment of nature shows the effects of radical changes in environment on brain-body adaptations and specializations. Although the dolphin brain has certain quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary changes seen in the higher terrestrial mammals, it has also retained many of the conservative structural features of the initial brain. Its neocortical organization is accordingly different, largely in a quantitative sense, from that of terrestrial models of the initial brain such as the hedgehog.



Hide All
Abbie, A. (1940) Cortical lamination in the Monotremata. Journal of Comparative Neurology 72: 429–67.
Abbie, A. (1942) Cortical lamination in a polyprotodont marsupial, Perameles nasuta. Journal of Comparative Neurology 76: 509–36.
Allman, J. (1982) Reconstructing the evolution of the brain in primates through the use of comparative neurophysiological and neuroanatomical data. In: Primate brain evolution, ed. Armstrong, E. & Falk, D.. Plenum.
Anderson, S. & Jones, J. K. (1967) Recent mammals of the world. Ronald Press.
Ariens Kappers, C. U., Huber, G. & Crosby, E. C. (1936) The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates, including man (Reprinted 1960). Hafner.
Armstrong, E., Zilles, K., Schlaug, G. & Schleicher, A. (1986) Comparative aspects of the primate posterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 253: 539–48.
Aronson, L. R. (1981) Evolution of telencephalic function in lower vertebrates. In: Brain mechanisms of behavior in lower vertebrates, ed. Laming, P.. Cambridge University Press.
Aronson, L. R. (1984) Levels of integration and organization: A reevaluation of the evolutionary scale. In: Behavioral evolution and integrative levels, ed. Greenberg, G. & Tobach, E.. Erlbaum.
Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Rosenblatt, J. S. & Lehrman, D. S. (1970) Development and evolution of behavior. W. H. Freeman.
Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Rosenblatt, J. S. & Lehrman, D. S. (1972) Selected writings of T. C. Schneirla. W. H. Freeman.
Atz, J. W. (1970) The application of the idea of homology to behavior. In: Development and evolution of behavior: Essays in memory of T. C. Schneirla, ed. Aronson, L. R., Tobach, E., Lehrman, D. S. & Rosenblatt, J. S.. W. H. Freeman.
Baker, J., Peterson, S. E., Newsome, W. T. & Allman, J. M. (1981) Visual response properties of neurons in four extrastriate visual areas of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus): A quantitative comparison of medial, dorsomedial, dorsolateral, and middle temporal areas. Journal of Neurophysiology 45: 397416.
Barnes, L. G., Domning, D. P. & Ray, C. E. (1985) Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1: 1553.
Barnes, L. G. & Mitchell, E. (1978) Cetacea. In: Evolution of African mammals, ed. Maglio, V. J. & Cooke, H. B. S.. Harvard University Press.
Bauchot, R. (1978) Encephalization in vertebrates. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 15: 118.
Bauchot, R. & Stephan, H. (1968) Etudes des modifications encéphaliques observées chez les insectivores adaptes à la recherche de nourriture en milieu aquatique. Mammalia 32: 228–75.
Beauregard, D. H. (1883) Recherches sur l'encéphale des Balaenides. Journal d'Anatomie Physiologique 19: 481516.
Benevento, L. A. & Rezak, M. (1976) The cortical projections of the inferior pulvinar and adjacent lateral pulvinar in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): An autoradiographic study. Brain Research 108: 124.
Blinkov, S. M. & Glezer, I. I. (1968) The human brain in figures and tables. A quantitative handbook. (Leningrad: Izolatelstvo Medicina) Basic Books and Plenum.
Bonin, G. von (1938) The cerebral cortex of the cebus monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology 69(2): 181227.
Bonin, G. von (1939) Studies of the size of the cells in the cerebral cortex. III. The striate area of man, orang and cebus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 70: 395412.
Braak, H. (1980) Architectonics of the human telencephalon. Springer.
Breathnach, A. S. (1953) The olfactory tubercle, prepyriform cortex and precommisural region of the porpoise (Phocaena phocoena). Journal of Anatomy, London 87: 96113.
Breathnach, A. S. (1960) The cetacean central nervous system. Biological Reviews 35: 187230.
Brockhaus, H. (1940) Die Cyto- und Myeloarchitektonik des Cortex claustralis und des Claustrum beim Menschen. Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie 40: 249348.
Brodmann, K. (1906) Beitrage zur histologische Lokalization de Groszhirnrinde. Funfte Mitteilung: Uber der allgemeinen Bauplan des Cortex pallii bei den Mammaliern und Zwei homologe Rindenfelder im besonderen. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Furchenlehre. Journal für Psychologic und Neurologie 6:(Suppl.) 275400.
Brodmann, K. (1909) Vergleichende Lokalizationslehre der Crosshirnrinde. Barth.
Bugbee, N. M. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1983) Columnar organization of cortico-cortical projection in squirrel and rhesus monkeys: Similarity of column width in species differing in cortical volume. Journal of Comparative Neurology 220: 335–64.
Campbell, A. W. (1905) Histological studies on the localization of cerebral function. Cambridge University Press.
Campbell, C. B. G. (1976) What animals should we compare? In: Evolution, brain, and behavior: Persistent problems, ed. Masterton, R. B., Hodos, W. & Jerison, H.. Erlbaum.
Campbell, C. B. G., Jane, J. A. & Yashon, D. (1967) The retinal projections of the tree shrew and hedgehog. Brain Research 5: 406–18.
Carlson, M. (1985) The significance of single or multiple cortical areas for tactile discrimination in primates. In: Hand function and the neocortex, ed. Goodwin, A. W. & Darian-Smith, I.. Springer.
Carlson, M., Heurta, M. F., Cusick, C. G. & Kaas, J. H. (1986) Studies on the evolution of multiple somatosensory representations in primates: The organization of anterior parietal cortex in the New World Callitrichid, Saguinus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 46: 409–26.
Carlson, M. & Nystrom, P. (1986) Significance of topography in primary somatic sensory cortex (SI) for tactile discrimination capacity in Old and New World primates. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 12: 386.2.
Carlson, M. & Welt, C. (1981) Somatic sensory cortex (SmI) in prosimian primates. In: Cortical sensory organization, ed. Woolsey, C. N.. Humana Press.
Clark, W. E. L., ed. (1959) The antecedents of man. Quadrangle Books.
