Skip to main content Accessibility help

Ecologically structured information: The power of pictures and other effective data presentations

  • Wolfgang Gaissmaier (a1), Nils Straubinger (a1) and David C. Funder (a1) (a2)


The general principle behind the effects of nested sets on the use of base rates, we believe, is that the mind is prepared to take in “ecologically structured information.” Without any need to assume two cognitive systems, this principle explains how the proper use of base rates can be facilitated and also accounts for occasions when base rates are overused.



Hide All
Chase, W. G. & Simon, H. A. (1973) Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4:5581.
Edwards, W. (1968) Conservatism in human information processing. In: Formal representation of human judgment, ed. Kleinmutz, B., pp. 1752. Wiley.
Funder, D. C. (1995) Stereotypes, base rates, and the fundamental attribution mistake: A content-based approach to judgmental accuracy. In: Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences, ed. Jussim, L., Lee, Y-T. & McCauley, C., pp. 141–56. American Psychological Association.
Funder, D. C. (1996) Base rates, stereotypes, and judgmental accuracy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19:2223.
Gaissmaier, W., Schooler, L. J. & Rieskamp, J. (2006) Simple predictions fueled by capacity limitations: When are they successful? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 32:966–82.
Gigerenzer, G. & Hoffrage, U. (1995) How to improve Bayesian reasoning without instruction: Frequency formats. Psychological Review 102:684704.
Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. & the ABC research group (1999) Simple heuristics that make us smart. Oxford University Press.
Larkin, J. H. & Simon, H. A. (1987) Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words. Cognitive Science 11:6599.
Pinker, S. (1990) A theory of graph comprehension. In: Artificial intelligence and the future of testing, ed. Freedle, R., pp. 73126. Erlbaum.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed