Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The consequences of group selection in a domain without genetic input: Culture

  • C. Loring Brace (a1)

Abstract

  • An abstract is not available for this content so a preview has been provided below. Please use the Get access link above for information on how to access this content.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alexander, R. D. (1979) Darwinism and human affairs. University of Washington Press. [aDSW, KM]
Alexander, R. D. (1985) A biological interpretation of moral systems. Zygon 20:320. [JM]
Alexander, R. D. (1988) Knowledge, intent and morality in Darwin's world. Quarterly Review of Biology 63:441–43. [aDSW]
Alexander, R. D. (1989) Evolution of the human psyche. In: The human revolution, ed. Mellars, P. & Stringer, C.. Princeton University Press. [aDSW, JM]
Alexander, R. D. (1992) Biological considerations in the analysis of morality. In: Evolutionary ethics, ed. Nitecki, M. H. & Nitecki, D. V.. State University of New York Press. [aDSW, RHF]
Alexander, R. D. & Borgia, G. (1978) Group selection, altruism and the levels of organization of life. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:449–75. [aDSW]
Allee, W. C. (1943) Where angels fear to tread: A contribution from general sociology to human ethics. Science 97:517–25. [aDSW, RD]
Allison, S. T. & Messick, D. M. (1987) From individual inputs to group outputs, and back again: Group presses and inferences about members. In: Croup processes, ed. Hendrick, C., Sage. [aDSW]
Aoki, K. (1982) A condition for group selection prevails over individual selection. Evolution 36:832–42. [aDSW]
Aoki, K. (1983) A quantitative genetic model of reciprocal altruism: A condition for kin or group selection to prevail. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80:4065–68. [aDSW]
Archer, J. (1991) Human sociobiology: Basic concepts and limitations. Journal of Social Issues 47:1126. [aDSW]
Arnold, S. J. & Wade, M. J. (1984a) On the measurement of natural and sexual selection: Theory. Evolution 38:709–18. [CJG]
Arnold, S. J. & Wade, M. J. (1984b) On the measurement of natural and sexual selection: Applications. Evolution 38:720–34. [CJG]
Aviles, L. (1986) Sex-ratio bias and possible group selection in the social spider Anelosimus eximius. American Naturalist 128:112. [aDSW]
Aviles, L. (1993) lnterdemic selection and the sex ratio: A social spider perspective. American Naturalist 142:320–45. [aDSW]
Axelrod, R. (1980a) Effective choices in the prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution 24:325. [aDSW]
Axelrod, R. (1980b) More effective choices in the prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Conflict Resolution 24:379403. [aDSW]
Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W. D. (1981) The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390–96. [aDSW]
Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1992) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press. [arDSW]
Batson, C. D. (1991) The altruism question: Toward a social-psychological answer. Erlbaum. [aDSW]
Bell, G. (1978) Group selection in structured populations. American Naturalist 112:389–99. [aDSW]
Bellis, M. A. & Baker, R. R. (1990) Do females promote sperm competition? Data for humans. Animal Behavior 40(5):997–99. [GFM]
Bercovitch, F. B. (1988) Coalitions, cooperation and reproductive tactics among adult male baboons. Animal Behaviour 36:11981209. [JM]
Betzig, L. (1986) Despotism and differential reproduction: A Darwinian view of history. Aldine. [GFM, KM]
Betzig, L. (1992) Roman polygýny. Ethology and Sociobiology 13:309–51. [KM]
Boehm, C. (1981) Parasitic selection and group selection: A study of conflict interference in rhesus and Japanese macaque monkeys. In: Primate behavior and sociobiology, ed. Chiarelli, A. B. & Corruccini, R. S.. Springer-Verlag. [aDSW]
Boehm, C. (1993) Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34:227–54. [JM]
Boehm, C. (1994) Cultural selection mechanics in human groups. Current Anthropology. In press. [rDSW]
Boorman, S. A. & Levitt, P. R. (1973) Group selection on the boundary of a stable population. Theoretical Population Biology 4:85128. [aDSW]
Boorman, S. A. & Levitt, P. R. (1980) The genetics of altruism. Academic Press. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Lorberbaum, J. (1987) No pure strategy is evolutionarily stable in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Nature 327:5859. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1980) Effect of phenotypic variation on kin selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 77:7506–9. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1982) Cultural transmission and the evolution of cooperative behavior. Human Ecology 10:325–51. [aDSW, EAS]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1985) Culture and the evolutionary process. University of Chicago Press. [arDSW, DTC, EAS]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1988) The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology 132:337–56. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1989) The evolution of indirect reciprocity. Social Networks 11:213–36. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1990a) Culture and cooperation. In: Beyond self-interest, ed: Mansbridge, J. J.. University of Chicago Press. [aDSW]
Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1990b) Group selection among alternative evolutionarily stable strategies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 145:331–42. [arDSW]
Brace, C. L. (1963) Structural reduction in evolution. American Naturalist 97:3949. [CLB]
Brace, C. L. (1964) The fate of the “classic” Neanderthals: A consideration of hominid catastrophism. Current Anthropology 5:343. [CLB]
Brace, C. L. (1979) Biological parameters and Pleistocene hominid life-ways. In: Primate ecology and human origins: Ecological influences on social organization, ed. Bernstein, I. S. & Smith, C. O.. Garland Press. [CLB]
Brace, C. L. (1991) The stages of human evolution, 4th ed.Prentice-Hall. [CLB]
Brace, C. L. (in press) Modern human origins and the dynamics of regional continuity. In: Prehistoric mongoloid dispersals symposium, ed. Akazawa, T. & Szathmary, E.. Oxford University Press. [CLB]
Brace, C. L., Smith, S. L. & Hunt, K. D. (1991) What big teeth you had Grandma! Human tooth size past and present. In: Advances in dental anthropology, ed. Kelley, M. A. & Larsen, C. S.. Wiley-Liss. [CLB]
Brandon, R. N. (1978) Adaptation and evolutionary theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 9:181206. [KEH]
Brandon, R. N. (1990) Organism and environment. Princeton University Press. [aDSW, KEH]
Brandon, R. N. & Burian, R. M., eds. (1984) Genes, organisms, populations: Controversies over the units of selection. MIT Press. [DLH]
Bratman, M. (1993) Shared intention. Ethics 104:97113. [MG]
Braver, S. & Bamett, B. (1976) Effects of modelling on cooperation in a prisoner's dilemma game. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33:161–69. [LAD]
Breden, F. J. & Wade, M. J. (1989) Selection within and between kin groups of the imported willow leaf beetle. American Naturalist 134:3550. [aDSW]
Burghardt, G. M. (1973) Instinct and innate behavior: Toward an ethological psychology. In: The study of behavior: Learning, motivation, emotion, and instinct, ed. Nevin, J. A.. Scott, , Foresman, . [GMB]
Burghardt, G. M., ed. (1985) Foundations of comparative ethology. Benchmark Papers in Behavior Series. Van Nostrand Reinhold. [GMB]
Buss, L. W. (1987) The evolution of individuality. Princeton University Press. [arDSW, AH]