Clemo, H. R. & Stein, B. E. (1982) Somatosensory cortex: A “new” somatotopic representation. Brain Research 235: 162–68.
Clemo, H. R. & Stein, B. E. (1986) Effects of cooling somatosensory cortex on response properties of tactile cells in the superior colliculus. Journal of Neurophysiology 55: 1352–68.
Cousteau, J. & Diole, P. (1975) Dolphins. Doubleday.
Diamond, I. T. (1979) The subdivisions of neocortex: A proposal to revise the traditional view of sensory, motor, and association areas. In: Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology, vol. 8, ed. Sprague, J. M. & Epstein, A. N.. Academic Press.
Diamond, I. T. & Hall, W. C. (1969) Evolution of neocortex. Science 164: 251–62.
Dillon, L. S. (1973) Evolution: Concepts and consequences. C. V. Mosby.
Dubois, E. (1914) Die gesetmassigen Beziehungen von Gehirnmasse zur Korpergrosse. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 18: 323–50.
Ebbesson, S. O. E. (1980a) The parcellation theory and its relation to interspecific variability in brain organization, evolutionary and ontogenetic development, and neuronal plasticity. Cell and Tissue Research 213: 179212.
Ebbesson, S. O. E. ed. (1980b) Comparative neurology of the telencephalon. Plenum.
Ebbesson, S. O. E. (1984) Evolution and ontogeny of neural circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7: 321–66.
Ebner, F. (1969) A comparison of primitive forebrain organization in metatherian and eutherian mammals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 167: 241–57.
Economo, C. von & Koskinas, G. N. (1925) Die Cytoarchitektonik der Hirnrinde des envachsenen Menschen. Springer.
Edinger, L. (1909) Einführung in die Lehre vom Bau und den Verrichtungen des Nervensystems. Verlag F.C.W.Vogel.
Edinger, T. (1955) Hearing and smell in cetacean history. Monatsfshrift fuer Psychiatrie und Neurologie 129: 3758.
Edinger, L. (1975) Paleoneurology 1804–1966. In: Advances in anatomy, embryology and cell biology, ed. Brodal, A., Hild, W., Limborgh, J. van, Ortman, R., Schiebler, T. H., Töndúry, G. & Wolff, E.. Springer.
Eisenberg, J. F. (1981) The mammalian radiations. University of Chicago Press.
Eisenberg, J. F. & Golani, I. (1977) Communication in Metatheria. In: How animals communicate, ed. Sebeok, T.. Indiana University Press.
Eisenberg, J. F. & Wilson, D. (1978) Relative brain size and feeding strategies in the Chiroptera. Evolution 32: 740–51.
Elliot Smith, G. (1910) Some problems relating to the evolution of the brain. Lancet 1: 16; 147–55; 221–27.
Falk, D. (1980) Hominid brain evolution: The approach from paleoneurology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 23: 93107.
Filimonoff, I. N. (1949) Comparative anatomy of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Medicina.
Filimonoff, I. N. (1965) On so-called rhinencephalon in dolphin. Journal für Hirnforschung 8:123.
Filimonoff, I. N. (1967) Homologies of cerebral formations in mammals and reptiles. Journal für Hirnforschung 7: 229–51.
Flechsig, P. (1920) Anatomie des menschlichen Cehirns und Ruckenmarks auf myelogenetischer Crundlage, vol. 1. Verlag.
Flechsig, P. (1927) Meine myelogenetische Hirnlehre. Springer.
Fox, J. H. & Wilczynski, W. (1986) Allometry of major CNS divisions: Towards a reevaluation of somatic brain-body scaling. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 28: 157–69.
Frahm, H. D., Stephan, H. & Stephan, M. (1982) Comparison of brain structure volumes in Insectivora and Primates. I: Neocortex. Journal für Hirnforschung 23: 375–89.
Garey, L. J. & Leuba, G. (1986) A quantitative study of neuronal and glial numerical density in the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin: Evidence for a specialized subarea and changes with age. Journal of Comparative Neurology 247: 491–96.
Garey, L. J., Winkelmann, E. & Brauer, K. (1985) Golgi and Nissl studies of the visual cortex of the bottlenose dolphin. Journal of Comparative Neurology 240: 305–21.
Gaskin, D. E. (1982) The ecology of whales and dolphins. Heinemann.
Gegenbaur, C. (1898) Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere Erster Band. Verlag Engelmann.
Gerebtzoff, M. A. & Goffart, M. (1966) Cytoarchitectonic study of the isocortex in the sloth (Choloepus hoffmani Peters). Journal of Comparative Neurology 126: 523–34.
Geschwind, N. (1965) Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man. Brain 88: 237–94.
Gibson, K. R. (1981) Comparative neuro-ontogeny: Its implications for the development of human intelligence. In: Infancy and epistemology, ed. Butterworth, G.. Harvester Press.
Gibson, K. R. (1986) Cognition, brain size and the extraction of embedded food resources. In: Primate ontogeny, cognitive and social behavior, ed. Else, J. G. & Lee, P. C.. Cambridge University Press.
Gibson, K. R. (in press) Brain size and the evolution of language. In: Language origins, ed. Landsberg, M.. Mouton Press.
Gilbert, C. D. & Wiesel, T. N. (1983) Clustered intrinsic connections in the cat visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 3: 1116–33.
Gingerich, P. D., Wells, N. A., Russell, D. & Shah, S. M. I. (1983) Origin of whales in epicontinental remnant seas: New evidence from the early Eocene of Pakistan. Science 220: 403–6.
Glezer, I. I., Jacobs, M. S. & Morgane, P. J. (1985) The so-called “initial” type of neocortex in relation to cetacean brain organization. In: Abstracts of the 15th annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience 11: 1308.
Glezer, I. I., Jacobs, M. S. & Morgane, P. J. (1987) Ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier in the dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Brain Research 414: 205–18.
Glezer, I. I. & Morgane, P. J. (1988) Ultrastructural features of synapses in the neocortex of the lateral gyrus (visual area) of the dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Neuroscience, in press.
Golani, I. (1976) Mechanisms of motor homeostasis in mammalian display. In: Perspectives in ethology, vol. 2, ed. Klopfer, P. & Bateson, P. P. G..
Goldman, P. S. & Nauta, W. J. H. (1977) Columnar distribution of eorticocortical fibers in the frontal association, limbic, and motor cortex of the developing rhesus monkey. Brain Research 122: 393413.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. & Schwartz, M. L. (1982) Interdigitation of contralateral and ipsilateral columnar projections to frontal association cortex in primates. Science 216: 755–57.
