Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cognitive coordination and its neurobiological bases: A new continent to explore

  • Steven M. Silverstein (a1) and William A. Phillips (a2)
  • In response to commentaries on:

Abstract

The additional arguments and evidence supplied by the commentaries strengthen the hypothesis that underactivity of NMDA receptors produces impaired cognitive coordination in schizophrenia. This encourages the hope that though the distance from molecules to mind is great, it can nevertheless be traversed. We therefore predict that in this decade or the next molecular psychology will be seen to be as fundamental to our understanding of mind as molecular biology is to our understanding of life.

Copyright

References

Hide All

Letters a and r appearing before authors' initials refer to target article and response respectively.

Abely, P. & Carton, C. (1967) The man of night and the man of silence: Prologue to a report on a comparative psychopathological and psychiatric study of the blind and deaf. Annals Medico Psychologiques 2:11125. [GSS]
Abi-Saab, W. M., D’Souza, D. C., Moghaddam, B. & Krystal, J. H. (1998) The NMDA model for schizophrenia: Promise and pitfalls. Pharmacopsychiatry 31:104109. [aWAP]
Adler, C. M., Goldberg, T. E., Malhotra, A. K., Pickar, D. & Breier, A. (1998a) Effects of ketamine on thought disorder, working memory, and semantic memory in healthy volunteers. Biological Psychiatry 43:81116. [aWAP]
Adler, C. M., Malhotra, A. K., Elman, I., Goldberg, T. E., Egan, M., Pickar, D. & Breier, A. (1999) Comparison of ketamine-induced thought disorder in healthy volunteers and thought disorder in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:164649. [aWAP]
Adler, L. E., Olincy, A., Waldo, M., Harris, J. G., Griffith, J., Stevens, K., Flach, K., Nagamoto, H., Bickford, P., Leonard, S. & Freedman, R. (1998b) Schizophrenia, sensory gating, and nicotinic receptors. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:189202. [MAK, aWAP]
Adler, L. E., Pachtman, E., Franks, R. D., Pecevich, M., Waldo, M. C. & Freedman, R. (1982) Neurophysiological evidence for a defect in neuronal mechanisms involved in sensory gating in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 17:63954. [MAK]
Adler, L. E., Rose, G. & Freedman, R. (1986) Neurophysiological studies of sensory gating in rats: Effects of amphetamine, phencyclidine, and haloperidol. Biological Psychiatry 21:78798. [MAK]
Aghajanian, G. K. & Marek, G. J. (1999) Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors increase ESPCs in layer V pyramidal cells of prefrontal cortex by an asynchronous mode of glutamate release. Brain Research 825:16171. [rSMS]
Aghajanian, G. K. & Marek, G. J. (2000) Serotonin model of schizophrenia: Emerging role of glutamate mechanisms. Brain Research Reviews 31:30212. [rSMS]
Ahveninen, J., Kähkönen, S., Pennanen, S., Liesivuori, J., Ilmoniemi, R. J. & Jääskiläinen, I. P. (2002) EEG and MEG measurements after tryptophan depletion suggest serotonergic modulation of auditory involuntary attention. Neuroimage 16:105261. [RDO]
Ahveninen, J., Kahkonen, S., Tiitinen, H., Pekkonen, E., Huttunen, J., Kaakkola, S., Ilmoniemi, R. J. & Jaaskelainen, I. P. (2000) Suppression of transient 40- Hz auditory response by haloperidol suggests modulation of human selective atttention by dopamine D2 receptors. Neuroscience Letters 292:2932. [LMW]
Aksentijeviç, A., Elliott, M. A. & Barber, P. (2001) Dynamics of perceptual grouping: Similarities in the organization of visual and auditory groups. Visual Cognition 8:34958. [rSMS]
al-Amin, H. A. & Schwarzkopf, S. B. (1996) Effects of the PCP analog dizocilpine on sensory gating: Potential relevance to clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 40:74454. [MEP]
Alexander, G. E. & Crutcher, M. D. (1990) Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: Neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends in Neuroscience 13:26671. [aWAP]
Allen, H. A., Liddle, P. F. & Frith, C. D. (1993) Negative features, retrieval processes and verbal fluency in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 163:76975. [LMW]
Allen, R. M. & Young, S. J. (1978) Phencyclidine-induced psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 135:108184. [aWAP]
Allman, J. M., Miezin, F., & McGuinness, E. (1985) Direction- and velocityspecific responses from beyond the classical receptive field in the middle temporal visual area (MT). Perception 14(2):10526. [YC]
Alpert, M., ed. (1985) Controversies in schizophrenia: Changes and constancies. Erlbaum. [MA]
Alpert, M., Angrist, B., Diamond, F. & Gershon, S. (1970) Comparison of ditran intoxication and acute alcohol psychoses. In: Origins and mechanisms of hallucinations, ed. W. Keup. Plenum Press. [MA]
Alpert, M. & Bogorad, D. D. (1975) Reduction of sensory sharpening processes associated with chronic alcoholism. In: Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. Experimental Studies II, ed. M. M. Gross. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, vol. 59. Plenum Press. [MA]
Alpert, M. & Friedhoff, A. J. (1980) An undopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 6:38790. [MA]
Alpert, M. & Martz, M. J. (1977) Cognitive views of schizophrenia in light of recent studies of brain asymmetry. In: Psychopathology and brain dysfunction, ed. C. Shagass, S. Gershon & A. J. Friedhoff. Raven Press. [MA]
Alpert, M., Rosenberg, S. D., Pouget, E. R. & Shaw, R. (2000) Prosody and lexical accuracy in flat affect schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 97:10718. [MA]
Alpert, M., Rubinstein, H. & Kesselman, M. (1976) Asymmetry of information processing in hallucinators and nonhallucinators. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 162(4):25865. [MA]
Alpert, M. & Silvers, K. N. (1970) Perceptual characteristics distinguishing auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and acute alcoholic psychoses. American Journal of Psychiatry 127(3):298302. [MA]
Altmann, G. T. M. (1998) Ambiguity in sentence processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2:14652. [rSMS]
American Psychiatric Association (1989) Treatment of psychiatric disorders: A task force report of the American Psychiatric Association, vol. 2. American Psychiatric Association. [aWAP]
Andreasen, N. C. (1999) A unitary model of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:78193. [aWAP]
Andreasen, N. C., Arndt, S., Alliger, R., Iller, D. & Flaum, M. (1995) Symptoms of schizophrenia: Methods, meanings, and mechanisms. Archives of General Psychiatry 52:34151. [aWAP]
Andreasen, N. C., Paradiso, S. & O’Leary, D. S. (1998) “Cognitive dysmetria” as an integrative theory of schizophrenia: A dysfunction in cortical-subcorticalcortical circuitry? Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:20318. [RC]
Andrew, A. (2000) A computational model of information processing in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 12:50519. [LMT]
Andrews, S., Shelley, A. M., Ward, P. B., Fox, A., Catts, S. V. & McConaghy, N. (1993) Event-related potential indices of semantic processing in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 34:44358. [DT]
Angelopoulos, E. K., Markianos, M., Daskalopoulou, E. G. Hatzimanolis, J. & Tzemos, J. (2002) Changes in central serotonergic function as a correlate of duration of illness in paranoid schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 110:918. [RDO]
Angrist, B. (1972) Amphetamine psychosis: Clinical variations of the syndrome. In: Amphetamine and its Analogs, ed. A. K. Cho & D. S. Segal. Academic Press 387–414. [MA]
Angrist, B. & Gershon, S. (1970) The phenomenology of experimentally induced amphetamine psychosis: Preliminary observations. Biological Psychiatry 2:95107. [MA]
Anscombe, R. (1987) The disorder of consciousness in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:24160. [DRH]
Arieti, S. (1979) Interpretation of schizophrenia, 2nd edition. Basic Books. [rSMS]
Arnsten, A. F. T. (1998) Catecholamine modulation of prefrontal cortical cognitive function. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 2:43647. [aWAP]
Ashby, F. G., Isen A. M. & Turken A. U. (1999) A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review 106(3):52950. [SP]
Astington, J. W., Pelletier, J. & Homer, B. (2002) Theory of mind and epistemological development: The relation between children's second-order false-belief understanding and their ability to reason about evidence. New Ideas in Psychology 20(2–3):131–44. [DL]
Baddeley, A. D. (1996) Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 49A:5–28. [aWAP]
Bakker, C. B. & Amini, F. B. (1961) Observations on the psychotomimetic effects of Serynl. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2:26980. [aWAP]
Baldeweg, T., Spence, S., Hirsch, S. R. & Gruzelier, J. (1998) Gamma-band electroencephalographic oscillations in a patient with somatic hallucinations. The Lancet 352:62021. [aWAP]
Balla, A., Hashim, A., Burch, S., Javitt, D. C., Lajtha, A. & Sershen, H. (2001) Phencyclidine-induced dysregulation of dopamine response to amphetamine in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Neurochemical Research 26:10011006. [DCJ]
Barch, D. M. & Berenbaum, H. (1997) The effect of language production manipulations on negative thought disorder and discourse coherence disturbances in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 71:11527. [aWAP]
Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., Hachten, P. C., Usher, M. & Cohen, J. D. (1999) The “benefits” of distractability: Mechanisms underlying increased Stroop effects in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25:74962. [aWAP, rSMS]
Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., MacDonald, A., Braver, T. S. & Cohen, J. D. (2003) Context processing deficits in schizophrenia: Diagnostic specificity, four-week course, and relationships to clinical symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 112:13243 . [DMB]
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An essay on autism and Theory of Mind. MIT Press. [DL]
Baron-Cohen, S. & Hammer J. (1997) Parents of children with Asperger syndrome: What is the cognitive phenotype? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9:54854. [aWAP]
Basar, E., Rosen, B., Basar-Eroglu, C. & Greitschus, F. (1987) The associations between 40 Hz-EEG and the middle latency response of the auditory evoked potential. International Journal of Neuroscience 33:10317. [MAK]
Beauchamp, M. S., Petit, L., Ellmore, T. M., Ingeholm, J. & Haxby, J. V. (2001) A parametric fMRI study of overt and covert shifts of visuospatial attention. Neuroimage 14:31021. [RDO]
Beaumont, J. G. & Dimond, S. J. (1973) Brain disconnection and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 123(577):66162. [YC]
Bender, S., Müller, B., Oades, R. D. & Sartory, G. (2001) Conditioned blocking and schizophrenia: A replication and study of the role of symptoms, age, onset-age of psychosis and illness-duration. Schizophrenia Research 49: 157–70. [RDO]
Benedict, R. H., Harris, A. E., Markow, T., McCormick, J. A., Nuechterlein, K. H. & Asarnow, R. F. (1994) Effects of attention training on information processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 20:53746. [rSMS]
Benes, F. M. (2000a) Alterations of neural circuitry within layer II of the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 33:51112. [RDO]
Benes, F. M. (2000b) Emerging principles of altered neural circuitry in schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews 31:25169. [aWAP]
Benes, F. M. & Coyle, J. T. (1998) Déja-vu all over again. Biological Psychiatry 43:78182. [aWAP]
Blackwell, S. L., McIntyre, C. W. & Murray, M. E. (1983) Information processed from brief visual displays by learning disabled boys. Child Development 54:92740. [aWAP]
Blaney, P. H. (1999) Paranoid conditions. In: Oxford textbook of psychopathology, ed. T. Millon, P. H. Blaney & R. D. Davis. Oxford Unversity Press. [JPG]
Bleuler, E. (1911/1961) Dementia praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenia. In: Handbuch der psychiatrie (Handbook of psychiatry), ed. G. Ascheffenburg. Deuticke. [rSMS]
Bleuler, E. English translation: Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias.] International Universities Press. (English edition, 1961). [YC]
Blumenfeld, L. D. & Clementz, B. A. (2001) Response to the first stimulus determines reduced auditory evoked response suppression in schizophrenia: Single trials analysis using MEG. Clinical Neurophysiology 112:165059. [rSMS]
Bock, J. & Braun, K. (1999) Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96:248590. [REH]
Born, R. T. (2000) Center-surround interactions in the middle temporal visual area of the owl monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 84(5):265869. [YC]
Boutros, N. N., Torello, M. W., Barker, B. A., Tueting, P. A., Wu, S. C. & Nasrallah, H. A. (1995) The P50 evoked potential component and mismatch detection in normal volunteers: Implications for the study of sensory gating. Psychiatry Research 57:8388. [MEP]
Bowers, K. S., Regher, G., Balthazard, C. & Parker, K. (1990) Intuition in the context of discovery. Cognitive Psychology 22:72110. [SP]
Bradski, G., Carpenter, G. A. & Grossberg, S. (1994) STORE working memory networks for storage and recall of arbitrary temporal sequences. Biological Cybernetics 71:46980. [SG]
Braff, D. L., Geyer, M. A. & Swerdlow, N. R. (2001) Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: Normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 156:23458. [MAK]
Braff, D. L., Saccuzzo, D. P. & Geyer, M. A. (1991) Information processing dysfunctions in schizophrenia: Studies of visual backward masking, sensorimotor gating, and habituation. In: Handbook of schizophrenia, vol. 5: Neuropsychology, psychophysiology and information processing, ed. S. R. Steinhauer, J. H. Gruzelier & J. Zubin. Elsevier Science. [RC]