Camazine, S. (1991) Self-organizing pattern formation on the combs of honey bee colonies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:6176. [aDSW]
Camazine, S. & Sneyd, J. (1991) A model of collective nectar source selection by honey bees: Self organization through simple rules. Journal of Theoretical Biology 149:547–71. [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1958) Common fate, similarity, and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities. Behavioral Science 3:1425. [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1974) “Downward causation” in hierarchically organized biological systems. In: Studies in the philosophy of biology, ed. Ayala, F. J. & Dobzhansky, T.Macmillan, . [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1975) On the conflicts between biological and social Evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist 30:1103–26. [CDB, DTC]
Campbell, D. T. (1979) Comments on the sociobiology of ethics and moralizing. Behavioral Science 24:3745. [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1983) The two distinct routes beyond kin selection to ultra-sociality: Implications for the humanities and social sciences. In: The nature of prosocial development: Interdisciplinary theories and strategies, ed. Bridgeman, D. L.. Academic Press. [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1991) A naturalistic theory of archaic moral orders. Zygon 26:91114. [aDSW]
Campbell, D. T. (1994) How individual and face-to-face-group selection undermine firm selection in organizational evolution. In: Evolutionary dynamics of organizations, ed. Baum, J. A. C. & Singh, J. V.. Oxford University Press. [aDSW, MB, EAS]
Caporael, L. R., Dawes, R. M., Orbell, J. M. & Van de Kragt, A. J. C. (1989) Selfishness examined: Cooperation in the absence pf egoistic incentives. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:683739. [aDSW, MEH]
Cartwright, N. (1989) Nature's capacities and their measurement. Oxford University Press. [JD]
Cassidy, J. (1978) Philosophical aspects of the group selection controversy. Philosophy of Science 45:574–94. [aDSW]
Cavalli-Sforza, L. & Feldman, M. (1978) Darwinian selection and altruism. Theoretical Population Biology 14:268–80. [aDSW, EAL]
Chagnon, N. A. (1975) Genealogy, solidarity, and relatédncss: Limits to local group size and patterns of fissioning in an expanding population. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 19:95110. [LC]
Chagnon, N. A. (1979) Is reproductive success equal in egalitarian societies? In: Evolutionary biology and human social behavior: An anthropological perspective, ed. Chagnon, N. A. & Irons, W.. Duxbury Press. [LC]
Chagnon, N. A. (1992) Yanomamo (4th ed.). Jovanovich, Harcourt Brace. [LC]
Chao, L. & Levin, B. (1981) Structured habitats and the evolution of anti competitor toxins in bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 78:6324–28. [aDSW]
Charlesworth, B. (1979) A note on the evolution of altruism in structured domes. American Naturalist 113:601–5. [aDSW]
Charlesworth, B. & Toro, M. A. (1982) Female-biased sex ratios. Nature 298:494. [aDSW]
Charnov, E. L. (1982) The theory of sex allocation. Princeton University Press. [arDSW]
Chepko-Sade, B. D., Dow, M. M. & Cheverud, J. M. (1988) Croup selection models with population substructure based on social interaction networks. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77:427–33. [aDSW]
Cloak, F. T. Jr (1986) The causal logic of natural selection: A general theory. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 3:132–86. [FTC]
Cohen, D. & Eshel, I. (1976) On the founder effect and the evolution of altruistic traits. Theoretical Population Biology 10:276302. [aDSW]
Colwell, R. K. (1981) Group selection is implicated in the evolution of femalebaised sex ratios. Nature 290:401–4. [arDSW]
Connor, R. C., Smolker, R. A. & Richards, A. F. (1992) Dolphin coalitions. In: Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals, ed. de Waal, F. B. M. & Harcourt, A. H.. Oxford University Press. [JM]
Cook, R. C. (1954) The North American Hutterites: A study in human multiplication. Population Bulletin 10:97107. [aDSW]
Cosmides, L. M. & Tooby, J. (1981) Cytoplasmic inheritance and intragenomic conflict. Journal of Theoretical Biology 89:83129. [aDSW]
Cosmides, L. M. & Tooby, J. (1987) From evolution to behavior: Evolutionary psychology as the missing link. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupré, J.. MIT Press. [aDSW, PEC]
Craig, D. M. (1982) Group selection versus individual selection: An experimental analysis. Evolution 36:271–82. [aDSW]
Crespi, B. J. & Bookstcin, F. L. (1989) A path-analytic model for the measurement of selection on morphology. Evolution 43:1828. [CJG]
Crespi, B. J. & Taylor, P. D. (1990) Dispersal rates under variable patch selection. American Naturalist 135:4862. [aDSW]
Cronin, H. (1991) The ant and the peacock: Altruism and sexual selection from Darwin to today. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW, KEH, EAL]
Cronk, L. C. (1990) Gethenian nature, human nature, and the nature of reproduction: A fantastic flight through ethnographic hyperspaee. Paper presented at The Fantastic Imagination and New Critical Theories: An Interdisciplinary Literature Conference, College Station, TX, March. [LC]
Crow, J. F. (1955) General theory of population genetics: Synthesis. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 20:5459. [JFC]
Crow, J. F. (1979) Genes that violate Mendel's rules. Scientific American 240:104–13. [aDSW]
Crow, J. F. & Aoki, K. (1982) Group selection for a polygenic behavioral trait: A differential proliferation model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 79:2628–31. [aDSW]
Crow, J. F. & Aoki, K. (1984) Group selection for a polygenic behavioral trait: Estimating the degree of population subdivision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 81:6073–77. [aDSW, JFC]
Crozier, R. H. (1987) Selection, adaption and evolution. Journal and Proceedings. Royal Society of New South Wales 120:2137. [aDSW]
Crozier, R. H. & Consul, P. C. (1976) Conditions for genetic polymorphism in social Hymenoptera under selection at the colony level. Theoretical Population Biology 10:19. [aDSW]
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1983) Sex, evolution and behavior, 2d ed.Willard Grant Press. [JAS]
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1988) Homicide. Aldine de Gruyter. [aDSW]
Damuth, J. (1985) Selection among “species”: A formulation in terms of natural functional units. Evolution 39:1132–46. [aDSW]
Damuth, J. & Heisler, I. L. (1988) Alternative formulations of multilevel selection. Biology and Philosophy 3:407–30. [aDSW, CJG]
Darwin, C. (1871) The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex. Murray. [aDSW, JM]
Dawes, R. M., Van de Kragt, A. J. C. & Orbell, J. M. (1988) Not me or thee but we: The importance of group identity in eliciting cooperation in dilemma situations: Experimental manipulations. Acta Psychologica 68:8397. [aDSW]
Dawkins, R. (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press. [aDSW, AH, DLH, KEH, EAS, NST]
Dawkins, R. (1978) Replicator selection and the extended phenotype. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 47:6176. [aDSW]
Dawkins, R. (1980) Good strategy or evolutionary stable strategy? In: Sociobiology: Beyond nature/nurture?, ed. Barlow, G. W. & Silverberg, J.. Westview Press. [aDSW]
Dawkins, R. (1982a) The extended phenotype: The gene as the unit of selection. Oxford University Press. [arDSW, RD, PEG, DLH, EAS, NST]