Goodman, M. (1975) Protein sequence and immunological specificity. In: Phylogeny of the primates. A multidisciplinary approach, ed. Luckett, W. P. & Szalay, F. S.. Plenum.
Gould, S. J. (1977) Ontogeny and phytogeny. Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.
Gould, S. J. & Eldredge, N. (1977) Punctuated equilibria: The tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: 115–51.
Greenberg, G. & Tobach, E. (1984) Behavioral evolution and integrative levels. Erlbaum.
Griffiths, M. (1978) The biology of monotremes. Academic Press.
Hall, W. C. & Diamond, I. T. (1968) Organization and function of the visual cortex in the hedgehog (Parts 1 & 2). Brain Behavior and Evolution 1: 181243.
Harvey, P. & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1985) Life history variables in primates. Evolution 39: 559–81.
Haug, H. (1970) Der makroskopische Aufbau des Grosshirns. Qualitative und quantitative Untersuchungen an den Gehimen des Menschen, der Delphinoideae und des Elefanten. Ergebn. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch. 43: 770.
Haug, H. (1987) Brain sizes, surfaces and neuronal sizes of the cortex cerebri. A stereological investigation of man and his variability and a comparison with some mammals (primates, whales, marsupialia, insectivores, and one elephant). American Journal of Anatomy 180: 126–42.
Herman, L. M., Richards, D. G. & Wolz, J. P. (1984) Comprehension of sentences by bottlenosed dolphins. Cognition 6: 129219.
Herman, L. M. & Tavolga, W. (1980) The communication systems of cetaceans. In: Cetacean behavior: Mechanisms and functions, ed. Herman, L.. John Wiley.
Herrick, C. J. (1920) A sketch of the origin of the cerebral hemispheres. Journal of Comparative Neurology 32: 429–54.
Herrick, C. J. (1924) An introduction to neurology. W. B. Saunders.
Hodos, W. & Campbell, C. B. G. (1969) Scala naturae: Why there is no theory in comparative psychology. Psychological Reviews 76: 337–50.
Hofman, M. A., Lean, A. C. & Uylings, H. B. M. (1986) Bivariate linear models in neurobiology: Problems of concept and methodology. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 18: 103–14.
Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. (1962) Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex. Journal of Physiology (London) 160: 106–54.
Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. (1965) Receptive fields, and functional architecture in two non-striate visual areas (18 and 19) of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 28: 229–89.
Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. (1974) Sequence regularity and geometry of orientation columns in the monkey striate cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 158: 421–50.
Humphrey, T. (1966) The development of the human hippocampal formation correlated with some aspects of its phylogenetic history. In: The evolution of the forebrain, ed. Hassler, R. & Stephan, H.. Thieme Verlag.
Hyman, L. H. (1962) Comparative vertebrate anatomy. University of Chicago Press.
Innocenti, G. M. (1984) On evolution by loss of exuberancy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7: 340–41.
Innocenti, G. M. (in press) Loss of axonal projections in the development of the mammalian brain. In: The making of the nervous system, ed. Parnavelas, J., Stern, C. D. & Stirling, R. V.. Oxford University Press.
Jacob, C. (1911) Vom Tierhirn zum Menschenhirn. Lehmann-Verlag.
Jacobs, M. S., Galaburda, A. M., McFarland, W. L. & Morgane, P. J. (1984) The insular formations of the dolphin brain. Quantitative cytoarchitectonic studies of the insular component of the limbic lobe. Journal of Comparative Neurology 225: 396432.
Jacobs, M. S., McFarland, W. L. & Morgane, J. P. (1979) The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Rhinic lobe (rhinencephalon): 2. The arehicortex. Brain Research Bulletin 4 (Suppl. q): 1108.
Jacobs, M. S., Morgane, P. J. & McFarland, W. L. (1971) The anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Rhinic lobe (rhinencephalon): I. The paleocortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology 141: 205–72.
Jakob, H. (1979) Die Picksche Krankheit. Springer.
Jansen, J. & Jansen, J. K. S. (1969) The nervous system of cetacea. In: The biology of marine mammals, ed. Andersen, H. T.. Academic Press.
Jerison, H. (1963) Interpreting the evolution of the brain. Human Biology 35: 263–91.
Jerison, H. (1973) Evolution of the brain and intelligence. Academic Press.
Jerison, H. (1975) Fossil evidence of the evolution ot the human brain. Annual Review of Anthropology 4: 2758.
Jerison, H. (1976) Principles of the evolution of the brain and behavior. In: Evolution, brain and behavior: Persistent problems, ed. Masterton, R. B., Hodes, W. & Jerison, H.. Wiley.
Jerison, H. (1978) Brain and intelligence in whales. In: Whales and whaling, vol. 2. Australian Government Publications Service.
Jerison, H. (1979) The evolution of diversity in brain size. In: Development and evolution, ed. Hahn, M., Jensen, C. & Dudek, B..
Jerison, H. (1982) Allometry, brain size, cortical surface, and convolutcdness. In: Primate brain evolution: Methods and concepts, ed. Armstrong, E. & Falk, D.. Plenum.
Johnson, J. I. (1977) The central nervous system of marsupials. In: The biology of marsupials, ed. Hunsaker, D.. Academic Press.
Johnson, J. I. (1980) Morphological correlates of specialized elaborations in somatic sensory neocortex. In: Comparative neurology of the telencephalon, ed. Ebbesson, S. O. E.. Plenum Press.
Johnston, J. B. (1911) The telencephalon of selachians. Journal of Comparative Neurology 21: 1113.
Jolicoeur, P., Pirlot, P., Baron, G. & Stephan, H. (1984) Brain structure and correlation patterns in Insectivora, Chiroptera, and Primates. Systematic Zoology 33: 1429.
Kaas, J. H. (1980) A comparative survey of visual cortex organization in mammals. In: Comparative neurology of the telencephalon, ed. Ebbesson, S. O. E.. Plenum.
Kaas, J. H. (1987a) The organization of the neocortex in mammals: Implications for theories of brain function. Annual Review of Psychology 38: 129–51.
Kaas, J. H. (1987b) The organization and evolution of neocortex. In: Higher brain functions, ed. Wise, S. P.. Wiley.