Braff, D. L., Swerdlow, N. R. & Geyer, M. A. (l999) Symptom correlates of prepulse inhibition deficits in male schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:596602. [DCG, DRH]
Braitenberg, V. & Schüz, A. (1991) Anatomy of the cortex. Springer-Verlag. [aWAP]
Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M. & Cohen, J. D. (1999) Cognition and control in schizophrenia: A computational model of dopamine and prefrontal function. Biological Psychiatry 46:31228. [DMB, aWAP, LMT]
Breier, A., Malhotra, A. K., Pinals. D. A., Weisenfeld. N. I. & Pickar, D. (1997) Association of ketamine induced psychosis with frontal activation of the prefrontal cortex in healthy volunteers. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:80511. [aWAP]
Breitenseher, M., Uhl, F., Wimberger, D., Deecke, L., Trattnig, S. & Kramer, J. (1998) Morphological dissociation between visual pathways and cortex: MRI of visually-deprived patients with congenital peripheral blindness. Neuroradiology 40:42427. [GSS]
Breitmeyer, B. G. & Ganz, L. (1976) Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visual pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing. Psychological Review 83:136. [RC]
Bressler, S. L. (1996) Interareal synchronization in the visual cortex. Behavioral Brain Research 76:3749. [SLB]
Bressler, S. L. (1999) The dynamic manifestation of cognitive structures in the cerebral cortex. In: Understanding representation in the cognitive sciences, ed. A. Riegler, M. Peschl & A. von Stein. Kluwer Academic. [SLB]
Bressler, S. L. (2002) Understanding cognition through large-scale cortical networks. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:5861. [SLB]
Bressler, S. L. (2003) Cortical coordination dynamics and the disorganization syndrome in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:535539. [SLB]
Bressler, S. L., Coppola, R. & Nakamura, R. (1993) Episodic multiregional cortical coherence at multiple frequencies during visual task performance. Nature 366:15356. [aWAP]
Bressler, S. L. & Kelso, J. A. S. (2001) Cortical coordination dynamics and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:2636. [SLB, aWAP]
Broadbent, D. E. (1971) Decision and stress. Academic Press. [DRH]
Brown, G. D. A., Preece, T. & Hulme, C. (2000) Oscillator-based memory for serial order. Psychological Review 107:12781. [rSMS]
Bundesen, C. (1990) A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review 97:52347. [AR]
Burgess, A., Strelets, V., Golicova, J., Novototsky-Vlasov, V., Lehman, D. & Gruzelier, J. (submitted) Neural complexity and integration in unmedicated schizophrenia. International Journal of Psychophysiology. [VS]
Butler, P. D., DeSanti, L. A., Maddox, J., Harkavy-Friedman, J. M., Amador, X. F., Goetz, R. R., Javitt, D. C. & Gorman, J. M. (2003) Visual backward-masking deficits in schizophrenia: Relationship to visual pathway function and symptomatology. Schizophrenia Research 59:199209 . [RC]
Butler, P. D., Schechter, I., Zemon, V., Schwartz, S. G., Greenstein, V. C., Gordon, J., Schroeder, C. E. & Javitt, D. C. (2001) Dysfunction of early stage visual processing in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:112633. [DCJ]
Cadenhead, K. S., Geyer, M. A., Butler, R. W., Perry, W., Sprock, J. & Braff, D. L. (1997) Information processing deficits of schizophrenia patients: Relationship to clinical ratings, gender, and medication status. Schizophrenia Research 28:5162. [RC]
Cardno, A. G., Pak, C. S., Murray, R. M. & McGuffin, P. (2001) Twin study of symptom dimensions in psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry 179:3945. [aWAP, rSMS]
Carlsson, A. (1995) The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100, 907 counteracts the psychomotor stimulation ensuing manipulations with monoaminergic, glutamatergic, or muscarinic transmission in the mouse: Implications for psychosis. Journal of Neural Transmission 100:22537. [rSMS]
Carr, V. & Wale, J. (1986) Schizophrenia: An information processing model. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 20:13655. [aWAP]
Catts, S. V., Shelley, A., Ward, P. B., Liebert, B., McConaghy, N., Andrews, S. & Michie, P. T. (1995) Brain potential evidence for an auditory sensory memory deficit in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 152:21319. [aWAP]
Chapman, J. (1966) The early symptoms of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 112:22551. [rSMS]
Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P. & Daut, R. L. (1976) Schizophrenic inability to disattend from strong aspects of meaning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85:3540. [DT]
Chapman, L. J., Chapman, J. P., Kwapil, T. R., Eckblad, M. & Zinser, M. C. (1994) Putatively psychosis-prone subjects 10 years later. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 103:17183. [rSMS]
Chen, E. Y. H. & McKenna, P. J. (1996) Memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. In: Schizophrenia: A neuropsychological perspective, ed. C. Pantelis, H. E. Nelson & T. R. E Barnes. Wiley. [aWAP]
Chen, Y., Nakayama, K., Levy, D. L., Matthysse, S. W. & Holzman, P. S. (1999a) Psychological isolation of motion processing deficits in schizophrenic patients and their relatives and its relation to eye tracking deficits. Proceeding of National Academy Sciences USA 96:472429. [YC]
Chen, Y., Nakayama, K., Levy, D. L., Matthysse, S. W. & Holzman, P. S. (2001) Global and local motion processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 49:213. [aWAP]
Chen, Y., Nakayama, K., Levy, D. L., Matthysse, S. W. & Holzman, P. S. (2003) Processing of global, but not local, motion direction is deficient in schizophrenia processing. Schizophrenia Research 61:21527. [YC]
Chen, Y., Palafox, G., Nakayama, K., Levy, D. L., Matthysse, S. W. & Holzman, P. S. (1999b) Motion perception in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:14954. [YC]
Chevigny, H. & Braverman, S. (1950) The adjustment of the blind. Yale University Press. [GSS]
Chey, J., Grossberg, S. & Mingolla, E. (1997) Neural dynamics of motion grouping: From aperture ambiguity to object speed and direction. Journal of the Optical Society of America 14:257094. [SG]
Chey, J. & Holzman, P. S. (1997) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia: The employment of gestalt principles. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 106:530– 38. [YC, aWAP, rSMS]
Churchland, P. S., Koch, C. & Sejnowski, T. J. (1990) What is computational neuroscience? In: Computational neuroscience, ed. E. L. Schwartz. MIT Press. [rSMS]
Clark, L., Iversen, S. D. & Goodwin, G. M. (2001) A neuropsychological investigation of prefrontal cortex involvement in acute mania. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:160511. [rSMS]
Clementz, B. A., Barber, S. K. & Dzau, J. R. (2002) Knowledge of stimulus repetition affects the magnitude and spatial distribution of low-frequency event-related brain potentials. Audiology and Neurootology 7:30314. [rSMS]
Clementz, B. A. & Blumenfeld, L. D. (2001) Multichannel electroencephalographic assessment of auditory evoked response suppression in schizophrenia. Experimental Brain Research 139:37790. [MAK, rSMS]
Clementz, B. A., Blumenfeld, L. D. & Cobb, S. (1997) The gamma band response may account for poor P50 suppression in schizophrenia. NeuroReport 8: 3889–93. [MAK, MEP, aWAP]
Cohen, J. D., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S. & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1999a) Contextprocessing deficits in schizophrenia: Converging evidence from three theoretically motivated tasks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108:12033. [DCJ, aWAP]
Cohen, J. D., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S. & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1999b) Schizophrenic deficits in the processing of context: Converging evidence from three theoretically motivated cognitive tasks. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 108:12033. [DMB]
Cohen, J. D., Braver, T. S. & O’Reilly, R. (1996) A computational approach to prefrontal cortex, cognitive control and schizophrenia: Recent developments and current challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 351:151527. [DRH]
Cohen, J. D. & Servan-Schreiber, D. (1992) Context, cortex, and dopamine: A connectionist approach to behavior and biology in schizophrenia. Psychological Review 99:577. [DCJ, AWM, SP, aWAP, rSMS, DT]
Condray, R., Steinhauer, S. R., van Kammen, D. P. & Kasparek, A. (2002) The language system in schizophrenia: Effects of capacity and linguistic structure. Schizophrenia Bulletin 28:47590. [RC]
Conrad, K. (1958) Die Beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestalt Analyse des Wahns, 3rd edition. G. Thieme. [aWAP, LAS, rSMS]
Contestabile, A. (2000) Roles of NMDA receptor activity and nitric oxide production in brain development. Brain Research Reviews 32:476509. [REH]
Corcoran, R., Mercer, G. & Frith, C. D. (1995) Schizophrenia, symptomatology, and social inference: Investigating “theory of mind” in people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 17:513. [rSMS]
Cosgrove, J. & Newell, T. G. (1991) Recovery of neuropsychological functions during reduction in use of phencyclidine. Journal of Clinical Psychology 47:15969. [aWAP]
Coull, J. T. (1998) Neural correlates of attention and arousal: Insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology. Progress in Neurobiology 55:34361. [RDO]
Cox, M. D. & Leventhal, D. N. (1978) A multivariate analysis and modification of a preattentive perceptual dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 166:70918. [aWAP, rSMS]
Coyle, J. T. (1996) The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis for schizophrenia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry 3:24153. [aWAP]
Crick, F. (1994) The astonishing hypothesis. Touchstone. [rSMS]
Cromwell, R. (1975) Assessment of schizophrenia. Annual Review of Psychology 26:593619. [aWAP]
Csibra, G., Davis, G., Spratling, M. W. & Johnson, M. H. (2000) Gamma oscillations and object processing in the infant brain. Science 290:58285. [aWAP]
Curtis, C., Calkins, M. E., Grove, W. M., Feil, K. J. & Iacono, W. G. (2001) Saccadic disinhibition in patents with acute and remitted schizophrenia and their first-degree biological relatives. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:100106. [aWAP]
Cutting, J. (1989) Gestalt theory and psychiatry: Discussion paper. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 82:42932. [aWAP]
Cutting, J. & Dunne, F. (1989) Subjective experience of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15:21731. [aWAP]
Damasio, A. R. (1994) Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason and the human brain. Putnam. [aWAP]
Danion, J.-M., Rizzo, L. & Bryant, A. (1999) Functional mechanisms underlying recognition memory and conscious awareness in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:63944. [rSMS]
Das, A. & Gilbert, C. D. (1995) Long-range horizontal connections and their role in cortical reorganization revealed by optical recording of cat primary visual cortex. Nature 375:78084. [rSMS]
Davis, K. L., Kahn, R. S., Ko, G. & Davidson, M. (1991) Dopamine in schizophrenia: A review and reconceptualization. American Journal of Psychiatry 148:147486. [aWAP]
Daw, N. W., Stein, P. S. G. & Fox, K. (1993) The role of NMDA receptors in information processing. Annual Review of Neuroscience 16:20722. [aWAP]
DeBelleroche, J., Humphries, C., Durnin, A., Mortimer, A. & Hirsch, S. (1998) Regional specificity of changes in the expression of NMDA receptor and cholecystokinin mRNA in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 29:96. [GSS]
DeBeni, R. & Cornoldi, C. (1988) Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14:65055. [GSS]
Debruille, J. B. (1998) N400 and knowledge inhibition: Tests with words that look like common words. Brain and Language 62:20220. [DT]
Debruille, J. B., Pineda, J. & Renault, B. (1996) N400-like potentials elicited by faces and knowledge inhibition. Brain Research: Cognitive 4:13344. [DT]
Decker, R. & Koole, F. D. (1992) Visually impaired children's visual characteristics and intelligence. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 34:12333. [GSS]
Deiber, M. P., Ibanez, V., Honda, M., Sadato, N., Raman, R. & Hallett, M. (1995) Cerebral processes related to visuomotor imagery and generation of simple finger movements studied with positron emission tomography. NeuroImage 7:7385. [GSS]
Desimone, R. & Duncan, J. (1995) Neural mechanisms of selective attention. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18:193222. [aWAP, AR, PRR]
Dickerson, F. B. (2000) Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy for schizophrenia: A review of recent empirical studies. Schizophrenia Research 16:7190. [rSMS]
Dierks, T., Linden, D. E. J., Jandl, M., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Lanfermann, H. & Singer, W. (1999) Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. Neuron 22:61521. [PRR]
Doheny, H. C., Faulkner, H. J., Gruzelier, J. H., Baldeweg, T. & Whittington, M. A. (2000) Pathway-specific habituation of induced gamma oscillations in the hippocampal slice. NeuroReport 11:262933. [aWAP]
Dolan, R. J. Fletcher, P. C. McKenna, P., Friston, K. J. & Frith, C. D. (1999) Abnormal neural integration related to cognition in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 99:5867. [HPB, aWAP]
Donchin, E. & Coles, M. G. H. (1988) Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:35572. [DT]
Done, D. J. & Frith, C. D. (1984) The effect of context during word perception in schizophrenic patients. Brain and Language 23:31836. [DT]
Doniger, G. M., Silipo, G., Rabinowicz, E. F., Snodgrass, J. G. & Javitt, D. C. (2001) Impaired sensory processing as a basis for object-recognition deficits in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:181826. [DCJ]
Doody, G. A., Goetz, M., Johnson, E. C., Frith, C. D. & Cunningham-Owens, D. G. (1998) Theory of mind and psychoses. Psychological Medicine 28:397405. [DL]