Dawkins, R. (1982b) Replicators and vehicles. Current problems in sociobiology, King's College Sociobiology Group. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW, DLH]
Dawkins, R. (1989) The selfish gene. 2d ed.Oxford University Press. [arDSW]
Dawkins, R. & Goodwin, B. (in press) What is an organism? In: Perspectives in ethology XI: Natural design in behavior, ed. Thompson, N.. Plenum. [NST]
Deneubourg, J. L. & Goss, S. (1989) Collective patterns and decision-making. Ethological and Ecological Evolution 1:295311. [aDSW]
Dennett, D. C. (1981) Brainstorms. MIT press. [aDSW]
Dennett, D. C. (1992) Confusion over evolution: An exchange. New York Review of Books 40:44. [aDSW]
de Waal, F. B. M. (1982) Chimpanzee politics. Harper & Row. [JM]
Dover, G. A. (1986) Molecular drive in multigene families: How biological novelties arise, spread, and are assimilated. Trends in Genetics 2:159–65. [aDSW]
Driver, P. M. & Humphries, N. (1988) Protean behavior: The biology of unpredictability. Oxford University Press. [GFM]
Dugatkin, L. A. (1990) N-person games and the evolution of cooperation: A model based on predator inspection behavior in fish. Journal of Theoretical Biology 142:123–35. [aDSW]
Dugatkin, L. A.(1992) The evolution of the con artist. Ethology and Sociobiology 13:318. [LAD]
Dugatkin, L. A., Mesterton-Gibbons, M. & Houston, A. I. (1992) Beyond the prisoner's dilemma: Towards models to discriminate among mechanisms of cooperation in nature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 7:202–5. [aDSW]
Dugatkin, L. A. & Reeve, H. K. (1994) Behavioral ecology and levels of selection: Dissolving the group selection controversy. Advances in the Study of Behavior 23:101–33. [aDSW, HRH]
Dugatkin, L. A. & Wilson, D. S. (1991) Rover: A strategy for exploiting cooperators in a patchy environment. American Naturalist 138:687701. [aDSW]
Dupré, J. (1993) The disorder of things: Metaphysical foundations of the disunity of science. Harvard University Press. [JD]
Dupré, J. & Cartwright, N. (1988) Probabilistic causality: Why Hume and indeterminism don't mix. Nous 22:521–36. [JD]
Durham, W. H. (1991) Coevolution: Genes, culture and human diversity. Stanford University Press. [aDSW]
Eberhard, W. G. (1990) Evolution of bacterial plasmids and levels of selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 65:322. [aDSW]
Eells, E. & Sober, E. (1983) Probabilistic causality and the question of transitivity. Philosophy of Science 50:3557. [JD]
Ehrenpreis, A. (1650/1978) An Epistle on brotherly community as the highest command of love. In: Brotherly community: The highest command of love, ed. Friedmann, R.. Plough Publishing. [aDSW]
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1982) Warfare, man's indoctrinability and group selection. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie 60:177–98. [aDSW]
Eldredge, N. & Grene, M. (1992) Interactions: The biological context of social systems. Columbia University Press. [DLH]
Elster, J. (1983) Explaining technical change: A case study in the philosophy of science. Cambridge University Press. [EAS]
Emerson, A. E. (1942) Basic comparisons of human and insect societies. Biological Symposia 8:163–76. [JFC]
Emerson, A. E. (1952) The superorganismic aspects of the society. Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 34:333–53. [JFC]
Emerson, A. E. (1960) The evolution of adaptation in population systems. In: Evolution after Darwin, ed. Tax, S.. University of Chicago Press. [aDSW, GMB, RD]
Eshel, I. (1972) On the neighbor effect and the evolution of altruistic traits. Theoretical Population Biology 3:258–77. [aDSW]
Eshel, I. (1977) On the founder effect and the evolution of altruistic traits: An ecogenetical approach. Theoretical Population Biology 11:410–24. [aDSW]
Eshel, I. & Montro, U. (1988) The three brothers’ problem: Kin selection with more than one potential helper: The case of delayed help. American Naturalist 132:567–75. [aDSW]
Ewald, P. W. (1993) Adaptation and disease. Oxford University Press. [aDSW]
Fagen, R. M. (1980) When doves conspire: Evolution on nondamaging fighting tactics in a nonrandom-encounter animal conflict model. American Naturalist 115:858–69. [aDSW]
Falconer, D. S. (1981) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 2d ed.London: Longman. [arDSW]
Felbinger, C. (1560/1978) Confession of faith. In: Brotherly community: The highest command of love, ed. Friedmann, R.. Plough Publishing. [aDSW]
Feldman, M. & Thomas, E. (1987) Behavior-dependent contexts for repeated plays of the prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Theoretical Biology 128:297315. [aDSW]
Findlay, C. S. (1992) Phenotypic evolution under gene-culture transmission in structured populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 156:387400. [arDSW]
Fisher, R. A. (1930/1958) The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford University Press. Revised ed. 1958. Dover Publications. [JFC]
Fix, A. G. (1985) Evolution of altruism in kin-structured and random subdivided populations. Evolution 39:928–39. [aDSW]
Frank, R. H. (1988) Passions within reason: The strategic role of the emotions. Norton, W. W.. [arDSW, CDB, RHF]
Frank, R. H., Cilovich, T. & Regan, D. T. (1993) The evolution of one-shot cooperation. Ethology and Sociobiology 14:247–56. [RHF]
Frank, S. A. (1986a) Dispersal polymorphisms in subdivided populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 122:303–9. [aDSW]
Frank, S. A. (1986b) Hierarchical selection theory and sex ratios: I. General solutions for structured populations. Theoretical Population Biology 29:312–42. [aDSW]
Frank, S. A. (1987) Demography and sex ratio in social spiders. Evolution 41:1267–81. [aDSW]
Franks, N. R. (1989) Army ants: A collective intelligence. American Scientist 77:139–45. [aDSW]
Cadgil, M. (1975) Evolution of social behavior through interpopulational selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72:11991201. [aDSW]
Gafen, A. (1984) Natural selection, kin selection and group selection. In: Behavioral ecology: An evolutionary approach, ed. Krebs, J. & Davies, N.. Blackwell Scientific. [HRH]
Gamble, C. (1986) The Paleolithic settlement of Europe: Cambridge University Press. [MEH]
Garcia, C. & Toro, M. A. (1990) Individual and group selection for productivity in Tribolium castaneum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 79:256–60. [aDSW]
Gazzaniga, M. (1993) Nature's mind: The biological roots of thinking, emotion, sexuality, language, and intelligence. Penguin. [CFM]
Geist, V. (1978) Life strategies, human evolution, environmental design. Springer. [MEH]
Gilbert, M. (1987) Modelling collective belief. Synthese 73:185204. [MG]
Gilbert, M. (1989a) On social facts. Routledge. [MC]
Gilbert, M. (1989b) Folk psychology takes sociality seriously. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:707–8. [MC]
Gilbert, M. (1990) Walking together: A paradigmatic social phenomenon. In: MidWest studies in philosophy: The philosophy of the human sciences, vol. 15, ed. French, P. A., Uehling, T. E. Jr & Wettstein, H. K.. University of Notre Dame Press. [MG]
Gilbert, M. (1993a) Agreements, coercion, and obligation. Ethics 103:679706. [MG]
Gilbert, M. (1993b) Is an agreement an exchange of promises? Journal of Philosophy 90:627–49. [MG]
Gilbert, M. (1994) Remarks on collective belief. In: Socializing epistemology: Essays on the social dimension of knowledge, ed. Schmitt, F., Rowman, and Littlefield, . [MG]
Gilinsky, N. L. & Mayo, D. G. (1987) Models of group selection. Philosophy of Science 54:515–38. [aDSW]
Gilpin, M. E. (1975) Group selection in predator-prey communities. Princeton University Press. [aDSW]