Kaas, J. H., Hall, W. C. & Diamond, I. T. (1970) Cortical visual areas I and II in the hedgehog: Relation between evoked potential maps and architectonic subdivisions. Journal of Neurophysiology 33: 595615.
Kahle, W. (1969) Die Entwicklung der menschlichen Crosshirn hemisphare. Springer.
Kato, N., Kawaguchi, S. & Miyata, H. (1984) Geniculocortical projection to layer I of area 17 in kittens: Orthograde and retrograde HRP studies. Journal of Comparative Neurology 225: 441–47.
Kato, N., Kawaguchi, S. & Miyata, H. (1986) Postnatal development of afferent projections to the lateral suprasylvian visual area in the cat: An HRP study. Journal of Comparative Neurology 225: 543–54.
Katz, M. J., Lasek, R. J. & Silver, J. (1983) Ontophyletics of the nervous system: Development of the corpus callosum and evolution of axon tracts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 80: 5936–40.
Kellog, W. N. (1961) Porpoises and sonar. University of Chicago Press.
Kesarev, V. S. (1970) Brain structure in dolphin and man. Ideen des exakten Wissens 7: 391–98.
Kesarev, V. S. (1971) The inferior brain of the dolphin. Soviet Science Review 1: 5258.
Kesarev, V. S. (1975) Homologization of the cerebral neocortex in cetaceans. Arkhiv Anatomii, Cistologii i Embriologii 68: 513.
Kesarev, V. S. & Malofeeva, L. I. (1969) Structural organization of the dolphin motor cortex. Journal of Neuroscience (translation) 12: 3339.
Kesarev, V. S. & Malofeeva, L. I. (1970) Structural organization of the dolphin motor cortex. Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii i Embriologii 56: 4855.
Kesarev, V. S., Malofeeva, L. I. & Trikova, O. V. (1977) Structural organization of the cerebral neocortex in cetaceans. Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii i Embriologii 73: 2330.
Kipling, R. (1910) Just-so Stories. The works of' Rudyard Kipling, vol. 20. Scribner's.
Kirsch, J. A. W. & Johnson, J. I. (1983) Phylogeny through brain traits: Trees generated by neural characters. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 22: 6069.
Kirsch, J. A. W., Johnson, J. I. & Switzer, R. C. (1983) Phylogeny through brain traits: The mammalian family tree. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 22: 7074.
Klüver, H. (1933) Behavioral mechanisms in monkeys. University of Chicago Press.
Koehler, O. (1952) Vom unbenannten Denken Zoologischer Anzeiger. Suppl. 16: 202–11.
Kononova, E. P. (1962) The frontal region of the brain. Medicina.
Kostovic, I. & Rakic, P. (1980) Cytology and time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. Journal of Neurocytology 9: 219–42.
Kotchetkova, V. I. (1960) L'Evolution des regions specifiquement humaines de I'écorce cérébrale chez les Hominidés. Proceedings, Sixth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Paris 1: 623–30.
Kruger, L. (1959) The thalamus of the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in comparison with other mammals. Journal of Comparative Neurology 111: 133–94.
Krushinsky, L. V. (1988) Experimental studies of elementary reasoning (2nd edition). English edition edited posthumously by Semiokhina, A. F. & Tobach, E.. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing.
Kükenthal, W. & Ziehen, T. (1889) Das Centralnervensystem der Cetaceen. Gustav Fischer.
Ladygina, T. F., Mass, A. M. & Supin, A. Y. (1978) Multiple sensory projections in the dolphin cerebral cortex. Zh. Vssh. Nerv. Deiat. 28: 1047–54.
Ladygina, T. F. & Supin, A. Y. (1974) Evolution of cortical areas of the brain in terrestrial and aquatic mammals. In: Morphology, physiology and acoustics of marine mammals. Nauka.
Laemle, L., Benhamida, C. & Purpura, D. P. (1972) Laminar distribution of geniculo-cortical afferents in visual cortex of the postnatal kitten. Brain Research 41: 2537.
Lang, T. G. & Smith, H. A. P. (1965) Communication between dolphins in separate tanks by way of an electronic acoustic link. Science 150: 1839–44.
Langworthy, O. R. (1931) Factors determining the differentiation of the cerebral cortex in sea-living mammals (the Cetacea). Brain 54: 225–36.
Langworthy, O. R. (1932) A description of the central nervous system of the porpoise (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Comparative Neurology 54: 437–99.
Lashley, K. S. & Clark, G. (1946) The cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex of Ateles: A critical examination of architectonic studies. Journal of Comparative Neurology 85: 223305.
Laursen, L. & Bekoff, M. (1978) Loxodonta africana. Mammalian Species 92: 18.
Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1932) The brain of the Insectivora. Proceedings of the Zoological Society (London) 102: 9751013.
Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1934) Early forerunners of man. Bailliere, Tyndall & Cox.
Le Gros Clark, W. E. (1965) The fossil evidence for human evolution. University of Chicago Press.
Lende, R. A. (1969) A comparative approach to the neocortex: Localization in monotremes, marsupials, and insectivores. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 167: 262–76.
Lilly, J. C. (1967) The mind of the dolphin. Doubleday.
Lorente de Nó, R. (1934) Studies on the structure of the cerebral cortex. II. Continuation of the study of the ammonic system. Journal of Psychology and Neurology 46: 113–77.
Lorente de Nó, R. (1949) The structure of the cerebral cortex. In: Physiology of the nervous system, 3rd edition, ed. Fulton, J. F.. Oxford University Press.
Luria, A. R. (1980) Higher cortical functions in man. Basic Books.
Luskin, M. B. & Shatz, C. J. (1984) Spatio-temporal relations between cells of layers 4 & 6 and their geniculocortical afferent input during development. Society for Neurosdence Abstracts 10: 1079.
Luskin, M. B. & Shatz, C. J. (1985) Studies of the earliest generated cells of the cat's visual cortex: Cogeneration of subplate and marginal zones. Journal of Neuroscience 5: 1062–75.
MacLean, D. (1978) Why brain research on lizards? In: Behavior and neurobiology of lizards, ed. Greenberg, N. & MacLean, P. D.. U.S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare, National Institute of Mental Health.
MacLean, P. D. (1978) The evolution of three mentalities. In: Human evolution, ed. Washburn, S. L. & , E. R.McCown.