Douglas, R. J. & Martin, K. A. C. (1990) Neocortex. In: The synaptic organization of the brain, ed. G. M. Shepherd. Oxford University Press. [aWAP]
Dove, A., Pollmann, S., Schubert, T., Wiggins, C. J. & von Cramon, Y. (2000) Prefrontal cortex activation in task switching: An event-related fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research 9:103109. [RDO]
Drury, V. M., Robinson, E. J. & Birchwood, M. (1998) “Theory of mind” skills during acute episode of psychosis and following recovery. Psychological Medicine 28:1,101–12. [DL]
Duffy, L. & O’Carroll, R. (1994) Memory impairment in schizophrenia – a comparison with that observed in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. Psychological Medicine 24:15565. [aWAP]
Duncan, E. J., Madonick, S. H., Parwani, A., Angrist, B., Rajan, R., Chakravorty, S., Efferen, T. R., Szilagyi, S., Stephanides, M., Chappell, P. B., Gonzenback, S., Ko, G. N. & Rotrosen, J. P. (2001) Clinical and sensorimotor gating effects of ketamine in normals. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:7283. [MEP, rSMS]
Duncan, G. E., Sheitman, B. B. & Lieberman, J. A. (1999) An integrated view of pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews 29:250– 64. [aWAP]
Eastwood, S. L. & Harrison, P. J. (1995) Decreased synaptophysin in the medial temporal lobe in schizophrenia demonstrated using immunoautoradiography. Neuroscience 69:33943. [REH]
Edelman, G. M. (1989) The remembered present. Basic Books. [aWAP]
Ellison, G. (1995) The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists phencyclidine, ketamine and dizocilpine as both behavioral and anatomical models of the dementias. Brain Research Review 20:25067. [aWAP]
Elvevag, B., Duncan, J. & McKenna, P. (2000) The use of cognitive context in schizophrenia: An investigation. Psychological Medicine 30:88597. [DRH]
Engel, A. K. & Singer, W. (2001) Temporal binding and the neural correlates of sensory awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:1625. [aWAP]
Epstein, R. (2000) The neural-cognitive basis of the Jamesian stream of thought. Consciousness and Cognition 9:55075. [DRH]
Fathollahi, Y. & Salami, M. (2001) The role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in synaptic plasticity of rat visual cortex in vitro: Effect of sensory experience. Neuroscience Letters 306:14952. [GSS]
Faulkner, H. J., Traub, R. D. & Whittington, M. A. (1998) Disruption of synchronous gamma oscillations in the rat hippocampal slice: A common mechanism of anaesthetic drug action. British Journal of Pharmacology 125:48392. [aWAP](1999) Anaesthetic/amnesic agents disrupt beta frequency oscillations associated with potentiation of excitatory synaptic potentials in the rat hippocampal slice. British Journal of Pharmacology 128:181325. [aWAP]
Feierman, J. (1982) Nocturnalism: An ethological theory of schizophrenia. Medical Hypotheses 9:45579. [GSS]
Feinberg, I. (1982/1983) Schizophrenia: Caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination? Journal of Psychiatric Research 17:31934. [REH]
Feldman, D., Sherif, J. E., Press, W. A. & Bear, M. F. (1990) N-methyl-Daspartate- evoked calcium uptake by kitten visual cortex maintained in vitro. Experimental Brain Research 80:25259. [GSS]
Feldman, R. S., Meyer, J. S. & Quenzer, L. F. (1997) Principles of neuropsychopharmacology. Sinauer. [aWAP]
Felleman, D. J. & Van Essen, D. C. (1991) Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex 1:147. [aWAP, PPR]
Field, D. J., Hayes, A. & Hess, R. F. (1993) Contour integration by the human visual system: Evidence for a local “association field.” Vision Research 33:17393. [MEP]
Fisher, R. (1976a) On creative, psychotic, and ecstatic states. In: Readings in abnormal psychology: Contemporary perspectives, ed. L. R. Allman & D. T. Jaffe. Harper and Row. (Original article published 1969). [aWAP]
Fisher, R. (1976b) On creative, psychotic, and ecstatic states: Update. In: Readings in abnormal psychology: Contemporary perspectives, ed. L. R. Allman & D. T. Jaffe. Harper and Row. [aWAP]
Fodor, J. A. & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1988) Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. Cognition 28:372. [aWAP, rSMS]
Fonta, C., Chappert, C. & Imbert, M. (2000) Effect of monocular deprivation on NMDAR1 immunostaining in ocular dominance columns of the marmoset Callithrix jacchus. Visual Neuroscience 17:34552. [GSS]
Fox, K., Henley, J. & Issac, J. (1999) Experience-dependent development of NMDA receptor transmission. Nature Neuroscience 2:29799. [GSS]
Fox, K., Sato, H. & Daw, N. W. (1990) The effect of varying stimulus intensity on NMDA-receptor activity in cat visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 64:141328. [aWAP, PPR]
Franks, R. D., Adler, L. E., Waldo, M. C., Alpert, J. & Freedman, R. (1983) Neurophysiological studies of sensory gating in mania: Comparison with schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 18:9891005. [aWAP, rSMS]
Fries, P., Reynolds, J. H., Rorie, A. E. & Desimone, R. (2001) Modulation of oscillatory neuronal synchronization by selective visual attention. Science 291:156063. [aWAP]
Friston, K. J. (1998) The disconnection hypothesis. Schizophrenia Research 30(2):11525. [YC, DRH](1999) Schizophrenia and the disconnection hypothesis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 99:6879. [HPB, aWAP]
Friston, K. J., Ungerleider, L. G., Jezzard, P. & Turner R. (1995) Characterizing modulatory interactions between areas V1 and V2 in human cortex: A new treatment of functional MRI data. Human Brain Mapping 2:21124. [aWAP]
Frith, C. D. (1992) The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Erlbaum/ Taylor and Francis. [DL, aWAP]
Frith, C. D. & Corcoran, R. (1996) Exploring theory of mind in people with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 26:52130. [DL]
Frith, C. D., Stevens, M., Johnstone, E. C., Owens, D. G. C. & Crow, T. (1983) Integration of schematic faces and other complex objects in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171:3439. [aWAP]
Frith, U. & Happé, F. (1994) Autism: Beyond “theory of mind.” Cognition 50: 115–32. [aWAP]
Funahashi, M. & Stewart, M. (1998) Properties of gamma-frequency oscillations initiated by propagating population bursts in retrohippocampal regions of rat brain slices. Journal of Physiology 510:191208. [aWAP]
Fuster, J. M. (1997) The prefrontal cortex. Lippincott-Raven. [aWAP]
Gaddum, J. & Hammeed, K. A. (1954) Drugs which antogonize 5- hydroxytriptamine. British Journal of Pharmacology 9:24048. [rSMS]
Gao, X-M., Sakai, K., Roberts, R. C., Conley, R. R., Dean, B. & Tamminga, C. A. (2000) Ionotropic glutamate receptors and expression of N-methyl-daspartate receptor subunits in subregions of human hippocampus: Effects of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 157:114149. [aWAP, rSMS]
Garey, L. J., Ong, W. Y., Patel, T. S., Kanani, M., Davis, A., Mortimer, A. M., Barnes, T. R. & Hirsch, S. R. (1998) Reduced dendritic spine density on cerebral cortical pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 65:44653. [REH]
Geary, D. C. & Huffman, K. J. (2002) Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms of modularity and functions of mind. Psychological Bulletin 128:66798. [GSS]
Geyer, M. A., Krebs-Thomson, K., Braff, D. L. & Swerdlow, N. R. (2001) Pharmacological studies of prepulse inhibition models of sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia: A decade in review. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 156:11754. [rSMS]
Ghonheim, M. M., Hinrichs, J. V., Mewaldt, S. P. & Petersen, R. C. (1985). Ketamine: behavioral effects of subanesthetic doses. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 5:7077. [aWAP]
Giere, R. N. (2001) The nature and function of models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:1060. [rSMS]
Gilbert, C. D. (1992) Horizontal integration and cortical dynamics. Neuron 9:113. [aWAP]
Gilbert, C. Ito, M., Kapadia, M. & Westheimer, G. (2000) Interactions between attention, context and learning in primary visual cortex. Vision Research 40:121726. [aWAP, rSMS]
Glantz, L. A. & Lewis, D. A. (1997) Reduction of synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. Regional and diagnostic specificity. Archives of General Psychiatry 54:66069. [REH](2000) Decreased dendritic spine density on prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 57:6573. [REH]
Goff, D. C. & Coyle, J. T. (2001) The emerging role of glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:136777. [aWAP, rSMS]
Goff, D. C., Tsai, G., Levitt, J., Amico, E., Manoach, D., Schoenfeld, D. A., Hayden, D. L., McCaley, R. & Coyle, J. T. (1999) A placebo-controlled trial of Dcycloserine added to conventional neuroleptics in patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:2127. [aWAP]
Gold, J. M., Carpenter, C. J., Randolph, C., Goldberg, T. & Weinberger, D. R. (1997) Auditory working memory and Wisconsin Card Sort Test in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 54:15965. [aWAP]
Goldberg, T. E., Aloia, M. S., Gourovitch, M. L., Missar, D., Pickar, D., & Weinberger, D. R. (1998) Cognitive substrates of thought disorder, I: The semantic system. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:167176. [aWAP]
Goldman-Rakic, P. S., Sclaidhe, S. P. O. & Chafee, M. V. (2000) Domain specificity in cognitive systems. In: The new cognitive neurosciences, ed. M. S. Gazzaniga. MIT Press. [aWAP, rSMS]
Goodarzi, M. A., Wykes, T. & Hemsley, D. R. (2000) Cerebral lateralization of global-local processing in people with schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research 45:11521. [aWAP]
Gooding, D. C. (l999) Antisaccade task performance in questionnaire-identified schizotypes. Schizophrenia Research 35:15766. [DCG]
Gooding, D. C., Kwapil, T. R. & Tallent, K. A. (l999) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals. Schizophrenia Research 40:201209. [DCG]
Gooding, D. C., Miller, M. D. & Kwapil, T. R. (2000) Smooth pursuit and visual fixation in psychosis-prone individuals. Psychiatry Research 93:4154. [DCG]
Gooding, D. C., Tallent, K. A. & Hegyi, J. V. (2001) Cognitive slippage in schizotypic individuals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 189:75056. [DCG]
Gopnik, A. & Wellman, H. M. (1992) Why the child's theory of mind really is a theory. Special Issue: Mental simulation: Philosophical and psychological essays. Mind and Language 7:14571. [DL]
Gordon, E., Williams, L. M., Haig, A. R., Wright, J. & Meares, R. A. (2001) Symptom profile and “gamma” processing in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 6:719. [arWAP, LMW]
Gottesman, I. I. (l991) Schizophrenia genesis. W. H. Freeman. [DCG]
Grace, A. A. (1991) Phasic vs. tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: A hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroscience 41:124. [JPG]
Grafman, J., Partiot, A. & Hollnagel, C. (1995) Fables of the prefrontal cortex. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:34958. [aWAP]
Gray, C. M. (1999) The temporal correlation hypothesis of visual feature integration: Still alive and well. Neuron 24:3147. [aWAP]
Gray, J. A., Feldon, J., Rawlins, J. N. P., Hemsley, D. R. & Smith, A. D. (1991) The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:184. [DRH, SP, aWAP]
Gray, J. R., Braver, T. S. & Raichle, M. E. (2002) Integration of emotion and cognition in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99(6):411520. [SP]
Graybiel, A. M. (1997) The basal ganglia and cognitive pattern generators. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23:45969. [aWAP]
Green, M. F., Nuechterlein, K. H., Breitmeyer, B. & Mintz, J. (1999) Backward masking in unmedicated schizophrenic patients in psychotic remission: Possible reflection of aberrant cortical oscillation. American Journal of Psychiatry 156:136773. [RC, aWAP]
Green, M. F., Nuechterlein, K. H. & Mintz, J. (1994) Backward masking in schizophrenia and mania: II. Specifying the visual channels. Archives of General Psychiatry 51:94551. [RC]
Green, M. J., Williams, L. M. & Hemsley, D. R. (2000) Cognitive theories of delusion formation: The contribution of visual scan path research. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 5:6374. [DRH]
Greengard, P., Nairn, A. C., Girault, J. A., Ouimet, C. C., Snyder, G. L., Fisone, G., Fienberg, A. & Nishi, A. (1998) The DARPP-32/protein phosphatase-1 cascade: A model for signal integration. Brain Research Reviews 26:27484. [aWAP]
Grossberg, S. (1976) Adaptive pattern classification and universal recoding, II: Feedback, expectation, olfaction, and illusions. Biological Cybernetics 23: 187–202. [SG]
Grossberg, S. (1978) Behavioral contrast in short-term memory: Serial binary memory models or parallel continuous memory models? Journal of Mathematical Psychology 3:199219. [SG]
Grossberg, S. (1984) Some normal and abnormal behavioral syndromes due to transmitter gating of opponent processes. Biological Psychiatry 19:1075118. [SG, LMW]
Grossberg, S. (1999) How does the cerebral cortex work? Learning, attention, and grouping by the laminar circuits of visual cortex. Spatial Vision 12:16385. [SG, PRR]
Grossberg, S. (2000a) How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention, and volition. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 6:58392. [SG]
Grossberg, S. (2000b) The complementary brain: Unifying brain dynamics and modularity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:23346. [SG]
Grossberg, S. (2000c) The imbalanced brain: From normal behavior to schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:8198. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Grunewald, A. (1997) Cortical synchronization and perceptual framing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9:11732. [SG]
Grossberg, S., Mingolla, E. & Viswanathan, L. (2001) Neural dynamics of motion integration and segmentation within and across apertures. Vision Research 41:252153. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Raizada, R. (2000) Contrast-sensitive perceptual grouping and object-based attention in the laminar circuits of primary visual cortex. Vision Research 40:141332. [SG]