Cilpin, M. E. & Taylor, B. L. (1988) Comment on Harpending and Rogers model of intergroup selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology 135:131–35. [aDSW]
Goodnight, C. J. (1985) The influence of environmental variation on group and individual selection in a cress. Evolution 39:545–58. [aDSW]
Goodnight, C. J. (1990a) Experimental studies of community evolution I: The response to selection at the community level. Evolution 44:1614–24. [arDSW]
Goodnight, C. J.(1990b) Experimental studies of community evolution II: The ecological basis of the response to community selection. Evolution 44:1625–36. [arDSW]
Goodnight, C. J. (1991) Intermixing ability in two-species communities of Tribolium flour beetles. American Naturalist 138:342–54. [aDSW]
Goodnight, C. J., Schwartz, J. M. & Stevens, L. (1992) Contextual analysis of models of group selection, soft selection, hard selection, and the evolution of altruism. American Naturalist 140: 743–61. [aDSW, CJG]
Goodnight, K. (in press) Kin selection in a structured population. American Naturalist. [aDSW]
Gould, S. J. (1980) Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging? Paleobiology 6: 119–30. [aDSW]
Gould, S. J. (1989) Wonderful life: The Burgess shale and the nature of history. Norton. [aDSW]
Gould, S. J. (1992) The confusion over evolution. New York Review of Books 39: 4753. [aDSW, EAL]
Gould, S. J. & Lewontin, R. C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist program. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B205:581–98. [aDSW]
Gould, S. J. & Vrba, E. (1982) Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8: 415. [KEH]
Govindaraju, D. R. (1988) Mating systems and the opportunity for group selection in plants. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 2:99106. [aDSW]
Grafen, A. (1984) Natural selection, kin selection and group selection. In: Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, ed: Krebs, J. & Davies, N.. Blackwell Scientific. [aDSW]
Gray, R. D. (1992) Death of the gene: Developmental systems strike back. In: rees of life: Essays in the philosophy of biology, ed. Griffiths, P.. Kluwer. [PEG]
Griesemer, J. R. (1994a) The informational gene and the, substantial body: On the generalization of the evolutionary theory by abstraction. In: Varieties of idealization, ed. Cartwright, N. & Jones, M.. Editions Rodopi. [EAL]
Griesemer, J. R. (1994b) The material basis of evolutionary theories (unpublished) [EAL]
Griesemer, J. R. & Wade, M. (1988) Laboratory models; causal explanations and group selection. Biology and Philosophy 3: 6796. [aDSW]
Grifiing, B. (1977) Selection for populations of interacting genotypes. In: Proceedings of the International Congress on Quantitative Genetics, ed. Pollak, E., Kempthorne, O. & Bailey, T. B.. Iowa State University Press. [aDSW]
Griffiths, P. E. & Gray, R. D. (1994) Developmental systems and evolutionary explanation. Journal of Philosophy XCI (6). [PEG]
Haig, D. (1992) Cenomic imprinting and the theory of parent-offspring conflict. Developmental Biology 3: 153–60. [DCD]
Haig, D. (1993) Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68: 495532. [DCD]
Haig, D. & Grafen, A. (1991) Genetic scrambling as a defense against meiotic drive. Journal of Theoretical Biology 153: 531–58. [DCD]
Haldane, J. B. S. (1932) The causes of evolution. Longmans, , Green, . Revised ed. 1990. Princeton University Press. [JFC]
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The genetical evolution of social behavior, I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 152. [aDSW, JAS]
Hamilton, W. D. (1967) Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156: 477–88. [rDSW]
Hamilton, W. D. (1971) Selection of selfish and altruistic behavior in some extreme models. In: Man and beast: Comparative social behavior, ed. Eisenberg, J. S. & Dillon, W. S.. Smithsonian Institution Press. [aDSW]
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243–48. [aDSW]
Harpending, H. C. & Rogers, A. R. (1987) On Wright's mechanism for intergroup selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology 127: 5161. [aDSW]
Hartung, J. (1992) Thou shalt not kill who? – An inquiry into the moral code of Judeo-Christianity. Unpublished manuscript, State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Department of Anesthesiology. [KM]
Hausfater, C. & Breden, F. (1990) Selection within and between social groups for infanticide. American Naturalist 136: 673–88. [aDSW]
Heisler, I. L. & Damuth, J. (1987) A method of analyzing selection in hierarchically structured populations. American Naturalist 130: 582602. [aDSW, CJG]
Hendrick, C. (1987a) Croup processes. Newbury Park: Sage. [aDSW]
Hendrick, C. (1987b) Group processes and intergroup relations. Newbury Park: Sage. [aDSW]
Hoffman, M. L. (1981) Is altruism a part of human nature? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40: 121–37. [CDB]
Hofstadter, D. R. (1979) Codel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. Vintage. [aDSW]
Hogg, M. A. & Abrams, D. (1988) Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. Routledge. [aDSW, KM]
Holt, R. D. (1983) Evolution in structured demes: The Components of selection. Unpublished manuscript. [aDSW]
Hull, D. L. (1980) Individuality and selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 11: 311–32. [aDSW, AH, DLH, KEH, EAL]
Hull, D. L. (1981) The units of evolution—a metaphysical essay. In: The philosophy of evolution, ed. Jensen, U. & Harre, R.. Harvester Press. [aDSW, JA, RD]
Hull, D. L. (1988a) A mechanism and its metaphysics. Biology & Philosophy 3:123–55 [DLH]
Hull, D. L. (1988b) A period of development. Biology & Philosophy 11:241–63. [IDLH]
Hull, D. L. (1988c) Science as a process: An evolutionary account of the social and conceptual development of science. University of Chicago Press. [aDSW, CMB, DLH]
Hurst, L. D. (1991) The evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibility or when spite can be successful, journal of Theoretical Biology 148:269–77. [aDSW]
Jimenez, J. & Casadesus, J. (1989) An altruistic model of Rhizobium-legume association. Journal of Heredity 80:335–37. [aDSW]
Johnson, M. S. & Brown, J. L. (1980) Genetic variation among trait groups and apparent absence of close inbreeding in Grey-crowned babblers. Behavioral Ecology and Sodobiology 7:9398. [aDSW]
Johnston, T. D. (1987) The persistence of dichotomies in the study of behavioural development. Developmental Review 7:149—82. [PEG]
Keller, L. & Ross, K. G. (1993) Phenotypic plasticity and “cultural transmission” in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Behavioural Ecology and Sodobiology 33:121–29. [PEG]
Kelly, J. K. (1992a) Kin selection in density regulated populations. Journal of Theoretical Biology 157:447–61. [aDSW]
Kelly, J. K. (1992b) Restricted migration and the evolution of altruism. Evolution 46:1492–95. [aDSW]
King, D. A. (1990) The adaptive significance of tree height. American Naturalist 135:809–28. [aDSW]
Kitcher, P. (1993) The advancement of learning. Oxford University Press. [aDSW]
Kitcher, P., Sterelny, K. & Waters, K. (1990) The illusory riches of Sobers monism. Journal of Philosophy 87:158–60. [aDSW]
Klein, R. G. (1989) The human career: Human biological and cultural origins. University of Chicago Press. [JM]
Knauft, B. M. (1985) Good company and violence: Sorcery and social action in a lowland New Cuinea society. University of California Press. [aDSW]
Klein, R. G. (1991) Violence and sociality in human evolution. Current Anthropology 32:391428. [aDSW]
Kohlberg, L. (1984) Essays on moral development: Vol. 2, The psychology of moral development. Harper & Row. [aDSW]