Martin, R. D. (1973) Comparative anatomy and primate systematics. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 33: 301–37.
Maunsell, J. H. R. & Newsome, W. T. (1987) Visual processing in monkey extrastriate cortex. Annual Review of Neurosdence 10: 363401.
Mayr, E. (1966) Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press.
McFarland, W. L., Morgane, P. J. & Jacobs, M. S. (1969) Ventricular system of the brain of the dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, with comparative anatomical observations and relations to brain specializations. Journal of Comparative Neurology 135: 275368.
McKenna, M. C. (1975) Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia. In: Phylogeny of the primates. A multidisciplinary approach, ed. Luckett, W. P. & Szalay, F. S.. Plenum.
Meulders, M., Gybels, J., Bergmans, J., Gerebtzoff, M. A. & Goffart, M. (1966) Sensory projections of somatic, auditory and visual origin to the cerebral cortex of the sloth (Choloepus hoffmani Peters). Journal of Comparative Neurology 126: 535–46.
Miyamoto, M. & Goodman, M. (1986) Biomolecular systematics of eutherian mammals: Phylogenetic patterns and classification. Systematic Zoology 35: 230–40.
Monastra, G. (1986) De la physique à la biologie: Les nouveaux paradigmes. Nouvelle Ecole, Editions du Labyrinthe 43: 7383.
Monod, J. (1970) Le hasard et la nécessité. Edition du Seuil.
Moody, P. A. (1962) Introduction to evolution. Harper & Row.
Morgane, P. J., Glezer, I. I. & Jacobs, M. S. (in press) The lateral gyrus (visual cortex) of the dolphin: An image analysis study. Journal of Comparative Neurology.
Morgane, P. J., Glezer, I. I. & Jacobs, M. S. (1988) Comparative and evolutionary anatomy of visual cortex of the dolphin. In: Cerebral cortex, vol. 8 Evolution and comparative anatomy of cerebral cortex, Jones, E. G. & Peters, A. (eds.) Plenum Press, in press.
Morgane, P. J. & Jacobs, M. S. (1972) The comparative anatomy of the cetacean nervous system. In: Functional anatomy of marine mammals, ed. Harrison, R. J.. Academic Press.
Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S. & Galaburda, A. M. (1985) Conservative features of neocortical evolution in the dolphin brain. Brain Behavior and Evolution 26: 176–84.
Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S. & Galaburda, A. M. (1986a) Evolutionary aspects of cortical organization in the dolphin brain. In: Research on dolphins, ed. Bryden, M. & Harrison, R. J.. Oxford University Press.
Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S. & Galaburda, A. M. (1986b) Evolutionary morphology of the dolphin brain. In: Dolphin cognition & behavior: A comparative approach, ed. Sehusterman, R., Wood, F. & Thomas, J.. Erlbaum.
Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S. & McFarland, W. L. (1980) Anatomy of the brain of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Surface configuration of the telencephalon of the bottlenose dolphin with comparative anatomical observations in four other cetacean species. Brain Research Bulletin 5: (Suppl. 3): 1107.
Morgane, P. J., Jacobs, M. S. & McFarland, W. L. (1982) The limbic lobe of the dolphin brain: A quantitative cytoarchitectonic study. Journal für Hirnforschung 23: 465552.
Mountcastle, V. B. (1957) Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of the cat's somatic sensory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 20: 408–34.
Mountcastle, V. B. (1975) The view from within: Pathways to the study of perception. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 136: 109–31.
Mountcastle, V. B. (1978) An organizing principle for cerebral function: The unit module and the distributed system. In: The mindful brain, ed. Edelmann, G. M. & Mountcastle, V. P.. M.I.T. Press.
Mucke, L., Norita, M., Benedek, G. & Creutzfeldt, O. (1982) Physiologic and anatomic investigation of a visual cortical area situated in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus of the cat. Experimental Brain Research 46: 111.
Napier, J. & Napier, P. (1967) A handbook of the living primates. Academic Press.
Neafsey, E. J., Hurley-Gius, K. M. & Arvanitis, D. (1986) The topographical organization of neurons in the rat medial frontal, insular and olfactory cortex projecting to the solitary nucleus, olfactory bulb, periaqueductal gray and superior colliculus. Brain Research 377: 261–70.
Needham, J. (1937) Integrative levels: A reevaluation of the idea of progress. Clarendon Press.
Nelson, J. E. & Stephan, H. (1982) Encephalisation in Australian marsupials. In: Carnivorous marsupials, vol. 2, ed. Archer, M.. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Nieuwenhuys, R. (1985) Chemoarchitecture of the brain. Springer-Verlag.
Northcutt, R. G. (1981) Evolution of the telencephalon in nonmammals. Annual Review of Neuroscience 4: 301–50.
Northcutt, R. G. (1984) Evolution of the vertebrate central nervous system: Patterns and processes. American Zoologist 24: 701–16.
Northcutt, R. G. (1986) Brain phylogeny: Speculations on patterns and cause. In: Comparative neurobiology: Modes of communication in the nervous system, ed. Cohen, M. J. & Strumwasser, F.. John Wiley.
Norris, K. S. (ed.) (1966) Whales, dolphins and porpoises. University of California Press.
Novikoff, A. B. (1945) The concept of integrative levels and biology. Science 101: 209–15.
Ogasawara, K., McHaffie, J. G. & Stein, B. E. (1984) Two visual corticotectal systems in cat. Journal of Neurophysiology 52: 1228–45.
Ohno, S. (1970) Evolution by gene duplication. Springer-Verlag.
Olson, C. R. & Graybiel, A. M. A. (1981) A visual area in the anterior ectosylvian sulcus of the cat. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 7: 831.
Palmer, L. A., Rosenquist, A. C. & Tusa, R. J. (1978) The retinotopic organization of lateral suprasylvian visual areas in the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology 177: 237–56.
Pandya, D. N., Seltzer, B. & Barbas, H. (1988) Input-output organization of the primate cerebral cortex. In: Neurosciences, ed. Steklis, H. D. & Erwin, J.. Alan R. Liss.
Parker, S. T. & Gibson, K. R. (1977) Object manipulation, tool use and sensorimotor intelligence as feeding adaptations in Cebus monkeys and great apes. Journal of Human Evolution 6: 623–41.
Parker, S. T. & Gibson, K. R. (1979) A developmental model for the evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2: 367408.