Grossberg, S. & Somers, D. (1991) Synchronized oscillations during cooperative feature linking in a cortical model of visual perception. Neural Networks 4:45366. [SG]
Grunwald, T., Beck, H., Lehnertz, K., Blumcke, I., Pezer, N., Kurthen, M., Fernandez, G., Van Roost, D., Heinze, H. J., Kutas, M. & Elger, C. E. (1999) Evidence relating human verbal memory to hippocampal N-methyl-Daspartate receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96:1208589. [DT]
Grunze, H. C. R., Rainnie, D. G., Hasselmoe, M. E., Barkai, E. Hearn, E. F., McCarley, R. W. & Greene, R. W. (1996) NMDA-dependent modulation of CA1 local circuit inhibition. Journal of Neuroscience 16:203443. [aWAP]
Gruzelier, J. (2000) Self-regulation of electrocortical activity in schizophrenia and schizotypy: A review. Clinical Electroencephalography 31:2329. [rSMS]
Gruzelier, J., Seymour, K., Wilson, L., Jolley, A. & Hirsch, S. (1988) Impairments on neuropsychological tests of temporohippocampal and frontohippocampal functions and word fluency in remitting schizophrenia and affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 45:62329. [aWAP]
Guillem, F., Bicu, M., Hooper, R., Bloom, D., Wolf, M-A., Messier, J., Desautels, R. & Debruille. J. B. (2001) Memory impairment in schizophrenia: A study using event-related potentials in implicit and explicit tasks. Psychiatry Research 104:157173. [DT]
Guillem, F., Bicu, M., Hooper, R., Bloom, D., Wolf, M.-A., Messier, J. Desautels, R., Todorov, C., Lalonde, P., Debruille, J. B. (2003) The cognitive and anatomo-functional basis of reality distortion in schizophrenia: A view from memory event-related potentials. Psychiatry Research 111:13758. [DT]
Gurd, J. M., Amunts, K., Weiss, P. H., Zafiris, O., Zilles, K., Marshall, J. C. & Fink, G. R. (2002) Posterior parietal cortex is implicated in continuous switching between verbal fluency tasks: An fMRI study with clinical implications. Brain 125:102438. [RDO]
Gurwitsch, A. (1964) The field of consciousness. Duquesne University Press. [LAS, rSMS]
Habeck, C. G. & Srinivasan, R. (2000) Neural solutions to the problem of functional integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:402403. [aWAP]
Hachem, D. G., Vivian, P. J. & Azouri, E. F. (1997) Retrospective study of 6,988 involuntary schizophrenic admissions and readmissions over a decade (1980– 1990). Biological Psychiatry 42(1) (Suppl. 2):193S. [JPG]
Haenschel, C., Baldeweg, T., Croft, R. J., Whittington, M. & Gruzelier, J. (2000) Gamma and beta frequency oscillations in response to novel auditory stimuli: A comparison of human electroencephalogram (EEG) data with in vitro models. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:764550. [aWAP]
Halford, G., Wilson, W. H. & Phillips, S. (1998) Relational complexity metric is effective when assessments are based on actual cognitive processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(6):84864. http://www.bbsonline.org/documents/a/00/00/05/50/bbs00000550–00/bbs.halford.html [DL]
Halgren, E. & Smith, M. E. (1987) Cognitive evoked potentials as modulatory processes in human memory formation and retrieval. Human Neurobiology 6:12939. [DT]
Hamilton, R. & Pascual-Leone, A. (1998) Cortical plasticity associated with Braille learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2:16874. [GSS]
Happé, F. (1997) Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 15:112. [aWAP]
Happé, F. (1999) Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 3:21622. [aWAP]
Harborne, G. C., Watson, F. L., Healy, D. T. & Groves, L. (1996) The effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine on memory, cognitive performance and subjective experience in healthy volunteers. Journal of Psychopharmacology 10:13440. [aWAP]
Harrison, P. J. & Eastwood, S. L. (2001) Neuropathological studies of synaptic connectivity in the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. Hippocampus 11(5):50819. [LMT]
Hasbani, M. J., Schlief, M. L., Fisher, D. A. & Goldberg, M. P. (2001) Dendritic spines lost during glutamate receptor activation reemerge at original sites of synaptic contact. Journal of Neuroscience 21:2393403. [REH]
Heinrichs, R. W. (1993) Schizophrenia and the brain. American Psychologist 48:22133. [aWAP]
Hemby, S. E., Ginsberg, S. D., Brunk, B., Arnold, S. E., Trojanowski, J. Q. & Eberwine, J. H. (2002) Gene expression profile for schizophrenia: Discrete neuron transcription patterns in the entorhinal cortex. Archives of General Psychiatry 59(7):63140. [LMT]
Hemsley, D. R. (1975) A two stage model of attention in schizophrenia research. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 14:8188. [DRH]
Hemsley, D. R. (1994) Cognitive disturbance as the link between schizophrenic symptoms and their biological bases. Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research 2:16370. [DRH]
Hemsley, D. R. (1998) The disruption of the “sense of self” in schizophrenia: Potential links with disturbances of information processing. British Journal of Medical Psychology 71:11524. [DRH]
Hemsley, D. R., Rawlins, J. N. P., Feldon, J., Jones, S. H. & Gray J. A. (1993) The neuropsychology of schizophrenia: Act 3. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:20915. [DRH, RDO, aWAP]
Hemsley, D. R. & Richardson, P. H. (1980) Shadowing by context in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 168:14145. [DRH]
Heresco-Levy, U., Javitt, D. C., Ermilov, M., Mordel, C., Silipo, G. & Lichtenstein M. (1999) Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:2936. [aWAP, rSMS]
Hertzman, M., Reba, R. C. & v.Kotlyarov, E. (1991). Single photon emission computed tomography in phencyclidine and related drug abuse. American Journal Psychiatry 147:25657. [aWAP]
Hirsch, S. R., Das, I., Garey, L. J. & Debelleroche, J. (1997) A pivotal role for glutamate in the pathogenisis of schizoprenia and its cognitive dysfunction. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 56:797802. [aWAP]
Hoffman, R. E., Buchsbaum, M. S., Jensen, R. V., Guich, S. M., Tsai, K. & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1996) Dimensional complexity of EEG waveforms in neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients and normal control subjects. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 8:43641. [aWAP]
Hoffman, R. E. & Dobscha, S. (1989) Cortical pruning and the development of schizophrenia: A computer model. Schizophrenia Bulletin 15:47790. [REH]
Hoffman, R. E. & McGlashan, T. H. (1993) Parallel distributed processing and the emergence of schizophrenic symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 19:11940. [aWAP, rSMS]
Hoffman, R. E. & McGlashan, T. H. (1997) Synaptic elimination, neurodevelopment and the mechanism of hallucinated “voices” in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 154:168389. [REH]
Hoffman, R. E. & McGlashan, T. H. (2001) Neural networks models of schizophrenia. The Neuroscientist 7:44154. [REH]
Holcomb, H. H., Lahti, A. C., Medoff, D. R., Weiler, M. & Tamminga, C. A. (2001) Sequential regional cerebral blood flow brain scans using PET with H2(15)O demonstrate ketamine actions in CNS dynamically. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:16572. [MAT]
Holcomb, P. J. (1993) Semantic priming and stimulus degradation: Implications for the role of the N400 in language processing. Psychophysiology 30:4761. [DT]
Holzman, P. S. (1994) Parsing cognition. The power of psychology paradigms. Archives of General Psychiatry 51(12):95254. [YC]
Horrobin, D. (1979) Schizophrenia: Reconciliation of the dopamine, prostaglandin, and opioid concepts and the role of the pineal. Lancet 1 (Issue 8115):529–31. [GSS]
Horwitz, B., Tagamets M. A. & McIntosh A. R. (1999) Neural modeling, functional brain imaging, and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3:9198. [MAT]
Ibrahim, H. M., Hogg, A. J., Healy, D. J., Haroutunian, V., Davis, K. L. & Meador-Woodruff, J. H. (2000) Ionotropic glutamate receptor binding and subunit mRNA expression in the schizophrenic thalamus. Biological Psychiatry 47: 22–28. [rSMS]
Ito, M. & Gilbert, C. D. (1999) Attention modulates contextual influences in the primary visual cortex of alert monkeys. Neuron 22:593604. [aWAP]
Izawa, R. & Yamamoto, S. (2002) Spatio-temporal disintegration of visual perception in schizophrenia as revealed by a novel cognitive task, the Searchlight Test. Schizophrenia Research 52:6774. [rSMS]
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology. Macmillan. [DRH]
Janowsky, J. S., Shimamura, A. P. & Squire, L. R. (1989) Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia 27: 1043–56. [aWAP]
Jarrold, C., Butler, D. W., Cottington, E. M. & Jiminez, F. (2000) Linking theory of mind and central coherence bias in autism and in the general population. Developmental Psychology 36:12638. [rSMS]
Javitt, D. C., Shelley, A.-M. & Riter, W. (2000) Associated deficits in mismatch negativity generation and tone matching in schizophrenia. Clinical Neurophysiology 111:173337. [RDO]
Javitt, D. C., Silipo, G., Cienfuegos, A., Shelley, A. M., Bark, N., Park, M., Lindenmayer, J. P., Suckow, R. & Zukin, S. R. (2001) Adjunctive high-dose glycine in the treatment of schizophrenia. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 4:38592. [DCJ]
Javitt, D. C., Steinscheider, M., Schroeder, C. E. & Arezzo, J. C. (1996) Role of cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in auditory sensory memory and mismatch negativity generation: Implications for schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93:1196267. [aWAP, LMT, MEP]
Javitt, D. C. & Zukin, S. R. (1989) Biexponential kinetics of [3H]MK-801 binding: Evidence for access to closed and open N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels. Molecular Pharmacology 35:38793. [rSMS](1991) Recent advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 148:1301308. [aWAP, rSMS]
Javoy-Agid, F., Scatton, B, Ruberg, M., L’Heureux, R., Cervera, P., Raisman, R., Maloteaux, J. M., Beck, H. & Agid, Y. (1989) Distribution of monoaminergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic markers in the human cerebral cortex. Neuroscience 29:25159. [LMW]
Jemel, B., Achenbach, C., Müller, B. W., Röpcke, B. & Oades R. D. (2002) Mismatch negativity results from bilateral asymmetric dipole sources in the frontal and temporal lobes. Brain Topography 15:1327. [RDO]
Jensen, O., Idiart, M. A. P. & Lisman, J. E. (1996) Physiologically realistic formation of autoassociative memory in networks with theta/gamma oscillations: Role of fast NMDA channels. Learning and Memory 3:24356. [aWAP]
Jensterle, J., Mlakar, J., Vodusek, D. B. & Frith, C. D. (2000) Disorganization in schizophrenia need not result from a failure to inhibit dominant response tendencies. Cognitive neuropsychiatry 5:10521. [DRH]
Jentsch, J. D., Redmond, Jr. D. E., Elsworth, J. D., Taylor, J. R., Youngren, K. D. & Roth, R. H. (1997a) Enduring cognitive deficits and cortical dopamine dysfunction in monkeys after long-term administration of phencyclidine. Science 277:95355. [aWAP]
Jentsch, J. D. & Roth, R. H. (1999) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: From NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:20125. [aWAP, rSMS]
Jentsch, J. D., Tran, A., Le, D., Youngren, K. D. & Roth, R. H. (1997b) Subchronic phencyclidine administration reduces mesoprefrontal dopamine utilization and impairs prefrontal cortical dependent cognition in the rat. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:9299. [aWAP]
Jockers-Scherubl, M. C., Godeman, F. & Pitzcker, A. (2001) Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are improved by paroxetine added to neuroleptics: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62:573. [RDO]
John, C. H. & Hemsley, D. R. (1992) Gestalt perception in schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience 241(4):21521. [YC]
John, E. R. (2001) A field theory of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 10:184213. [RC]
Johnson, S. C. & Carey, S. (1998) Knowledge enrichment and conceptual change in folkbiology: Evidence from Williams syndrome. Cognitive Psychology 37(2):156200. [DL]
Jones, S. H., Hemsley, D. R. & Gray, J. A. (1991) Contextual effects on choice reaction time and accuracy in acute and chronic schizophrenics. British Journal of Psychiatry 159:41521. [aWAP]
Judd, L. L., McAdams, L., Budnick, B. & Braff, D. L. (1992) Sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia: New results. American Journal of Psychiatry 149:48893. [aWAP]
Kähkönen, S., Ahveninen, J., Pekkonen, E., Kaakkola, S., Huttunen, J., Ilmoniemi, R. J. & Jääskiläinen, I. P. (2002) Dopamine modulates involuntary attention shifting and reorienting: An electromagnetic study. Clinical Neurophysiology 113:18941902. [RDO]
Kandel, E. R. (1998) A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry 155:45769. [aWAP]
Kapadia, M. K., Ito, M., Gilbert, C. D. & Westheimer, G. (1995) Improvement in visual sensitivity by changes in local context: Parallel studies in human observers and in V1 of alert monkeys. Neuron 15:84356. [aWAP, PPR]
Kaplan, R. D. (1974) The crossover phenomenon: Three studies of the effect of training and information on process schizophrenic reaction time. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. [aWAP]
Kapur, S. & Seeman, P. (2002) NMDA receptor antagonists ketamine and PCP have direct effects on the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors: Implications for models of schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 7:83744. [RDO, rSMS]
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1998) Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 2:38998. [aWAP]
Karp, H. N., Kaufman, N. D. & Anand, S. K. (1980) Phencyclidine poisoning in young children. Journal of Pediatrics 97:10061009. [aWAP]
