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Hallucinations and mental imagery demonstrate top-down effects on visual perception

  • Piers D. L. Howe (a1) and Olivia L. Carter (a1)


In this commentary, we present two examples where perception is not only influenced by, but also in fact driven by, top-down effects: hallucinations and mental imagery. Crucially, both examples avoid all six of the potential confounds that Firestone & Scholl (F&S) raised as arguments against previous studies claiming to demonstrate the influence of top-down effects on perception.



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Hallucinations and mental imagery demonstrate top-down effects on visual perception

  • Piers D. L. Howe (a1) and Olivia L. Carter (a1)


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