Passingham, R. E. (1975) Changes in the size and organization of the brain in man and his ancestors. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 11: 7390.
Passingham, R. E. (1975) The brain and intelligence. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 11: 115.
Passingham, R. E. (1985) Rates of brain development in mammals including man. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 26: 167–75.
Passingham, R. E. & Ettingler, G. (1974) A comparison of cortical functions in man and the other primates. International Review of Neurobiology 16: 233–99.
Pettigrew, J. D. (1986) Flying primates? Megabats have the advanced pathway from eye to midbrain. Science 231: 1304–6.
Pilbeam, D. & Gould, S. J. (1974) Size and scaling in human evolution. Science 186: 892901.
Pirlot, P. (1986) Understanding of Texa by comparing brains. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 29: 499509.
Pirlot, P. (1987) Contemporary brain morphology in ecological and ethological perspectives. Journal für Uirnforschung 28: 145211.
Pirlot, P. & Jolicoeur, P. (1982) Correlations between major brain regions in Chiroptera. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 20: 172–81.
Poliakov, G. I. (1953) On the fine structural characteristics of the human cerebral cortex and on interneuronal functional interaction. Arh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol. 30(5): 4860. In Russian.
Poliakov, G. I. (1955) On structural mechanisms of interneuronal connections in human cerebral cortex. Arh. Anat. Gistol. Embriol. 32(2): 1519.
Poliakov, G. I. (1958) Some characteristics of neuronal structure complexity in the cerebral cortex of man, monkey and other mammals. Soviet Anthropology 2: 6985.
Poliakov, G. I. (1958a) Some special features of the increasing complexity of the neuronal structure of the cerebral cortex in man, monkeys and other mammals. Soviet Anthropology 4: 6979.
Poliakov, G. I. (1964) Development of cortical systems in vertebrate evolution. Journal für Hirnforschung 7: 253–73.
Popper, K. R. & Eccles, J. C. (1981) The self and its brain. Springer International.
Preobrasjenskaja, N. S., Kesarev, W. S., Stankevitsch, I. A. & Minaewa, V. M. (1973) Morphologische Gesetzmassigkeiten der Evolution des Grosshirns. Zeitschrift für Mikroskopische und Anatomische Forschung 87: 490504.
Pribram, K. H. (1971) What makes man human. American Museum of Natural History.
Radinsky, L. B. (1975) Primate brain evolution. American Scientist 63: 656–63.
Ramón y Cajal, S. (19091911) Histologie du système nerveux de l'homme et des veriébrés, vol. 1 & 2. Norbert Maloine.
Ramón-Moliner, E. (1962) An attempt at classifying nerve cells on the basis of their dendritic patterns. Journal of Comparative Neurology 119: 211–27.
Ramón-Moliner, E. & Nauta, W. J. H. (1966) The isodendritic core of the brain stem. Journal of Comparative Neurology 126: 311–36.
Rehkämper, G. (1981) Vergleichende Architektonik des Neocortex der Insectivora. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 19: 233–63.
Rehkämper, G., Stephan, H. & Poduschka, W. (1986) The brain of Ceogale aurita Milne-Edwards and Grandidier 1872. Journal für Hirnforschung 27: 391–99.
Reid, R. G. B. (1985) Evolutionary theory: The unfinished synthesis. Cornell University Press.
Ridgway, S. H. & Brownson, R. H. (1984) Relative brain sizes and cortical surface areas in odontocetes. Acta Zoologica Fennica 172: 149–52.
Riese, W. (1925) Formprobleme des Gehirns. II. Über die Hirnrinde der Wale. Journal für Psychologie und Neurologic 31: 275–80.
Riese, W. (1927) Konvergenzerscheinungen am Gehirn, nebst Bemerkungen zu der Arbeit von Rose: 'Der Grundplan der Cortextektonik beim Delphin. Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie 33: 8496.
Robinson, J. (1987) Demography and group structure in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus). Manuscript.
Rockel, A. J., Hiorns, R. W. & Powell, T. P. S. (1980) The basic uniformity in structure in neocortex. Brain 103: 221–44.
Roland, R. E. (1984) Metabolic measurements of the working frontal cortex in man. Trends in Neuroscience 7: 430–35.
Romer, A. S. (1966) Vertebrate paleontology. University of Chicago Press.
Rose, M. (1926) Der Grundplan der Cortextektonik beim Delphin. Journal für Psychologie und Neurologie 32: 161–69.
Rose, M. (1935) Anatomie des Grosshims. In: Handbuch der neurologie, ed. Bumke, O. & Foerster, O.. Springer Verlag.
Rosenkilde, C. F. (1979) Functional heterogeneity of the prefrontal cortex in the monkey: A review. Behavioral Neural Biology 25: 301–45.
Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L. (1986) PDP models and general issues in cognitive science. In: Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Vol. 1: Foundations, ed. Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L.. MIT Press.
Sanides, D. & Sanides, F. (1974) A comparative Golgi study of the neocortex in insectivores and rodents. Zeitschrift für Mikroskopische und Anatomische Forschung 88:957–77.
Sanides, F. (1969) Comparative architectonics of the neocortex of mammals and their evolutionary interpretation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 167: 404–23.
Sanides, F. (1970) Functional architecture of motor and sensory cortices in primates in the light of a new concept of neocortex evolution. In: Advances in primatology, ed. Noback, C. R. & Montagna, W.. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Sanides, F. (1971) Evolutionary aspects of the primate neocortex. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Primatology (Zurich) 1:92–8.
Sanides, F. (1972) Representation in the cerebral cortex and its areal lamination patterns. In: The structure and function of nervous tissue, ed. Bourne, G. H.. Academic Press.
Sanides, F. (1975) Comparative neurology of the temporal lobe in primates including man with reference to speech. Brain and Language 2: 396419.
Sanides, F. & Sanides, D. (1972) The “extraverted neurons” of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Zeitschrift für Anatomie und Entwiklunggeschichte 136:272–93.
Saraiva, P. E. S. & Magalhaes-Castro, B. (1975) Sensory and motor representation in the cerebral cortex of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus). Brain Research 90:181–93.
Savage, R. J. G. (1976) Review of Early Sirenia. Systematic Zoologist 25:344–51.
Sawaguchi, T. & Kubota, K. (1986) A hypothesis on the primate neocortex evolution: Column-multiplication hypothesis. International Journal of Neuroscience 30:5764.