Karson, C. N., Mrak, R. E., Schluterman, K. O., Sturner, W. Q., Sheng, J. G. & Griffin, W. S. (1999) Alterations in synaptic proteins and their encoding mRNAs in prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: A possible neurochemical basis for “hypofrontality.” Molecular Psychiatry 4:3945. [REH]
Kay, J., Floreano, D. & Phillips, W. A. (1998) Contextually guided unsupervised learning using local multivariate binary processors. Neural Networks 11:117– 40. [aWAP, rSMS]
Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A. & Fiszbein, A. (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANNS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:26176. [aWAP]
Kegeles, L. S., Abi-Dargham, A., Zea-Ponce, Y., Rodenhiser-Hill, J., Mann, J. J., Van Heertum, R. L., Cooper, T. B., Carlsson, A. & Laruelle, M. (2000) Modulation of amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release by ketamine in humans: Implications for schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 48:62740. [DCJ]
Keil, A., Müller, M. M., Ray, W. J., Gruber, T. & Elbert, T. (1999) Human gamma band activity and perception of a gestalt. Journal of Neuroscience 19:715261. [aWAP, rSMS]
Kelso, J. A. S. (1995) Dynamic patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior. MIT Press. [aWAP]
Kendler, K. S., McGuire, M., Gruenberg, A. M., O’Hare, A., Spellman, M. & Walsch D. (1993) The Roscommon family study. I. Methods, diagnosis of probands, and risk of schizophrenia in relatives. Archives of General Psychiatry 50:52740. [REH]
Kim, D., Zemon, V., Saperstein, A., Butler, P. D. & Javitt, D. C. (2002) Lateral cortical interactions in schizophrenia: A visual evoked potential study. Program No. 705.13. 2002 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. Society for Neuroscience, 2002. CD-ROM. [MEP]
Kisley, M. A., Olincy, A., Robbins, E., Polk, S. D., Adler, L. E., Waldo, M. C. & Freedman, R. (2003) Sensory gating impairment associated with schizophrenia persists into REM sleep. Psychophysiology, 40:2938. [MAK]
Kissler, J., Muller, M. M., Fehr, T., Rockstruh, B. & Elbert, T. (2000) MEG gamma band activity in schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects in a mental arithmetic task and at rest. Clinical Neurophysiology 111:207987. [aWAP]
Klosterkötter, J., Schultze-Lutter, F., Gross, G., Huber, G. & Steinmeyer, E. M. (1997) Early self-experienced neuropsychological deficits and subsequent schizophrenic diseases: An 8-year average follow-up prospective study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 95:396404. [LAS]
Knierim, J. J. & Van Essen, D. C. (1992) Neuronal responses to static texture patterns in area V1 of the alert macaque monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology 67:96180. [PRR]
Knight, R. A. (1984) Converging models of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. In: Theories of schizophrenia and psychosis. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1983, ed. W. D. Spaulding & J. K. Cole. University of Nebraska Press. [aWAP, rSMS]
Knight, R. A. (1992) Specifying cognitive deficiencies in poor premorbid schizophrenics. In: Progress in experimental personality and psychopathology research, vol. 15, ed. E. F. Walker, R. H. Dworkin & B. A. Cornblatt. [aWAP, rSMS]
Knight, R. A., Elliot, D. S. & Freedman, E. G. (1985) Short-term visual memory in schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94:42742. [aWAP]
Knight, R. A. & Roff, J. D. (1985) Affectivity in schizophrenia: The predictive and discriminant validity of affectivity deficits. Chapter 15:280317. In: Controversies in schizophrenia: Changes and constancies, ed. M. Alpert. Erlbaum. [MA]
Knight, R. A. & Silverstein, S. M. (1998) The role of cognitive psychology in guiding research on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In: Origins and development of schizophrenia: Advances in experimental psychopathology, ed. M. Lenzenweger & R. H. Dworkin. APA Press. [aWAP, rSMS]
Knight, R. A. & Silverstein, S. M. (2001) A process-oriented approach for averting confounds resulting from general performance deficiencies in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110:1530. [rSMS]
Knight, R., Manoach, D. S, Elliott, D. S. & Hershenson, M. (2001) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia: The processing of symmetrical configurations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:57587. [LAS]
Köhler, W. (1929) Gestalt psychology. Liveright. [rSMS]
Köhler, W. (1947) Gestalt psychology: An introduction to new concepts in modern psychology. Liveright. [rSMS]
Konstantareas, M. M. & Hewitt, T. (2001) Autistic disorder and schizophrenia: Diagnostic overlaps. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:19– 28. [aWAP]
Kopell, N. (2000) We got rhythm: Dynamical systems of the nervous system. Notices of the AMS 47:616. [aWAP, rSMS, MAT]
Körding, K. P. & König, P. (2000) Learning with two sites of synaptic integration. Network: Computation in Neural Systems 11:2540. [aWAP]
Kovács, I. (1996) Gestalten of today: Early processing of visual contours and surfaces. Behavioral Brain Research 82:111. [aWAP]
Koyama, S., Nageishi, Y., Shimokochi, M., Hokama, H., Miyazato, Y., Miyatani, M. & Ogura, C. (1991) The N400 component of event-related potentials in schizophrenic patients: A preliminary study. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 78:12432. [DT]
Kreiter, A. K., & Singer, W. (1996) Stimulus-dependent synchronization of neuronal responses in the visual cortex of the awake Macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience 16:238196. [aWAP]
Krystal, J. H., Bennett, A., Abi-Saab, W. M., Belger, A., Karper, L. P., D’Souza, D. C., Lipschitz, D., Abi-Dargham, A. & Charney, D. S. (2000) Dissociation of ketamine effects on rule acquisition and rule implementation: Possible relevance to NMDA receptor contributions to executive cognitive functions. Biological Psychiatry 47:13743. [aWAP]
Krystal, J. H., Karper, L. P., Seibyl, J. P., Freeman, G. K., Delaney, R., Bremner, J. D., Heninger, G. R., Bowers, M. B. & Charney, D. S. (1994) Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA anatagonist, ketamine, in humans. Archives of General Psychiatry 51:199214. [aWAP]
Kujala, T., Alho, K., Kekoni, J., Hamalainen, H., Rainikainen, K., Salonen, O., Standertskjold-Nordenstam, C. G. & Naatanen, R. (1995) Auditory and somatosensory event-related brain potentials in early blind humans. Experimental Brain Research 104:51926. [GSS]
Kuperberg, G. R., McGuire, P. K. & David, A. S. (1998) Reduced sensitivity to linguistic context in schizophrenic thought disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107:42334. [aWAP, rSMS]
Kutas, M. (1988) Review of event-related potentials studies of memory. In: Perspectives of memory research, ed. M. S. Gazzaniga. MIT Press. [DT]
Kutas, M, McCarthy, G, Donchin, E. (1977) Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation time. Science 197(4305):79295. [DT]
Kutsuwada, T., Kashiwabuchi, N., Mori, H., Sakimura, K., Kushiya, E., Araki, K., Meguro, H., Masaki, H., Kumanisis, T., Arakawa, M. & Mishina, M. (1992) Molecular diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. Nature 358:3641. [aWAP]
Kwapil, T. R. (l998) Social anhedonia as a predictor of the development of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 107:558– 65. [DCG]
Kwon, J. S., O’Donnell, B. F., Wallenstein, G. V., Greene, R. W., Hirayasu, Y., Nestor, P. G., Hasselmo, M. E., Potts, G. F., Shenton, M. E. & McCarley, R. W. (1999) Gamma-frequency range abnormalities to auditory stimulation in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:10011005. [MAK, aWAP, rSMS]
Kwon, Y. H., Nelson, S. B., Toth, L. J. & Sur, M. (1992) Effect of stimulus contrast and size on NMDA receptor activity in cat lateral geniculate nucleus. Journal of Neurophysiology 68:18296. [DCJ]
Lahti, A. C., Holcomb, H. H., Medoff, D. R. & Tamminga, C. A. (1995a) Ketamine activates psychosis and alters limbic blood-flow in schizophrenia. NeuroReport 6:86972. [aWAP]
Lahti, A. C., Koffel, B., Laporte, D. & Tamminga, C. A. (1995b) Subanesthetic doses of ketamine stimulate psychosis in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 13:919. [aWAP]
Lamme, V. A. F. & Roelfsema, P. R. (2000) The distinct modes of vision offered by feedforward and recurrent processing. Trends in Neuroscience 23:57179. [PRR]
Lamme, V. A. F. & Spekreijse, H. (2000) Contextual modulation in primary visual cortex and scene perception. In: The new cognitive neurosciences, ed. M. S. Gazzaniga. MIT Press. [aWAP]
Lamme, V. A. F., Zipser, K. & Spekreijse, H. (1998) Figure-ground activity in primary visual cortex is suppressed by anesthesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:326368. [PRR]
Lee, J., Chun, M. M., Jiang, Y. & Park, S. (2003a) Spatial context effects on visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 605:143. [SP]
Lee, J. & Park, S. (2002a) The role of stimuli-driven attention in spatial working memory in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 53(3):131. [SP]
Lee, J. & Park, S. (2002b) The effect of target salience on the Continuous Performance Task (CPT-AX) performance in schizophrenia patients. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of Society for Research in Psychopathology, San Francisco, CA p. 20. [SP]
Lee, K.-H., Williams, L. M., Breakspear, M. & Gordon, E. (2003b) Synchronous Gamma activity: A review and contribution to an integrative neuroscience model of schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews 41:5778. [aWAP, LMW]
Lee, K.-H., Williams, L. M., Haig A. & Gordon, E. (2003c) “Gamma (40Hz) phase synchronicity” and symptom dimensions in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 8:5771. [LMW]
Lehar, S. (2002) The world in your head: A gestalt view of the mechanism of conscious experience. Erlbaum. [rSMS](in press) Gestalt isomorphism and the primacy of subjective conscious experience: A gestalt bubble model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. [rSMS]
Leiser, D. (2001) Scattered naive theories: Why the human mind is isomorphic to the internet web. New Ideas in Psychology 19(3):175202. http://www.bgu.ac.il/∼dleiser/docs/naive.pdf [DL]
Lewis, D. A. & Gonzalez-Burgos, G. (2000) Intrinsic excitatory connections in the prefrontal cortex and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Brain Research Bulletin 52:30917. [REH]
Lezak, M. (1995) Neuropsychological assessment, 3rd edition. Oxford University Press. [aWAP]
Liddle, P. F. (1987) The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. A re-examination of the positive-negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry 151:14551. [aWAP]
Liddle, P. F., Friston, K. J., Frith, C. D., Hirsch, S. R., Jones, T. & Frakowiak, R. S. J. (1992) Patterns of cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 160:17986. [aWAP]
Liddle, P. F. & Morris, D. L. (1991) Schizophrenic syndromes and frontal lobe performance. British Journal of Psychiatry 158:34045. [aWAP]
Lindenmayer, J.-P., Bernstein-Hyman, R. & Grochowski, S. (1994) A new five factor model of schizophrenia. Psychiatric Quarterly 65:299322. [aWAP, rSMS]
Liotti, M., Ryder, K. & Woldorff, M. G. (1998) Auditory attention in the congenitally blind: Where, when and what gets reorganized? NeuroReport 9:100712. [GSS]
Lisman, J. E., Fellous, J. M. & Wang, X. J. (1998) A role for NMDA-receptor channels in working memory. Nature Neuroscience 1:27375. [aWAP, rSMS]
Lisman, J. E. & Idiart, M. A. P. (1995) Storage of 71/- 2 short-term memories in oscillatory subcycles. Science 267:151214. [aWAP]
Liu, D., Diorio, J., Day, J. C., Francis, D. D. & Meaney, M. J. (2000) Maternal care, hippocampal synaptogenesis, and cognitive development in rats. Nature Neuroscience 3:799806. [rSMS]
Llinas, R. (1993) Is dyslexia a dyschronia? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 682:4856. [RC]
Lovell, P. G. (2002) Human contour integration: Evaluating the association field theory using psychophysical and computational methods. Submitted doctoral dissertation, University of Stirling, UK. Available via Internet at: http://www.stir.ac.uk/Departments/HumanSciences/Psychology/Postgrads/pgl1/downloads/PhDThesis/Thesis_MaxCompression.pdf [MEP]
Lubow, R. E. (1989) Latent inhibition and conditioned attention theory. Cambridge University Press. [DRH]
Lubow, R. E., Kaplan, O., Abramovich, P., Rudnick, A. & Laor, N. (2000) Visual search in schizophrenia: Latent inhibition and novel pop-out effects. Schizophrenia Research 45:14556. [PRR]
Luby, E. D., Gottlieb, J. S., Cohen, B. D. & Rosenbaum, G. (1962) Model psychoses and schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 119:6167. [aWAP]
Luck, S. J. & Vogel, E. K. (1997) The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature 390:27981. [aWAP]
Lutz, A. (2002) Toward a neurophenomenology as an account of generative passages: A first empirical case study. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1:13367. [rSMS]
MacDonald, A. W., III, Pogue-Geile, M. F., Johnson, M. K. & Carter, C. S. (2003) A specific deficit in context processing in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 60:5765. [AWM, rSMS]
Magaro, P. A. (1980) Cognition in schizophrenia and paranoia: The integration of cognitive processes. Erlbaum. [aWAP]
Maher, B. A., Manschreck, T. C. & Rucklos, M. E. (1980) Contextual constraint and the recall of verbal material in schizophrenia: The effect of thought disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 137:6973. [aWAP]
Malhotra, A. K., Pinals, D. A., Adler, C. M., Elman, I., Clifton, A., Pickar, D. & Breier, A. (1997) Ketamine-induced exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics. Neuropsychopharmacology 17:14150. [aWAP]
Malhotra, A. K., Pinals, D. A., Weingartner, H., Sirocco, K., Missar, C. D., Pickar, D. & Breier, A. (1996) NMDA receptor function and human cognition – The effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 14:301– 307. [aWAP]
Marenco, S. & Weinberger, D. R. (2000) The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia: Following a trail of evidence from cradle to grave. Development and Psychopathology, 12:50127. [RC]