Krebs, D. (1987) The challenge of altruism in biology and psychology. In: Sodobiology and psychology: Ideas, issues and applications, ed. Crawford, C., Smith, M. & Krebs, D.. Erlbaum. [aDSW]
Kroeber, A. L. (1948) Anthropology: Race, language, psychology, prehistory. Harcourt, Brace. [CLB]
Leibenstcin, H. (1976) Beyond economic man: A new foundation for microeconomics. Harvard University Press. [aDSW]
Leigh, E. G. J. (1977) How does selection reconcile individual advantage with the good of the group? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sdences 74:4542–46. [aDSW]
Leigh, E. G. J. (1991) Genes, bees and ecosystems: The evolution of common interest among individuals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:257–62. [aDSW]
Levin, B. R. or Kilmer, W. L. (1974) Interdemic selection and the evolution of altruism: A computer simulation. Evolution 28:527–45. [aDSW]
Lewontin, R. C. (1970) The units of selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1:118. [aDSW]
Lewontin, R. C. (1978) Adaptation. Scientific American 239:156–69. [KEH]
Lewontin, R. C. & White, M. J. D. (1960) Interaction between inversion polymorphisms of two chromosome pairs in the grasshopper, Moraba scurra. Evolution 14:116–29. [JD]
Ling, T. (1968) A history of religion east and west. Macmillan. [MEH]
Lloyd, E. A. (1986) Evaluation of evidence in group selection debates. In: Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association, vol. 1. Philosophy of Science Association. [EAL]
Lloyd, E. A. (1988) The structure and confirmation of evolutionary theory. Greenwood Press. [arDSW, DLH, EAL]
Lloyd, E. A. (1989) Different questions, different answers: An anatomy of the units of selection debates. Paper given at Plenary, History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology, London, Ontario, June. Submitted. [EAL]
Lloyd, E. A. (1992) Unit of selection. In: Keywords in evolutionary biology, ed. Keller, E. F. & Lloyd, E. A.. Harvard University Press. [EAL]
Lloyd, E. A. & Gould, S. J. (1993) Species selection on variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:595–99. [EAL]
Lovelock, J. E. (1979) Caia: A new look at life on earth. Oxford University Press. [aDSW]
MacDonald, K. B. (1983) Production, social controls and ideology: Toward a sociobiology of the phenotype. Journal of Social and Biological Structures 6:297317. [KM]
MacDonald, K. B. (1988a) Social and personality development: An evolutionary synthesis. Plenum. [KM]
MacDonald, K. B. (1988b) Sociobiology and the cognitive-developmental tradition in moral development research. In: Sodobiological perspectives on human development, ed. MacDonald, K. B.. Springer-Verlag. [aDSW]
MacDonald, K. B. (1990) Mechanisms of sexual egalitarianism in Western Europe. Ethology and Sociobiology 11:195238. [KM]
MacDonald, K. B. (1991) A perspective on Darwinian psychology: The importance of domaingeneral mechanisms, plasticity, and individual differences. Ethology and Sociobiology 12: £449–80. [aDSW, KM]
MacDonald, K. B. (1994) A people that shall dwell alone: Judaism as an evolutionary group strategy. Praeger. [aDSW, KM]
MacDonald, K. B. (1995) Separation and its discontents: Toward an evolutionary theory of anti-Semitism. Praeger. [KM]
Mandelker, I. L. (1984) Religion, society, and Utopia in nineteenth-century America. University of Massachusetts Press. [LC]
Mansbridge, J. J. (1990) Beyond self-interest. University of Chicago Press. [aDSW]
Manson, J. H. & Wrangham, R. W. (1991) Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans. Current Anthropology 32:369–90. [JM]
Margolis, H. (1982) Selfishness, altruism and rationality: A theory of social choice. University of Chicago Press. [aDSW]
Matessi, C. & Jayakar, S. D. (1976) Conditions for the evolution of altruism under Darwinian selection. Theoretical Population Biology 9:360–87. [aDSW]
Matessi, C., Karlin, S. & Morris, M. (1987) Models of intergenerational kin altruism. American Naturalist 130:544–69. [aDSW]
Maynard Smith, J. (1964) Group selection and kin selection. Nature 201:1145–47. [aDSW, EAS]
Maynard Smith, J. (1976) Group selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 51:277–83. [aDSW, CJG]
Maynard Smith, J. (1982a) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Maynard Smith, J. (1982b) The evolution of social behavior – a classification of models. In: Current problems in sociobiology, ed. K. C. S. Group. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Maynard Smith, J. (1987a) How to model evolution. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT press. [arDSW, EAL]
Maynard Smith, J. (1987b) Reply to Sober. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT press. [arDSW, EAS]
Maynard, Smith J. (1992) Confusion over evolution: An exchange. New York Review of Books 40:43. [aDSW]
Mayr, E. (1990) Myxoma and group selection. Biologisches Zentralblatt 109:453–57. [aDSW]
McCauley, D. E. (1989) Extinction, colonization and population structure: A study of a milkweed beetle. American Naturalist 134:365–76. [aDSW]
McCauley, D. E. & Wade, M. J. (1980) Group selection: The genotypic and demographic basis for the phenotypic differentiation of small populations of Tribolium castaneum. Evolution 34:813–21. [aDSW]
McCauley, D. E. & Wade, M. J. (1988) Extinction and recolonization: Their effects on the genetic differentiation of local populations. Evolution 42:9951005. [aDSW]
McCauley, D. E., Wade, M. J., Breden, F. J. & Wohltman, M. (1988) Spatial and temporal variation in group relatedness: Evidence from the imported willow leaf beetle. Evolution 42 (1):184–92. [aDSW]
McDougall, W. (1920) The group mind. Putman's Sons. [GMB]
Meggitt, M. (1977) Blood is their argument. Mayfield. [rDSW]
Mesterton-Gibbons, M. & Dugatkin, L. A. (1992) Cooperation among unrelated individuals: Evolutionary factors. Quarterly Review of Biology 67:267–81. [aDSW, JM]
Michod, R. (1982) The theory of kin selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:2355. [aDSW]
Michod, R. & Sanderson, M. (1985) Behavioral structure and the evolution of cooperation. In: Evolution — Essays in honor of John Maynard Smith, ed. Greenwood, J. & Slatkin, M.. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Miller, G. F. (1993) Evolution of the human brain through runaway sexual selection: The mind as a protean courtship device. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University Psychology Department. [GFM]
Miller, G. F. & Freyd, J. J. (1993) Dynamic mental representations of animate motion: The interplay among evolutionary, cognitive, and behavioral dynamics. Cognitive Science Research Paper CSRP-290, University of Sussex. [GFM]
Mitchell, S. D. (1987) Competing units of selection?: A case of symbiosis. Philosophy of Science 54:351–67. [aDSW]
Mitchell, S. D. (1994) Superorganisms: Then and now. In: Sociology of sciences yearbook 1994, ed. Wingart, P., Mendelsohn, E. & Maasen, S.. Kluwer Press. [aDSW]
Montro, U. or Eshel, I. (1988) The three brothers’ problem: Kin selection with more than one potential helper: The case of immediate help. American Naturalist 132:550–66. [aDSW]
Moore, J. (1984) The evolution of reciprocal sharing. Ethology and Sociobiology 5:514. [JM]
Moore, J. (1992) Dispersal, nepotism, and primate social behavior. International Journal of Primatology 13:361–78. [JM]
Mueller, L. D. & Feldman, M. W. (1985) Population genetic theory of kin selection: A two-locus model. American Naturalist 125:535–49. [EAL]
Myerson, R. B., Pollock, G. B. & Swinkels, J. M. (1991) Viscous population equilibria. Cames and Economic Behavior 3:101–9. [aDSW]