Schoch, R. M. (1986) Phylogeny: Reconstruction in paleontology. Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Schultz, A. H. (1969) The life of primates. Universe Books.
Severtsov, A. (1939) Morphological principles of evolution. Nauka.
Shellshear, J. L. (1929) A study of the arteries of the brain of the spiny anteater (Echidna aculeata) to illustrate the principles of arterial distribution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (Series B). 218:136.
Shkol'nik-Yarros, E. G. (1971) Neurons and interneuronal connections of the central visual system (translated by Haigh, B.). Plenum.
Shoshani, J. (1986) Mammalian phylogeny: Comparison of morphological and molecular results. Molecular Biology & Evolution 3:222–42.
Shoshani, J. & Eisenberg, J. F. (1982) Elephas maximus. Mammalian Species 182:1–8.
Shoshani, J. et al. (1982) On the dissection of a female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus Linnaeus, 1758) and data from other elephants. Elephant 2(1):393.
Shyan, M. R. & Herman, L. M. (1987) Determinants of recognition of gestural signs in an artificial language by Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology 101:112–25.
Simpson, G. G. (1945) The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 85:1350.
Simpson, G. G. (1949) The meaning of evolution. Yale University Press.
Simpson, G. G. (1953) The major features of evolution. Columbia University Press.
Sokolov, V. Y., Ladygina, T. F. & Supin, A. Y. (1972) Localization of sensory zones in the dolphin's cerebral cortex. Dokladi Akademii Nauk, USSR Ser. Biol. 200:490–93.
Somogyi, P. (1977) A specific axo-axonal interneuron in the visual cortex of the rat. Brain Research 136:345–50.
Somogyi, P. (1978) The study of Golgi stained cells and of experimental degeneration under the electron microscope: A direct method for the identification in the visual cortex of three successive links in a neuron chain. Neuroscience 3:167–80.
Somogyi, P., Hodgson, A. J. & Smith, A. D. (1979) An approach to tracing neuron networks in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Combination of Golgi staining, retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase and anterograde degeneration of synaptic boutons in the same material. Neuroscience 4:1805–52.
Spatz, H. (1937) Uber die Bedeutung der basalen Rinde auf Grund von Beobachtungen bei Pickscher Krankheit und bei gedeckten Hirnverletzungen. Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie 158:202–32.
Spemann, H. (1936) Experimented Beiträge zu einer Therorie der Entwicklung. Springer-Verlag.
Sperry, R. W. (1963) Chemoaffinity in the orderly growth of nerve fiber patterns and connections. Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Science 50:703–10.
Spemann, H. (1983) Science and moral priority. Basil Blackwell.
Stark, D. (1978) Vergleichende Anatomie der Wiurbeltiere, auf evolutionsbiologischer Grundlage. Band 1. Springer.
Stein, B. E. & Gaither, N. S. (1981) Sensory representation in reptilian optic tectum: Some comparisons with mammals. Journal of Comparative Neurology 202:6987.
Stein, B. E. & Gaither, N. S. (1983) Receptive-field properties in reptilian optic tectum: Some comparisons with mammals. Journal of Neurophysiology 50:102–24.
Stephan, H. (1967) Zur Entwiklungshohe der Insektivoren nach Merkmalen des Gehirns und die Definition der “Basalen Insectivoren.” Zoologische Anxeiger 179:177–99.
Stein, B. E. & Gaither, N. S. (1969) Quantitative investigations on visual structures in primate brains. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Primatology 3:3242.
Stein, B. E. & Gaither, N. S. (1972) Evolution of primate brains: A comparative anatomical investigation. In: Functional and evolutionary biology of primates, ed. Tuttle, R.. Aldine-Atherton.
Stein, B. E. & Gaither, N. S. (1975) Allocortex. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen (VI/9), ed. Bargmann, W.. Springer.
Stephan, H. & Andy, O. J. (1969) Quantitative comparative neuroanatomy of primates: An attempt at a phylogenetic interpretation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 167:370–87.
Stephan, H., Bauchot, R. & Andy, O. J. (1970a) The allocortex in primates. In: The primate brain: Advances in primatology, vol. 1, ed. Noback, C. & Montagna, W.. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Stephan, H., Bauchot, R. & Andy, O. J. (1970b) Data on the size of the brain and of various brain parts in insectivores and primates. In: The primate brain: Advances in primatology, vol. 1, ed. Noback, C. & Montagna, W.. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Stephan, H., Frahm, H. & Baron, G. von (1981) New and revised data on volumes of brain structures in insectivores and primates. Folia primatologica 35:129.
Stephan, H., Frahm, H. & Baron, G. von (1987) Brains of vespertilionids. I. Subfamily characteristics. Zeitschrifi für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 25:67–80.
Stephan, H., Frahm, H. D., Stephan, M. & Baron, G. von (1987) Brains of vespertilionids. Il. Vespertilioninae with special reference to Tylonycteris. Zeitschrifi für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 25:147–57.
Stephan, H., Nelson, J. E. & Frahm, H. D. (1981) Brain size comparison in chiroptera. Zeitschrifi für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 19:195222.
Supin, A. Y., Mukhametov, L. M., Ladygina, T. F., Popov, V. V., Mass, A. M. & Poliakova, I. G. (1978) Neurophysiologic characteristics of the cerebral cortex in dolphins. In: Electrophysiological study of the dolphin brain. Nauka.
Swanson, L. W. (1981) A direct projection from Ammon's horn to prefrontal cortex in the rat. Brain Research 217:150–54.
Szentágothai, J. (1973) Synaptology of the visual cortex. In: Handbook of sensory physiology; central processing of visual information; Part B, Visual centers in the brain, ed.Jung, R.. Springer.
Szentágothai, J. (1974) A structural overview. In: Conceptual models of neural organization, ed. Szentagothai, J. & Arbib, M.. Neuroscience Research Program Bulletin 12:354410.
Szentágothai, J. (1975) The “module concept” in cerebral cortex architecture. Brain Research 95:475–96.
Terreberry, R. R. & Neafsey, E. J. (1983) Rat medial frontal cortex: A visceral motor area with a direct projection to the solitary nucleus. Brain Research 278:245–59.
Tobach, E. (1987) Integrative levels in the comparative psychology of cognition, language and consciousness. In: Cognition, language and consciousness. 2nd T. C. Schneirla Conference, ed. Greenberg, G. & Tobach, E.. Erlbaum.