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. W. W. Freeman. [rSMS]
Mathe, J. M., Nomikos, G. G., Schilstrom, B. & Svensson, T. H. (1998) Non- NMDA excitatory amino acid receptors in the ventral tegmental area mediate systemic dizocilpine (MK-801) induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Journal of Neuroscience Research 51:583– 92. [rSMS]
Matussek, P. (1952/1987) Untersuchungen über die Wahnwahrnehmung [Studies in delusional perception]. Archiv für Psychiatry und Zeitschrift Neurologie 189:279318. Translated and condensed English edition, 1987. In: Clinical roots of the schizophrenia concept. Translations of seminal European contributions on schizophrenia, ed. J. Cutting & M. Sheppard. Cambridge University Press. [aWAP, LAS, rSMS]
Maunsell, J. H. R. (1995) The brain's visual world: Representations of visual targets in cerebral cortex. Science 270:76468. [aWAP]
Mayes, A. R., Meudell, P. R. & Pickering, A. D. (1985) Is organic amnesia caused by a selective deficit in remembering contextual information? Cortex 21:167– 202. [DRH]
McAdams, C. J. & Maunsell, J. H. R. (1999) Effects of attention on orientationtuning functions of single neurons in macaque area V4. Journal of Neuroscience 19:43141. [PRR]
McBain, C. J. & Mayer, M. L. (1994) N-Methyl-D-Aspartic acid receptor structure and function. Physiological Review 74:72363. [aWAP]
McCarley, R. W., Hsiao, J., Freedman, R., Pfefferbaum, A. & Donchin, E. (1996) Neuroimaging and the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 22:70326. [rSMS]
McCarley, R. W., Niznikiewicz, M. A., Salisbury, D. F., Nesotr, P. G., Salisbury, D. F., O’Donnell, B. F., Hirayasu, Y., Grunze, H., Greene, R. W. & Shenton, M. E. (l999) Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: Unifying basic research and clinical aspects. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249(Suppl. 4):69–82. [DCG]
McDonald, L. M., Moran, P. M., Vythelingum, M. H., Joseph, J. H., Stephenson, J. D. & Gray, J. A. (2002) Latent inhibition is attenuated by noise and restored by a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. Behavioural Pharmacology 13:66367. [RDO]
McGhie, A. & Chapman, J. (1961) Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. British Journal of Medical Psychology 34:10316. [rSMS]
McGlashan, T. H. & Hoffman, R. E. (2000) Schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally-reduced synaptic connectivity. Archives of General Psychiatry 57:63748. [aWAP, REH]
Meador-Woodruff, J. H. & Healy, D. J. (2000). Glutamate receptor expression in schizophrenic brain. Brain Research Reviews 31:28894. [aWAP]
Mechri, A., Saoud, M., Khiari, G., d’Amato, T., Dalery, J. & Gaha, L. (2001) Glutaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia: studies with ketamine. Encephale 27:5359. [aWAP]
Medalia, A., Aluma, M., Tryon, W. & Merriam, A. E. (1998) Effectiveness of attention training in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 24:14752. [rSMS]
Mednick, S. A. & Silverton, L. (1988) High-risk studies of the etiology of schizophrenia. In: Handbook of schizophrenia: Nosology, epidemiology, and genetics of schizophrenia, vol. 3, ed. M. T. Tsuang & J. C. Simpson. Elsevier. [aWAP]
Medoff, D. R., Holcomb, H. H., Lahti, A. C. & Tamminga, C. A. (2001) Probing the human hippocampus using RCBF: Contrasts in schizophrenia. Hippocampus 11:54350. [MAT]
Meehl, P. E. (l962) Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist 17:82738. [DCG, rSMS](l989) Schizotaxia revisited. Archives of General Psychiatry 46:93544. [DCG]
Meeter, M., Murre, J. M. J. & Talamini, L. M. (2002) A computational approach to memory deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocomputing 44:92936. [LMT]
Menninger, K., Mayman, M. & Pruyser P. (1963) The vital balance. The Viking Press. [HPB]
Michie, P. T. (2001) What has MMN revealed about the auditory system in schizophrenia? International Journal of Psychophysiology 42:17794. [RDO]
Miller, C. L., Bickford, P. C., Luntz-Leybman, V., Adler, L. E., Gerhardt, G. A. & Freedman, R. (1992) Phencyclidine and auditory sensory gating in the hippocampus of the rat. Neuropharmacology 31:104148. [MAK]
Miller, E. K. & Cohen, J. D. (2001) An integrative theory of prefrontal cortical function. Annual Review of Neuroscience 24:167202. [aWAP]
Milner, R. (1999) Communicating and mobile systems: The p calculus. Cambridge University Press. [HPB]
Mintz, S. & Alpert, M. (1972) Imagery vividness, reality testing and schizophrenic hallucinations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 79(3):31016. [MA]
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H. & Howerter, A. (2000) The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology 41:49100. [DCG]
Moghaddam, B., Adams, B., Verma, A. & Daly, D. (1997) Activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by ketamine – A novel step in the pathway from NMDA receptor blockade to dopaminergic and cognitive disruptions associated with the prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 17:292127. [aWAP]
Mohn, A. R., Gainetdinov, R. R., Caron, M. G. & Koller, B. H. (1999) Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia. Cell 98:42736. [rSMS]
Møller, P. & Husby, R. (2000) The initial prodrome in schizophrenia: Searching for naturalistic core dimensions of experience and behavior. Schizophrenia Bulletin 26:21732. [LAS]
Monaghan, D. T., Bridges, R. J., & Cotman, C. (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors: Their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 29:365402. [aWAP]
Monchi, O., Taylor, J. G. & Dagher, A. (2002) A neural model of working memory processes in normal subjects, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia for fMRI design and predictions. Neural Networks 13:95373. [LMT]
Monyer, H., Burnashev, N., Laurie, D. J., Sakmann, B. & Seeburg, P. H. (1994) Developmental and regional expression in the rat brain and functional properties of four NMDA receptors. Neuron 12:52940. [aWAP]
Moran, P. M., Al-Uzri, M. M., Watson, J. & Reveley, M. A. (2003) Reduced Kamin blocking in non-paranoid schizophrenia: Associations with schizotypy. Journal of Psychiatric Research 37:15563. [RDO]
Murthy, V. N. & Fetz, E. E. (1996) Synchronization of neurons during local field potential oscillations in sensorimotor cortex of awake monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology 76:396882. [aWAP]
Näätänen, R. (1990) The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:20188. [RDO]
Nadler, V., Kloog, Y. & Sokolovsky M. (1990) Distinctive structural requirement for the binding of uncompetitive blockers (phencyclidine-like drugs) to the NMDA receptor. European Journal of Pharmacology 188:97104. [rSMS]
Nakagawa, H., Sato, K., Shiraishi, Y., Kuriyama, H. & Altschuler, R. A. (2000) NMDAR1 isoforms in the rat superior olivary complex and changes after unilateral cochlear ablation. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research 77:24657. [GSS]
Neville, H., Kutas, M., Chesney, G. & Schmidt, A. L. (1986) Event-related brain potentials during initial encoding and recognition memory of congruous and incongruous words. Journal of Memory and Language 25:7592. [DT]
Newcomer, J. W., Farber, N. B., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Selke, G., Melson, A. K., Hershley, T., Craft, S. & Olney, J. W. (1998) Ketamine-induced NMDA receptor hypofunction as a model of memory impairment and psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology 20:10618. [aWAP]
Newcomer, J. W. & Krystal, J. H. (2001) NMDA receptor regulation of memory and behavior in humans. Hippocampus 11:52942. [LMT]
Niebur, E. (2001) Research, robots, and reality: A statement on current trends in biorobotics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:107273. [rSMS]
Nishijo, H., Yamamoto, Y., Ono, T., Uwano, T., Yamashita, J. & Yamashita, T. (1997) Single neuron responses in the monkey anterior cingulate cortex during visual discrimination. Neuroscience Letters 227:7982. [GSS]
Niznikiewicz, M. A., Voglmaier, M., Shenton, M. E., Seidman, L. J., Dickey, C. C., Rhoads, R., Teh, E. & McCarley, R. W. (1999) Electrophysiological correlates of language processing in schizotypal personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 56:105258. [DT]
Nuechterlein, K. H. (1977). Reaction time and attention in schizophrenia: A critical evaluation of the data and theories. Schizophrenia Bulletin 3:373428. [aWAP]
Nuechterlein, K. H., Dawson, M. E., Gitlin, M., Ventura, J., Goldstein, M. J., Snyder, K. S., Yee, C. M. & Mintz, J (1992). Developmental processes in schizophrenic disorders: Longitudinal studies of vulnerability and stress. Schizophrenia Bulletin 18:387424. [aWAP]
Nunez, P. L. (2000) Towards a quantitative description of large-scale neocortical dynamic function and EEG. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:371473. [aWAP]
Oades, R. D. (1985) The role of noradrenaline in tuning and dopamine in switching between signals in the CNS. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 9:26183. [RDO]
Oades, R. D., Müller, B., Schall U., Bender, S. & Wolstein, J. (2000) Automatic vs. controlled attention in schizophrenia: Conditioned blocking and sensory gating. Behavioural Pharmacology 11:346. [RDO]
Oades, R. D., Rivet, J.-M., Taghzouti, K., Kharouby, M., Simon, H. & Le Moal, M. (1987) Catecholamines and conditioned blocking: Effects of ventral tegmental, septal and frontal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in rats. Brain Research 406:13646. [RDO]
Oades, R. D., Ropcke, B. & Eggers, C. (1994) Monoamine activity reflected in urine of young patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, psychosis with and without reality distortion and healthy subjects: An explorative analysis. Journal of Neural Transmission – General Section 96:14359. [LMW]
Oades, R. D., Zerbin, D. & Eggers, C. (1993) Stimulus-Vergleichsprozesse bei psychotischen Jugendlichen mit paranoiden und nicht paranoiden Symptomen: Mismatch Negativity deutet auf differenzierte Beeinträchtigungen hin. In: Biologische Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, ed. P. Baumann. Springer-Verlag. [RDO]
Oades, R. D., Zimmermann, B. & Eggers, C. (1996) Conditioned blocking in patients with paranoid, non-paranoid psychosis or obsessive compulsive disorder: Associations with symptoms, personality and monoamine metabolism. Journal of Psychiatric Research 30:36990. [RDO]
Oleskevich, S. & Walmsley, B. (2002) Synaptic transmission in the auditory brainstem of normal and congenitally deaf mice. The Journal of Physiology 540:44755. [GSS]
Olney, J. W. & Farber, N. B. (1995) Glutamate receptor dysfunction and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 52:9981007. [aWAP]
Olney, J. W., Newcomer, J. W. & Farber, N. B. (1999) NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatric Research 33:52333. [aWAP]
Olufsen, M. S., Whittington, M. A., Camperi, M. & Kopell, N. (2003) New roles for the gamma rhythm: Population tuning and preprocessing for the beta rhythm. Journal of Computational Neuroscience 14:3354. [rSMS]
Oranje, B., Gispen-de Weid, C. C., Verbaten, M. N. & Kahn, R. S. (2002) Modulating sensory gating in healthy volunteers: The effects of ketamine and haloperidol. Biological Psychiatry 52:88795. [MAK, rSMS]
O’Reilly, R. C. & Rudy, J. W. (2001) Conjunctive representations in learning and memory: Principles of cortical and hippocampal function. Psychological Review 108:31145. [DRH]
Osborn, L. M., Silverstein, S. M., Matteson, S., West, L., Kamin, D. & Schwarzkopf, S. B. (1994) Visual organization, memory, and thought disorder in schizoprenia. Biological Psychiatry 35:633. [aWAP]
Owen, A. M. (2000) The role of the lateral frontal cortex in mnemonic processing: The contribution of functional neuroimaging. Experimental Brain Research 133:3343. [aWAP]
Pack, C. C., Berezovskii, V. K. & Born, R. T. (2001) Dynamic properties of neurons in cortical area MT in alert and anaesthetized macaque monkeys. Nature 414:905908. [PRR]
Pani, J. R., Mervis, C. B. & Robinson B. F. (1999). Global spatial organization by individuals with Williams Syndrome. Psychological Science 10:45358. [aWAP]
Park, S. & Holzman, P. S. (1992) Schizophrenics show spatial working memory deficits. Archives of General Psychiatry 49:97582. [aWAP]
Park, S., Jefferis, V., Knurek, E., Pitiyanuvath, N. & Brown, N. (2000) Facilitation of prefrontal function in schizophrenia by increasing socioaffective input. Biological Psychiatry 47(8):S67–68. [SP]
Parnas, J., Jansson, L., Sass, L. A. & Handest, P. (1998) Self-experience in the prodromal phases of schizophrenia: A pilot study of first admissions. Neurology, Psychiatry, and Brain Research 6:97106. [LAS]
Parnas, J., Vianin, P., Saebye, D., Jansson, L., Volmer-Larsen, A. & Bovet, P. (2001) Visual binding abilities in the initial and advanced stages of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 103:17180. [rSMS]
Passingham, R. E., Stephan, K. E. & Kotter R. (2002) The anatomical basis of functional localization in the cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3:60616. [SLB]
Patterson, T. (1987) Studies toward the subcortical pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13:55576. [aWAP]
Patterson, T., Spohn, H. E., Bogia. D. P. & Hayes, K. (1986) Thought disorder in schizophrenia: Cognitive and neuroscience approaches. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12:46072. [aWAP]
Paul, G. L. & Lentz, R. J. (1977) Psychosocial treatment of chronic mental patients: Milieu versus social learning programs. Harvard University Press. [rSMS]
Pekkone, E., Hirvonen, J., Ahveninen, J., Kahkonen, S., Kaakola, S., Huttunen, J. & Jaaskelainen, I. P. (2002) Memory-based comparison process not attenuated by haloperidol: A combined MEG and EEG study. NeuroReport 13:17781. [MEP]
Perlstein, W. M., Carter, C. S., Barch, D. M. & Baird, J. W. (1998) The Stroop task and attention deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology 12:41425. [aWAP]