Nash, J. (1976) Hustlers and con men. Evans. [LAD]
Noonan, K. M. (1987) Evolution: A primer for psychologists. In: Sociobiology and psychology: Ideas, issues and applications, ed. Crawford, C., Smith, M. & Krebs, D.. Erlbaum. [aDSW]
Nunney, L. (1985a) Female-biased sex ratios: Individual or group selection. Evolution 39 (2):349–61. [aDSW]
Nunney, L. (1985b) Group selection, altruism, and structured-deme models. American Naturalist 126:212–30. [arDSW]
Nunney, L. (1989) The maintenance of sex by group selection. Evolution 43 (2):245–57. [aDSW]
Orzack, S. & Sober, E. (1994) Optimality models and the test of adaptationism. American Naturalist 143:361–80. [aDSW]
Owen, R. E. (1986) Colony-level selection in the social insects: Single locus additive and non-additive models. Theoretical Population Biology 29:198234. [aDSW]
Oyama, S. (1985) The ontogeny of information. Cambridge University Press. [PEG]
Oyama, S. (1989) Ontogeny & the central dogma: Do we need the concept of genetic programming in order to have an evolutionary perspective? In: Systems development. The Minnesota symposia on child psychology, vol. 22, ed Gunnar, M. & Thelen, E.. [PEG]
Packer, C. & Pusey, A. E. (1982) Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions: Kin selection or game theory? Nature(London) 296:740–42. [JM]
Peck, J. R. (1990) The evolution of outsider exclusion. Journal of Theoretical Biology 142:565–71. [aDSW]
Peck, J. R. (1992) Group selection, individual selection, and the evolution of genetic drift. Journal of Theoretical Biology 159:163–87. [aDSW]
Peck, J. R. (1993) Friendship and the evolution of cooperation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 162:195228. [aDSW]
Peck, J. R. & Feldman, M. (1986) The evolution of helping behavior in large, randomly mixed populations. American Naturalist 127:209—21. [aDSW]
Panisse, D. (1993) Cultural and reproductive success in industrial societies: Testing the relationship at the proximate and ultimate levels. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:267322. [LC]
Pollock, G. B. (1983) Population viscosity and kin selection. American Naturalist 122:817–29. [aDSW]
Pollock, G. B. (1988) Suspending disbelief – of Wynne-Edwards and his critics. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 2:205–21. [aDSW]
Pollock, G. B. (1989) Population structure, spite and the iterated prisoner's dilemma. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77:459–69. [aDSW]
Pollock, G. B. (1991) Crossing Malthusian boundaries: Evolutionary stability in the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology 3:159–80. [aDSW]
Pollock, G. B. (in press) Personal fitness, altruism and the ontology of game theory. Journal of Quantitative Anthropology. [aDSW]
Pollock, G. B. & Dugatkin, L. A. (1992) Reciprocity and the evolution of reputation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 159:2537. [LAD]
Price, G. R. (1970) Selection and covarianee. Nature 277:520–21. [aDSW]
Price, G. R. (1972) Extension of covarianee selection mathematics. Annals of Human Genetics 35:485–90. [aDSW]
Proctor, H. C. (1989) Occurrence of protandry and a female-biased sex-ratio in a sponge-associated water mite (Acari: Unionicolidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 7:289–98. [aDSW]
Putnam, H. (1992) Realism and reason. Cambridge University Press. [HRH]
Queller, D. C. (1991) Group selection and kin selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6 (2):64. [aDSW]
Queller, D. C. (1992a) Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness and group selection. American Naturalist 139:540–58. [aDSW, HRH]
Queller, D. C. (1992b) A general model for kin selection. Evolution 46:376–80. [HRH]
Rapoport, A. (1991) Ideological commitments and evolutionary theory. Journal of Social Issues 47:83100. [aDSW]
Rapoport, A. & Budescu, D. V. (1992) Generation of random series in twoperson strictly competitive games. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121 (3):352–63. [GFM]
Rapoport, A. & Chammah, A. (1965) Prisoner's dilemma. University of Michigan Press. [aDSW]
Ratnieks, F. L. (1988) Reproductive harmony via mutual policing by workers in eusocial Hymenoptera. American Naturalist 132:217–36. [aDSW]
Ratnieks, F. L. & Reeve, H. K. (1991) The evolution of queen-rearing nepotism in social hymenopteran: Effects of discrimination costs in swarming species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4:93115. [HRH]
Ratnieks, F. L. & Visscher, P. K. (1989) Worker policing in the honeybee. Nature 342:796–97. [aDSW]
Rawls, J. (1971) A theory of justice. Harvard University Press. [rDSW, DCD, GFM]
Reed, E. (1978) Croup selection and methodological individualism – a critique of Watkins. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29:256–62. [aDSW]
Richards, R. J. (1987) Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary theories of mind and behavior. University of Chicago. [aDSW]
Richardson, R. (1983) Grades of organization and the units of selection controversy. In: PSA 1982, vol. 2, ed. Asquith, P. & Nickles, T.. Philosophy of Science Association. [aDSW]
Ridley, M. (1993) The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature. Viking. [GFM]
Rissing, S. & Pollock, G. (1991) An experimental analysis of pleometric advantage in Messor pergandei. Insect Societies 63:205–11. [aDSW]
Rissing, S. W., Pollock, G. B., Higgins, M. R., Hagen, R. H. & Smith, D. R. (1989) Foraging specialization without relatedness or dominance among co-founding ant queens. Nature 338:420–22. [aDSW]
Rogers, A. R. (1990) Group selection by selective emigration: The effects of migration and kin structure. American Naturalist 135:398413. [aDSW]
Rosenberg, A. (1983) Coefficients, effects and genie selection. Philosophy of Science 50:332–38. [aDSW]
Rosenberg, A. (1985) The structure of biological science. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Ruse, M. (1986) Toting Darwin seriously. Basil Blackwell. [aDSW]
Rushton, J. P. (1989) Genetic similarity, human altruism and group selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12:503–59. [aDSW]
Sagan, C. & Druyan, A. (1992) Shadows of forgotten ancestors. Random House. [aDSW]
Sahlins, M. (1976) The use and abuse of biology: An anthropological critique of sociobiology University of Michigan Press. [CLB]
Seeley, T. (1989) The honey bee colony as a superorganism. American Scientist 77:546–53. [aDSW, JAS]
Seger, J. (1989) All for one, one for all, that is our device. Nature 338:374–75. [aDSW]
Service, E. R. (1966) The hunters. Prentice Hall. [MEH]
Settle, T. (1993) “Fitness” and “altruism”: Traps for the unwary, bystander and biologist alike. Biology and Philosophy 8:6183. [QMB]
Shanahan, T. (1990) Group selection and the evolution of myxomatosis. Evolutionary Theory 9:239–54. [aDSW]
Shenker, B. (1986) Intentional communities: Ideology and alienation in communal societies. Routledge. [aDSW]
Sherif, M. (1966) In common predicament: The social psychology of intergroup conflict. Houghton-Mifflin. [KM]
Sherif, M., Harvey, O. J., White, B. J., Hood, W. R. & Sherif, C. W. (1961) Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The robber's cave experiment. University Book Exchange. [aDSW]
Simon, H. A. (1990) A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism. Science 250:1665–68. [CDB, JFC]
Simon, H. A. (1991) Organizations and markets. Journal of Economic Perspectives 5:2544. [aDSW]
Skyrms, B. (1994) Sex and justice. Journal of Philosophy 91:305–20. [DCD]
Simon, H. A. (in press) Darwin meets the logic of decision: Correlation in evolutionary game theory. Philosophy of Science.[DCD]
Simon, H. A. (forthcoming) Justice and commitment. Preprint. [DCD]