Ulinski, P. S. (1986) Neurobiology of the therapsid-mammal transition. In: The ecology and biology of mammal-like reptiles, ed. Hotton, N., MacLean, P. D., Roth, J. J. & Roth, E.. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Valverde, F. (1971) Short axon neuronal subsystems in the visual cortex of the monkey. International Journal of Neuroscience 1:181–97.
Valverde, F. (1983) A comparative approach to neocortical organization based on the study of the brain of the hedgehog. In: Ramon y Cajal's contribution to the neurosciences, ed. Grisiola, S., Guerri, C., Samson, F., Norton, S. & Reinoso-Suarez, F.. Elsevier.
Valverde, F. (1986) Intrinsic neocortical organization: Some comparative aspects. Neuroscience 18:123.
Valverde, F., De Carlos, J. A., López-Mascaraque, L. & Donate-Oliver, F. (1986) Neocortical layers I & II of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). II. Thalamocortical connections. Anatomy and Embryology 175:167–79.
Valverde, F. & Facal-Valverde, M. V. (1986) Neocortical layers I and II of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Anatomy and Embryology 173:413–30.
Valverde, F. & Facal-Valverde, M. V. (1987) Transitory population of cells in the temporal cortex of kittens. Developmental Brain Research 32:283–88.
Valverde, F. & López-Mascaraque, L. (1981) Neocortical endeavor: Basic neuronal organization in the cortex of the hedgehog. Eleventh International Congress of Anatomy, Glial and Neuronal Cell Biology. Alan R. Liss.
Van der Kooy, D., McGinty, J. F., Koda, L. Y., Gerfen, C. R. & Bloom, F. E. (1982) Visceral cortex: A direct connection from prefrontal cortex to the solitary nucleus in rat. Neurosdence Letters 33:123–27.
Van der Loos, H. & Welker, E. (1985) Development and plasticity of somatosensory brain maps. In: Development, organization and processing in somatosensory pathways. Alan R. Liss.
Van Valen, L. (1966) Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132:1126.
Vaughn, T. A. (1972) Mammalogy. W. B. Saunders.
Visalberghi, E. & Antinucci, F. (1986) Tool use in the exploitation of food resources in Cebus apella. In: Primate ecology and conservation, vol. 2, ed. Else, J. C. & Lee, P. C.. Cambridge University Press.
Vogt, C. & Vogt, O. (1919) Allgemeinere Ergebnisse unserer Hirnforschung. Journal of Psychological Neurology 25:279461.
Walker, E. P. (1968) Mammals of the world, 2nd ed.Johns Hopkins Press.
Walsh, T. M. & Ebner, F. F. (1970) The cytoarchitecture of somatic sensory-motor cortex in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis virginiana), a Golgi study. Journal of Anatomy 107:118.
Warren, S. & Carlson, M. (1986) Topography of primary somatic sensory cortex (SI) in Old World primates, Cercopithecus and Miopithecus. Society for Neurosdence Abstracts 12:386.1
Welker, W., Johnson, J. I. & Reep, R. L. (1986) Morphology and cytoarchitecture of the brains of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus). Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 12:110.
Werner, L., Hedlich, A. & Winkelmann, E. (1985) Neuronentypen im visuellen Kortex der Ratte, identifiziert in Nissl- und deimpragnierten Golgi-Praparaten. Journal für Hirnforschung 26:173–86.
Werner, L., Wilke, A., Blodner, R., Winkelmann, E. & Brauer, K. (1982) Topographical distribution of neuronal types in the albino rat's area 17. A qualitative and quantitative Nissl study. Zeitschrifi für Mikroskopisch-Anatomische Forschung 96:433–53.
West-Eberhard, M. J. (1986) Alternative adaptations, speciations and phylogeny (a review). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 83:1388–92.
Westergaard, G. C. & Fragaszy, D. (1987) The manufacture and use of tools by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology 101:159–68.
Wirz, K. (1950) Studien ueber die Cerebralisation: Zur quantitative Bestimmung der Rangordnung bei Saeugetieren. Acta Anatomica 9:134–96.
Wise, S. P. (1985) The primate premotor cortex: Past, present, and preparatory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:119.
Wong-Riley, M. T. (1979) Columnar cortico-cortical interconnections within the visual system of the squirrel and macaque monkeys. Brain Research 162:201–17.
Wood, F. G. & Evans, W. E. (1980) Adaptiveness and ecology of echolocation in toothed whales. In: Animal sonar systems, ed. Busnel, R. & Fish, J.. Plenum.
Woolsey, C. N. (1981) Cortical sensory organization: Multiple somatic areas. Humana Press.
Woolsey, T. A. & Van der Loos, H. (1970) The structural organization of layer IV in the somatosensory region (SI) of the mouse cerebral cortex. The description of a cortical field composed of discrete cytoarchitectonic units. Brain Research 17:205–42.
Wursig, B. & Wursig, M. (1979) Behavior and ecology of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in the South Atlantic. Fishery Bulletin 77:399412.
Yablokov, A. V. (1965) Convergence or parallelism in the evolution of cetaceans. International Geology Review 7:1461–68.
Zeki, S. M. (1978) The third visual complex of rhesus monkey prestriate cortex. Journal of Psychology 277:245–72.
Zilles, K., Armstrong, E., Schlaug, G. & Schleicher, A. (1986) Quantitative cytoarchitectonics of the posterior cingulate cortex in primates. Journal of Comparative Neurology 253:514–24.
Zilles, K., Stephan, H. & Schleicher, A. (1982) Quantitative cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortices of several prosimian species. In: Primate brain evolution: Methods and concepts, ed. Armstrong, E. & Falk, D.. Plenum.
Zvorykin, V. P. (1971) Quantitative and cytoarchitectonic characteristics of the systems of truncal auditory and visual formations in the bat, dolphin and man, and biological significance of the analyzers. Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii i Embriologii 60:5062.
Zvorykin, V. P. (1977) Principles of structural organization of the cetacean neocortex. Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii i Embriologii 72:522.
Zvorykin, V. P. (1980) The new criteria for solving the origin problem of Cetacea and Pinnipedia. Zoologitcheskii Zhournal 50:598608.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Implications of the “initial brain” concept for brain evolution in Cetacea

  • Ilya I. Glezer (a1), Myron S. Jacobs (a2) and Peter J. Morgane (a3)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.