Perlstein, W. M., Carter, C. S., Noll, D. C. & Cohen, J. D. (2001) Relation of prefrontal cortex dysfunction to working memory and symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:110513. [aWAP]
Perry, W., Geyer, M. A. & Braff, D. L. (1999) Sensorimotor gating and thought disturbance measured in close temporal proximity in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:27781. [aWAP]
Petrides, M. (1994) Frontal lobes and behavior. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 4:20711. [aWAP]
Phillips, W. A. (1974) On the distinction between sensory storage and short-term visual memory. Perception and Psychophysics 16:28390. [aWAP]
Phillips, W. A. (2001) Contextual modulation and dynamic grouping in perception: Response. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5:9596. [rSMS]
Phillips, W. A. & Christie, D. F. M. (1977) Interference with visualization. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 29:63750. [aWAP]
Phillips, W. A. & Craven, B. J. (2000) Interactions between coincident and orthogonal cues to texture boundaries. Perception and Psychophysics 62:101938. [rSMS]
Phillips, W. A., Kay, J. & Smyth, D. (1995) The discovery of structure by multistream networks of local processors with contextual guidance. Network 6:225– 46. [AWM, aWAP, rSMS]
Phillips, W. A. & Pflieger, M. E. (2000) Interactions that coordinate cortical activity. In: Integrated human brain science: Theory, method, application (music), ed. T. Nakada. Elsevier. [MEP, aWAP]
Phillips, W. A. & Singer, W. (1997a) In search of common foundations for cortical computation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:657722. [DRH, MEP, aWAP, PPR, rSMS, MAT]
Phillips, W. A. & Singer, W. (1997b) Progress towards an understanding of cortical computation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:70322. [aWAP, rSMS]
Pickering, A. D. (1993) Schizophrenia: In context or in the garbage can? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:205206. [aWAP]
Picton, T. W., Alain, C., Otten, L., Ritter, W. & Achim, A. (2000) Mismatch negativity: Different water in the same river. Audiology and Neurootology 5:11139. [MAK]
Pigache, R. M. (1999) Vigilance in schizophrenia and its disruption by impaired preattentive selection: A dysintegration hypothesis. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 4:11944. [aWAP]
Pilling, S., Bebbington, P., Kuipers, E., Garety, P., Geddes, J., Orbach, G. & Morgan, C. (2002) Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: I. Meta-analysis of family intervention and cognitive behaviour therapy. Psychological Medicine 32:76382. [rSMS]
Place, E. J. S. & Gilmore, G. C. (1980) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 89:40918. [YC, AWM, aWAP, rSMS]
Polat, U., Mizobe, K., Pettet, M. W., Kasamatsu, T. & Norcia, A. M. (1998) Collinear stimuli regulate visual responses depending on cell's contrast threshold. Nature 391:58084. [aWAP]
Polat, U. & Norcia, A. M. (1996) Neurophysiological evidence for contrast dependent long range facilitation and suppression in the human visual cortex. Vision Research 36:2099109. [MEP]
Polat, U. & Sagi D. (1993) Lateral interactions between spatial channels: Suppression and facilitation revealed by lateral masking experiments. Vision Research 33:99399. [aWAP]
Polat, U., Sagi, D. & Norcia, A. M. (1997) Abnormal long-range spatial interactions in amblyopia. Vision Research 37:73744. [MEP, aWAP]
Posner, M. I. & Raichle, M. E. (1994) Images of mind. Freeman. [aWAP]
Povinelli, D. J. & Preuss, T. M. (1995) Theory of mind: Evolutionary history of a cognitive specialization. Trends in Neurosciences. Special Issue: Evolution and Development of the Cerebral Cortex 18(9):41824. [DL]
Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:51526. [DL]
Prentky, R. A. (1979) Creativity and psychopathology. A neurocognitive perspective. In: Progress in experimental personality research, vol. 9, ed. B. A. Maher. Academic Press. [SP]
Pulvermuller, F. (1999) Words in the brain's language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22:253336. [RC]
Quinlan, E. M., Philpot, B. D., Huganir, R. L. & Bear, M. F. (1999) Rapid, experience-dependent expression of synaptic NMDA receptors in visual cortex in vivo. Nature Neuroscience 2:35257. [GSS]
Rabinowicz, E. F., Knight, R. A., Bruder, G., Owen, D. R. & Gorman, J. (1995) Short-term visual memory deficits in schizophrenia: Medication effects and electrophysiological correlates. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Psychopathology, October, 1995, Iowa City, IA. [aWAP]
Rabinowicz, E. F., Opler, L. A., Owen, D. R. & Knight, R. A. (1996) The dot enumeration perceptual organization task (DEPOT): Evidence for a shortterm visual memory deficit in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105:33648. [aWAP]
Rabinowicz, E. F., Silipo, G., Goldman, R. & Javitt, D. C. (2000) Auditory sensory dysfunction in schizophrenia: Imprecision or distractibility? Archives of General Psychiatry 57:114955. [DCJ, aWAP]
Raffone, A., Murre, J. M. J. & Wolters, G. (in preparation) Cortical mechanisms for maintenance and control in visual working memory. [AR]
Raffone, A. & Wolters, G. (2001) A cortical mechanism for binding in visual working memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13:76685. [aWAP, AR]
Raffone, A., Wolters, G. & Murre, J. M. J. (2001) A neurophysiological account of working memory limited capacity: Within-chunk integration and betweenitem segregation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:13941. [AR]
Raizada, R. D. S. & Grossberg, S. (2001) Context-sensitive binding by the laminar circuits of V1 and V2: A unified model of perceptual grouping, attention, and orientation contrast. Visual Cognition 8:43146. [rSMS]
Raizada, R. D. S. & Grossberg, S. (2003) Towards a theory of the laminar architecture of cerebral cortex: Computational clues from the visual system. Cerebral Cortex 13:10013. [SG]
Read, J., Perry, B. D., Moskowitz, A. & Connolly, J. (2001). The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: A traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry 64:31945. [rSMS]
Reeke, G. N. (2001) Modeling criteria: Not just for robots. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24:107475. [rSMS]
Rennie, C. J., Wright, J. J. & Robinson, P. A. (2000) Mechanisms of cortical electrical activity amd emergence of gamma rhythm. Journal of Theoretical Biology 205:1735. [LMW]
Reuter, L. E., Fornal, C. A. & Jacobs, B. L. (1997) A critical review of 5-HT brain microdialysis and behavior. Reviews in the Neurosciences 8:11737. [RDO]
Reynolds, J. H. & Desimone, R. (2003) Interacting roles of attention and visual salience in V4. Neuron 37:85363. [rSMS]
Rief, W. (1991) Visual perceptual organization in schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 30 (Pt 4):359–66. [YC]
Riley, E. M., McGovern, D., Mockler, D. C, Doku, V. C. K., OiCeallaigh, S. & Fannon, D. (2000) Neuropsychological functioning in first-episode psychosis: Evidence of specific deficits. Schizophrenia Research 43:4755. [aWAP]
Riscalla, L. (1980) Blindness and schizophrenia. Medical Hypotheses 6:132728. [GSS]
Robbins, T. W. (1990) The case of frontostriatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 16:391402. [aWAP]
Robbins, T. W. (1996) Dissociating executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:146371. [aWAP]
Rochester, S. R. (1978) Are language disorders in acute schizophrenics actually information processing problems? Journal of Psychiatric Research 14:27583. [aWAP]
Roelfsema, P. R., Engel, A. K., König, P. & Singer, W. (1997) Visuomotor integration is associated with zero time-lag synchronization among cortical areas. Nature 385:15761. [aWAP]
Roelfsema, P. R., König, P., Engel, A. K., Sireteanu, R. & Singer, W. (1994) Reduced synchronization in the visual cortex of cats with strabismic amblyopia. European Journal of Neuroscience 6:164555. [aWAP]
Roelfsema, P. R., Lamme, V. A. F. & Spekreijse, H. (2000) The implementation of visual routines. Vision Research 40:1385411. [PRR]
Roelfsema, P. R., Lamme, V. A. F., Spekreijse, H. & Bosch, H. (2002) Figureground segregation in a recurrent network architecture. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14:52537. [PRR]
Rosenbaum, G., Cohen, B. D., Luby, E. D., Gottlieb, J. S. & Yelen, D. (1959) Comparison of sernyl with other drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry 1:651– 56. [aWAP]
Rourke, B. P. (1982) Central processing deficiencies in children: Toward a developmental neuropsychological model. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology 4:118. [aWAP]
Roy, S. A., Dear S. P. & Alloway K. D. (2001) Long-range cortical synchronization without concomitant oscillations in the somatosensory system of anesthetized cats. Journal of Neuroscience 21(5):1795808. [MAT]
Rudy, J. W. & Sutherland, R. J. (1989) The hippocampal formation is necessary for rats to learn and remember configural discriminations. Behavioral Brain Research 34:97109. [JPG]
Rugg, M. D., Furda, J. & Lorist, M. (1988) The effects of the task on the modulation of event-related potentials by word repetition. Psychophysiology 25:5563. [DT]
Sah, P. & Nicoll, R. A. (1991) Mechanisms underlying potentiation of synaptic transmission in rat anterior cingulate cortex in vitro. The Journal of Physiology 433:61530. [GSS]
Salin, P. & Bullier, J. (1995) Corticocortical connections in the visual system: Structure and function. Physiological Reviews 75:10754. [aWAP]
Salisbury, D. F., Shenton, M. E., Griggs, C. B., Bonner-Jackson, A. & McCarley, R. W. (2002) Mismatch negativity in chronic schizophrenia and first-episode schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 59:68694. [rSMS]
Salt, T. E. & Eaton, S. A. (1996) Functions of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in sensory transmission in the mammalian thalamus. Progress in Neurobiology 48:5572. [aWAP]
Sanders, G. S., Gallup, G. G., Heinsen, H., Hof, P. R. & Schmitz, C. (2002) Cognitive deficits, schizophrenia, and the anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:19092. [GSS]
Sandler, A. & Hobson, R. (2001) On engaging with people in early childhood: The case of congenital blindness. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 6:205– 22. [GSS]
Sanislow, C. A. & Carson, R. C. (2001) Schizophrenia: A critical examination. In: Comprehenive handbook of psychopathology, ed. P. B. Sutker & H. E. Adams. Kluwer Academic/Plenum. [JPG]
Sarfati, Y. & Hardy-Bayle, M. (1999) How do people with schizophrenia explain the behaviour of others? A study of theory of mind and its relationship to thought and speech disorganization in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 29:61320. [DL]
Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., Besche, C. & Wildlöcher, D. (1997) Attribution of intentions to others in people with schizophrenia: A non-verbal exploration with comic strips. Schizophrenia Research 25:199209. [DL]
Sarfati, Y., Hardy-Bayle, M. C., Nadel, J., Chevalier, J.-F. & Widlöcher, D. (1997) Attribution of mental states to others by schizophrenic patients. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 2:117. [rSMS]
Sass, L. (1992) Madness and modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought. Basic Books. [rSMS]
Sass, L. (2000) Schizophrenia, self-experience, and the so-called “negative symptoms” (Reflections on hyperreflexivity). In: Exploring the self: Philosophical and psychopathological perspectives on self-experience, ed. D. Zahavi. John Benjamins. [LAS]
Sass, L. (in press). Schizophrenia: A disturbance of the thematic field. In: Gurwitsch's relevance for cognitive science, ed. L. Embree. Kluwer. [LAS]
Sass, L. & Parnas, J. (in press a) Explaining schizophrenia: The relevance of phenomenology. In: The philosophical understanding of schizophrenia, ed. M. Chung, W. Fulford & G. Graham. Oxford University Press. [LAS](in press b). Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self. Schizophrenia Bulletin. [LAS]
Schenkel, L. S., Meredith, C., Purcell, L., Ritchie, A. J. & Spaulding, W. D. (2001) Cognitive correlates of perceptual context processing in schizophrenia. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Psychopathology, Madison, WI, September 2001. [rSMS]
Schenkel, L. S. & Spaulding, W. D. (2002) Social inference in schizophrenia: Relationships with childhood functioning and later cognitive impairment. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Psychopathology, San Francisco, CA, September 2002. [rSMS]
Schmidt, K. E., Löwel, S., Goebel, R. & Singer, W. (1997) The perceptual grouping criterion of colinearity is reflected by anisotropies of connections in primary visual cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience 9:108389. [aWAP]
Schonauer, K., Achtergarde, D., Suslow, T. & Michael, N. (1999) Comorbidity of schizophrenia and prelingual deafness: Its impact on social network structures. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 34:52632. [GSS]
Schroeder, C. E. (1995) Defining the neural bases of visual selective attention: Conceptual and empirical issues. International Journal of Neuroscience 80:6578. [DCJ]
Selemon, L. D. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1999) The reduced neuropil hypothesis: A circuit based model of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 45:1725. [REH]
Selemon, L. D., Rajkowski, G. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1995) Abnormally high neuronal density in schizophrenic cortex: A morphometric analysis of prefrontal area 9 and occipital cortex area 17. Archives of General Psychiatry 52:80518. [REH]
Selverston, A. I. (2001) Biomimetic robots and biology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24(6):1077. [rSMS]
Serper, M., Alpert, M., Richardson, N. A. & Dickson, S. (1995) Clinical effects of recent cocaine use in patients with acute schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 152:146469. [MA]