Slatkin, M. (1981) Populational heritability. Evolution 35:859–71. [aDSW]
Slatkin, M. & Wade, M. J. (1978) Group selection on a quantitative character. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 75:3531–34. [aDSW]
Slatkin, M. & Wilson, D. S. (1979) Coevolution in structured demes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 70:2084–87. [aDSW]
Smith, D. C. (1990) Population structure and competition among kin in the chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata). Evolution 44:1529–41. [aDSW]
Smith, E. A. & Winterhalder, B. (1992) Natural selection and decisionmaking: Some fundamental principles. In: Evolutionary ecology and human behavior, ed. Smith, E. A. & Winterhalder, B.. Aldine de Gruyter. [EAS]
Smith, R. J. F. (1986) Evolution of alarm signals: Role of benefits of retaining members or territorial neighbors. American Naturalist 128:604–10. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1981) Holism, individualism and the units of selection. In: PSA 1980, vol. 2, ed. Asquith, P. & Giere, R.. Philosophy of Science Association. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1984) The nature of selection: Evolutionary theory in philosophical focus. MIT Press. [arDSW, MB, JD, KEH]
Sober, E. (1987) Comments on Maynard Smith's “How to model evolution.” In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupré, J.. MIT press. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1990) The poverty of pluralism. Journal of Philosophy 87:151–57. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1992a) Screening-off and the units of selection. Philosophy of Science 59:142–52. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1992b) The evolution of altruism: Correlation, cost and benefit. Biology and Philosophy 7:177–88. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1993a) Evolutionary altruism, psychological egoism and morality – disentangling the phenotypes. In: Evolutionary ethics, ed. Nitecki, M. H. & Nitecki, D. V.. State University of New York Press. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1993b) Philosophy of biology. Westview Press. [aDSW]
Sober, E. (1994) Did evolution make us psychological altruists? In: From a biological point of view: Essay3 in evolutionary philosophy, ed. Sober, E.. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Sober, E. & Lewontin, R. (1982) Artifact, cause and genie selection. Philosophy of Scietice 47:157–80. [aDSW]
Sober, E. & Wilson, D. S. (1994) A critical review of philosophical work on the units of selection problem. Philosophy of Science. In press. [arDSW]
Soltis, J., Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1992) Can group-functional behaviors arise by group selection? An empirical test. Working paper. Center for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Bielefeld, Germany. [rDSW]
Stanley, S. (1975) A theory of evolution above the species level. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72:646–50. [aDSW]
Stanley, S. (1979) Macroevolution: Pattern and process. Freeman. [aDSW]
Sterelny, K. & Kitcher, P. (1988) The return of the gene. Journal of Philosophy 85:339–61. [aDSW]
Symons, D. (1992) On the use and misuse of Darwinism in the study of human behavior. In: The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J.. Oxford University Press. [arDSW]
Tajfel, H. (1981) Human groups and social categories. Cambridge University Press. [aDSW]
Tanaka, Y. (1991) The evolution of social communication systems in a subdivided population. Journal of Theoretical Biology 149:145–64. [aDSW]
Tinbergen, N. (1951) The study of instinct. Clarendon. [CMB]
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1988) The evolution of war and its cognitive foundations. Institute for Evolutionary Studies Technical Report 88–1. [CFM]
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1992) Tile psychological foundations of culture. In: The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of cttlture, ed. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J., Oxford University Press. [arDSW]
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1993) The evolutionary psychology of coalitional aggression. Paper presented at the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolutionary Society, Aug 4–8, Binghamton University. [GFM]
Toro, M. & Silio, L. (1986) Assortment of encounters in the two-strategy game. Journal of Theoretical Biology 123:193204. [aDSW]
Treisman, M. (1983) Errors in the theory of the structured deme. Journal of Theoretical Biology 102:339–46. [aDSW]
Triandis, H. C. (1990) Cross-cultural studies of individualism and collectivism. Nebraska symposium on motivation 1989: Cross-cultural perspectives, vol. 37. University of Nebraska Press. [KM]
Triandis, H. C. (1991) Cross-cultural differences in assertiveness/competition vs. group loyalty/cohesiveness. In: Cooperation and prosocial behavior, ed. Hinde, R. A. & Croebel, J.. Cambridge University Press. [KM]
Trivers, R. L. (1971) The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:3557. [aDSW, JAS]
Trivers, R. L. (1985) Social evolution. Benjamin/Cummins. [aDSW]
Turner, J. C. (1987) Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Basil Blackwell. [CDB]
Tylor, E. B. (1871) Primitive ctilture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, language, art, and custom, vol. 1. Murray, John. [CLB]
Uyenoyamn, M. K. or Feldman, M. W. (1980a) Evolution of altruism under group selection in large and small populations in fluctuating environments. Theoretical Population Biology 15:58—85. [aDSW]
Uyenoyamn, M. K. or Feldman, M. W. (1980b) Theories of kin and group selection: A population genetics perspective. Theoretical Population Biology 17:380414. [aDSW]
Uyenoyamn, M. K. or Feldman, M. W. (1981) On relatedness and adaptive typography in kin selection. Theoretical Population Biology 19:87123. [EAL]
van den Berghe, P. L. & Peter, K. (1988) Hutterites and kibbutzniks: A tale of nepotistic communism. Man 23:522–39. [LC]
Vehreneamp, S. L. (1983) A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Animal Behaviour 31:667–82. [JM]
Von Schilchcr, F. & Tennant, N. (1984) Philosophy, evolution and human nature. Routledge and Kegan Paul. [aDSW]
Voorzanger, B. (1984) Altruism in. sociobiology: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 13:3339. [aDSW]
Vrba, E. (1989) Levels of selection and sorting. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 6. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1976) Group selection among laboratory populations of Tribolium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 73:4604–7. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1977) An experimental study of group selection. Evolution 31:134–53. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1978) A critical review of the models of group selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 53:101–14. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1979) The primary characteristics of Tribolium populations group selected for increased and decreased population size. Evolution 33 (2):749–64. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1982a) Group selection: Migration and the differentiation of small populations. Evolution 36:949–62. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1982b) The evolution of interference competition by individual, family and group selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 79:3575–78. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1985) Soft selection, hard selection, kin selectipn and group selection. American Naturalist 125:6173. [aDSW]
Wade, M.J. (1991) Genetic variance For rate of population increase in natural populations of flour beetles, Tribolium spp. Evolution 45:1574–84. [aDSW]
Wade, M. J. & Breden, F. (1980) The evolution of cheating and selfish behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 7:167–72. [aDSW]
Wade, M. J., Breden, F. J. & McCauley, D. E. (1988) Spatial and temporal variation in group relatedness: Evidence from the imported willow leaf beetle. Evolution 42:184–92. [aDSW]
Wade, M. J. & McCauley, D. E. (1980) Group selection: The phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of small populations. Evolution 34:799812. [aDSW]
Walton, D. (1991) The units of selection and the bases of selection. Philosophy of Science 58:417–35. [arDSW]
Waters, K. (1991) Tempered realism about the forces of selection. Philosophy of Science 58:553–73. [aDSW]
Werren, J. H. (1991) The paternal sex-ratio chromosome of Nasonia. American Naturalist 137:392402. [aDSW]
Werren, J. H. & Beukeboom, L. W. (1992) Population genetics of a parasitic chromosome: Experimental analysis of PSR in subdivided populations. Evolution 46:1257–68. [aDSW]
Werren, J. H. & Beukeboom, L. W. (1993) Population genetics of a parasitic chromosome: Theoretical analysis of PSR in subdivided populations. American Naturalist 142:224–41. [aDSW]
West-Eberhard, M. J. (1981) Intragroup selection and the evolution of insect societies. In: Natural selection and social behavior, ed. Alexander, R. D. & Tinkle, D. W.. Chiron Press. [aDSW]
White, L. A. (1959) The evolution of culture. McGraw-Hill. [CLB]
Whitlock, M. C. & McCauley, D. E. (1990) Some population genetic consequences of colony formation and extinction: Genetic correlations within founding groups. Evolution 44:1717–24. [aDSW]
Williams, G. C. (1966) Adaptation and natural selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought. Princeton University Press. [arDSW, JFC, KEH, EAL, EAS, JAS]
Williams, G. C. (1971) Croup selection. Aldine. [aDSW]
Williams, G. C. (1985) A defense of reductionism in evolutionary biology. In: Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology, vol. 2, ed. Dawkins, R. & Ridley, M.. Oxford University Press. [aDSW, DLH]
Williams, G. C. (1992) Natural selection: Domains, levels and challenges. Oxford University Press. [arDSW, CLB, DLH, KEH, EAL, RMN]
Williams, G. C. (1993) Hard-core Darwinism since 1859. Quarterly Review of Biology 68:409–12. [aDSW]
Wills, C. (1989) The wisdom of the genes. Basic Books. [CW]
Williams, G. C. (1991) The maintenance of multiallelic polymorphism at the MHC region. Immunological Reviews 124:165220. [arDSW, CW]
Wills, C. & Green, D. R. (1994) A genetic herd-immunity model for the maintenance of MHC polymorphism. Immunological Reviews. In press. [CW]
Wilson, D. S. (1975) A general theory of group selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72:143–46. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1976) Evolution on the level of communities. Science 192:1358–60. [arDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1977a) How nepotistic is the brain worm. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2:421–25. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1977b) Structured demes and the evolution of group-advantageous traits. American Naturalist 111:157–85. [arDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1978) Structured demes and trait-group variation. American Naturalist 113:606–10. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1980) The natural selection of populations and communities. Benjamin Cummings. [arDSW]
(1983a) The group selection controversy: History and current status. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14:159–87. [aDSW, HRH]
Wilson, D. S. (1983b) Reply to Treisman. Journal of Theoretical Biology 102:459–62. [aDSW]
(1985) Adaptive indirect effects. In: Ecological communities, ed. Case, T. & Diamond, J. M.. Harper & Row. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1987) Altruism in Mendelian populations derived from subgroups: The haystack model revisited. Evolution 41:1059–70. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1988) Holism and reductionism in evolutionary ecology. Olios 53:269–73. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1989) Levels of selection: An alternative to individualism in biology and the social sciences. Social Networks 11:257–72. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1990) Weak altruism, strong group selection. Oikos 59:135–40. [arDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1992a) Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection. Ecology 73:19842000. [arDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1992b) On the relationship between evolutionary and psychological definitions of altruism and selfishness. Biology and Philosophy 7:6168. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. (1993) Croup selection. In: Key words in evolutionary biology, ed. Keller, E. F. & Lloyd, E. A.. Harvard University Press. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. & Colwell, R. K. (1981) Evolution of sex ratio in structured demes. Evolution 35(5):882–97. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. & Dugatkin, L. A. (1992) Altruism. In: Key words in evolutionary biology, ed. Keller, E. F. & Lloyd, E. A.. Harvard University Press. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. & Knollenberg, W. G. (1987) Adaptive indirect effects: The fitness of burying beetles with and without their phoretic mites. Evolutionary Ecology 1:139–59. [arDSW]
Wilson, D. S., Pollock, G. B. & Dugatkin, L. A. (1992) Can altruism evolve in purely viscous populations? Evolutionary Ecology 6:331–41. [aDSW]
Wilson, D. S. & Sober, E. (1989) Reviving the superorganism. Journal of heoretical Biology 136:337–56. [arDSW, FTC, HRH]
Wilson, E. O. (1971) The insect societies. Harvard University Press. [JAS]
Wilson, E. O. (1973) Group selection and its significance for ecology. Biosdcnce 23:631–38. [aDSW]
Wilson, E. O. (1975) Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Harvard University Press. [CDB, CLB]
Wilson, E. O. & Holldobler, B. (1988) Dense heterarchies and mass communication as the basis of organization in ant colonies. Trends in cology and Evolution 3:6567. [aDSW]
Wilson, J. B. (1987) Group selection in plant populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 1987:493502. [aDSW]
Wimsatt, W. (1980) Reductionist research strategies and their biases in the units of selection controversy. In: Scientific discovery: Case studies, ed. Nickles, T.. Dordrecht: Reidel. [arDSW, DLH, EAL]
(1981) Units of selection and the structure of the multi-level genome. In: PSA 1980, vol. 2, ed. Asquith, P. & Giere, R.. Philosophy of Science Association. [DLH, EAL]
Woocher, J. S. (1986) Sacred survival: The civil religion of American Jews. Indiana University Press. [KM]
Wood, B. (1992) Origin and evolution of the genus Homo. Nature (London) 355:783–90. [JM]
Wright, S. (1931) Evolutibn in Mendelian populations. Genetics 16:97159. [JFC]
(1980) Genie and organismic selection. Evolution 34:825–43. [aDSW]
(1988) Surfaces of selective value revisited. American Naturalist 131:115–23. [JFC]
Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal dispersion in relation to social behavior. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. [aDSW, CMB, JFC, RHF]
(1986) Evolution through group selection. Blackwell Scientific. [aDSW]
Zeigler, B. P. (1978) On necessary and sufficient conditions for group selection efficacy. Theoretical Population Biology 13:356–64. [aDSW]