Serper, M., Alpert, M. & Trujillo, M. (1996) Recent cocaine use decreases negative signs in acute schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 39:81618. [MA]
Servan-Schreiber, D., Cohen, J. D. & Steingard, S. (1996) Schizophrenic deficits in the processing of context: A test of a theoretical model. Archives of General Psychiatry 53:110512. [DMB, AWM, aWAP, rSMS]
Shakow, D. (1962) Segmental set: A theory of formal psychological deficit in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 6:117. [aWAP]
Shallice, T. (1988) From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge University Press. [DRH, aWAP]
Shallice, T. & Burgess, P. (1996) The domain of supervisory processes and temporal organization of behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 351:140511. [aWAP]
Shallice, T., Fletcher, P., Frith, C. D. Grasby, P. M., Frackowiak, R. S. J. & Dolan, R. J. (1994) Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory. Nature 368:63335. [aWAP]
Sheer, D. E. (1984) Focused arousal, 40-Hz EEG, and dysfunction. In: Selfregulation of the brain and behavior, ed. T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, W. Lutzenberger & N. Birbaumer. Springer-Verlag. [LMW]
Shim, S. S. (2002) Is NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia associated with a primary hyperglutamatergic state? Archives of General Psychiatry 59:46667. [RDO]
Siegel, S. J.,Brose, N.,Jansenn, W. G., Gasic, G. P., Jahn, R. & Heinemann, S. F. (1994) Regional, cellular,and ultrastructural distribution of N-methyl-Daspartate receptor subunit 1 in monkey hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 91:56468. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M. (1988) A study of religious conversion in North America. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 114:261305. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M., Baksi, S., Chapman, R. M. & Nowlis, G. (1998a) Perceptual organization of configural and nonconfigural visual patterns in schizophrenia: Effects of repeated exposure. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3:20923. [aWAP, rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Hatashita-Wong, M. & Bloch, A. (2002) A second chance for people with “treatment-refractory” psychosis. Psychiatric Services 53:480. [rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Knight, R. A., Schwarzkopf, S. B., West, L. L., Osborn, L. M. & Kamin, D. (1996a) Stimulus configuration and context effects in perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105:41020. [aWAP, rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Kovács, I., Corry, R. & Valone, C. (2000) Perceptual organization, the disorganization syndrome, and context processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 43:1120. [YC, aWAP, rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Light, G. A. & Palumbo, D. R. (1998b) The sustained attention test: A measure of cognitive dysfunction. Computers in Human Behavior 14:46375. [aWAP, rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Matteson, S. & Knight, R. A. (1996b) Reduced top-down influence in auditory perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105:66367. [aWAP, rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Menditto, A. A. & Stuve, P. (2001) Shaping attention span: An operant conditioning procedure to improve neurocognition and functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 27:24757. [rSMS]
Silverstein, S. M., Osborn, L. M. & Palumbo, D. R. (1998c) Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test performance in acute, chronic, and outpatient schizophrenia patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology 54:110. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M., Osborn, L. M., West, L. L. & Knight, R. A. (1998d) Perceptual organization in schizophrenia: Evidence for intact processing of configural patterns. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 3:22535. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M. & Palumbo, D. R. (1995). Nonverbal perceptual organization output disability and schizophrenia spectrum symptomatology. Psychiatry 58:6681. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M. & Schenkel, L. S. (1997) Schizophrenia as a model of contextdeficient cortical computation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:69697. [aWAP]
Silverstein, S. M., Schenkel, L. S. & Valone, C. (1998e) Cognitive deficits and psychiatric rehabilitation outcomes in schizophrenia. Psychiatric Quarterly 69:16991. [aWAP]
Singer, W. (1994) Coherence as an organizing principle of cortical functions. International Review of Neurobiology 37:15383. [aWAP]
Singer, W. (1995) Development and plasticity of cortical processing architectures. Science 270:75864. [aWAP]
Singer, W. (1999) Neuronal synchrony, a versatile code for the definition of relations? Neuron 24:4964. [aWAP]
Singer, W. & Gray, C. M. (1995) Visual feature integration and the temporal correlation hypothesis. Annual Review of Neuroscience 18:55586. [aWAP, PPR]
Sitnikova, T., Salisbury, D. F., Kuperberg, G. & Holcomb, P. I. (2002) Electrophysiological insights into language processing in schizophrenia. Psychophysiology 39:85160. [DT]
Smith, R. E., Haroutunian, V., David, L. & Meador-Woodruff, J. H. (2001) Expression of excitatory amino acid transporter transcripts in the thalamus of subjects with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:139399. [rSMS]
Solovay, M. R., Shenton, M. E., Gasparetti, C., Coleman, M., Kestnbaum, E., Carpenter, J. T. & Holzman, P. S. (1986) Scoring manual for the Thought Disorder Index. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12:48396. [aWAP]
Solovay, M. R., Shenton, M. E. & Holzman, P. S. (1987) Comparative studies of thought disorders. I. Mania and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 44:1320. [rSMS]
Spaulding, W. D., Reed, D., Sullivan, M., Richardson, C. & Weiler, M. (1999) Effects of cognitive treatment in psychiatric rehabilitation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 25:65776. [rSMS]
Spitzer, M. (1997) A cognitive neuroscience view of schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophrenia Bulletin 23:2950. [DRH]
Spitzer, M., Beuckers, J., Beyer, S., Maier, S. & Hermle, L. (1994) Contextual insensitivity in thought-disordered schizophrenic patients: Evidence from pauses in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech 37:17185. [aWAP]
Spitzer, M., Braun, U., Hermle, L. & Maier, S. (1993) Associative semantic network dysfunction in thought-disordered schizophrenia patients: Direct evidence from indirect semantic priming. Biological Psychiatry 34:86477. [aWAP]
Sporns, O., Gally, J. A., Reeke, G. N. & Edelman, G. M. (1989) Reentrant signaling among simulated neuronal groups leads to coherency in their oscillatory activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 86:726569. [aWAP, rSMS]
Stoet, G. & Hommel, B. (1999) Action planning and the temporal binding of response codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 25:162540. [aWAP]
Stone, J. V. & Kotter, R. (2002) Making connections about brain connectivity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:32728. [SLB]
Strandburg, R. J., Marsh, J. T., Brown, W. S., Asarnow, R. F., Guthrie, D., Harper, R., Ylee, C. M. & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1997) Event related potential correlates of linguistic information processing in schizophrenics. Biological Psychiatry 42:596608. [DRH]
Stratta, P., Daneluzzo, E., Bustini, M., Casacchia, M. & Rossi, A. (1998) Schizophrenic deficits in the processing of context. Archives of General Psychiatry 55:18687. [DMB]
Straube, E. R. & Oades, R. D. (1992) Schizophrenia: Empirical research and findings. Academic Press. [RDO]
Strelets, V., Faber, P. L., Golicova, J., Novototsky-Vlasov, V., Koenig, T., Gianotti, L. R. R., Gruzelier, J. H. & Lehman, D. (under review) Chronic schizophrenics with positive symptomatology have shortened EEG microstate durations. Clinical Neurophysiology. [VS]
Strelets, V. B., Novototsky-Vlasov, V. Y. & Golikova, J. V. (2002) Cortical connectivity in high frequency beta-rhythm in schizophrenics with positive and negative symptoms. International Journal of Psychophysiology 44:10115. [VS]
Sullivan, H. S. (1956) The schizophrenic dynamism: A tripartite view. In: H. S. Sullivan, Clinical studies in psychiatry. W. W. Norton. [rSMS]
Sutherland, R. J. & Rudy, J. W. (1989) Configural association theory: The role of the hippocampal formation in learning, memory, and amnesia. Psychobiology 17:12944. [JPG]
Svensson, T. H. (2000) Dysfunctional brain dopamine systems induced by psychotomimetic NMDA-receptor antagonists and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. Brain Research – Brain Research Reviews 31:32029. [MAT]
Tagamets, M. A. & Horwitz, B. (1998) Integrating electrophysiological and anatomical experimental data to create a large-scale model that simulates a delayed matchto- sample human brain imaging study. Cerebral Cortex 8:31020. [MAT]
Talamini, L. M., Meeter, M., Murre, J. M. J., Elvevåg, B. & Goldberg, T. E. (in preparation) Integration of parallel input streams in parahippocampal model circuits; implications for schizophrenia. [LMT]
Tallent, K. A. & Gooding, D. C. (2000) Working Memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizotypic individuals: A replication and extension. Psychiatry Research 89:16170. [DCG]
Tallon-Baudry, C., & Bertrand, O. (1999) Oscillatory gamma activity in humans and its role in object representation. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 3:151– 62. [aWAP]
Tamminga, C. A. (1998) Schizophrenia and glutamatergic transmission. Critical Review of Neurobiology 12:2136. [aWAP, MAT]
Tamminga, C. A., Holcomb, H. H., Gao, X. M. & Lahti, A. C. (1995) Glutamate pharmacology and the treatment of schizophrenia: Current status and future directions. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 10 (Suppl. 3):29–37. [aWAP]
Tarnowski, K. J., Prinz, R. J. & Nay, S. M. (1986). Comparative analysis of attentional deficits in hyperactive and learning-disabled children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95:34145. [aWAP]
Tellegen, A. & Atkinson, G. (1974) Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (‘absorption’), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83:268277. [aWAP]
Tendolkar, I., Ruhrman, S., Brockhaus, A., Pukrop, R. & Klosterkotter, J. (2002) Remembering or knowing: Electrophysiological evidence for an episodic memory deficit in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 32:126171. [rSMS]
Thagard, P. (2000) Coherence in thought and action. MIT Press. [SLB]
Tien, A. Y. (1999) Deficits of information management associated with schizophrenia: Awareness and associated integrative cognitive functions. Archives of General Psychiatry 56:63738. [rSMS]
Tiitinen, H., Sinkkonen, J., Reinikainen, K., Alho, K., Lavikainen, J. & Näätänen R. (1993) Selective attention enhances the auditory 40-Hz transient response in humans. Nature 364:5960. [aWAP]
Titone, D., Levy, D. & Holzman, P. S. (2000) Contextual insensitivity in schizophrenic language processing: Evidence from lexical ambiguity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109:76167. [DT]
Titone, D., Holzman, P. S. & Levy, D. L. (2002) Idiom processing in schizophrenia: Literal implausibility saves the day for idiom priming. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111:31320. [DT]
Tononi, G. & Edelman, G. M. (2000) Schizophrenia and the mechanisms of conscious integration. Brain Research Reviews 31:391400. [aWAP]
Tononi, G., McIntosh, A. R., Russell, D. P. & Edelman, G. M. (1998a) Functional clustering: Identifying strongly interactive brain regions in neuroimaging data. Neuroimage 7:13349. [aWAP]
Tononi, G., Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. M. (1994) A measure for brain complexity: Relating functional segregation and integration in the nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 91:503337. [aWAP]
Tononi, G., Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. M. (1996) A measure for selective matching of signals by the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 93:342227. [aWAP]
Tononi, G., Sporns, O. & Edelman, G. M. (1998b) Complexity and coherency: Integrating information in the brain. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 2:47484. [aWAP]
Tost, H., Wolf, I. G., Ruf, M., Henn, F. A. & Braus, D. F. (2001) Disturbed visual information processing in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenia patients: A fMRI study. Schizophrenia Research 49:187. [aWAP]
Treisman, A. (1999) Solutions to the binding problem: progress through controversy and convergence. Neuron 24:10510. [aWAP]
Treue, S. & Tujillo, J. C. M. (1999) Feature-based attention influences motion processing gain in macaque visual cortex. Nature 399:57579. [aWAP]
Tsai, G., Passani, L. A., Slusher, B. S., Carter, R., Baer, L., Kleinman, J. E. & Coyle, J. T. (1995) Abnormal excitatory neurotransmitter metabolism in schizophrenic brains. Archives of General Psychiatry 52:82936. [rSMS]
Turvey, M. T. (1977) Preliminaries to a theory of action with reference to vision. In: Perceiving, acting and knowing, ed. R. Shaw & J. Bransford. Erlbaum. [aWAP]
Uhlhaas, P. (2003) Gestalt perception in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Stirling, UK. [rSMS]
Uhlhaas, P. J., Silverstein, S. M., Phillips, W. A. & Lovell, P. G. (submitted) Evidence for impaired visual context processing in schizotypy with thought disorder. [rSMS]
Umbricht, D., Schmid, L., Koller, R., Vollenweider, F. X., Hell, D. & Javitt, D. C. (2000) Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual context-dependent processing in healthy volunteers. Implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 57:113947. [DCJ, RDO, aWAP, GSS, rSMS]
Umbricht, D., Vollenweider, F. X., Schmid, L., Grubel, C., Skrabo, A., Huber, T. & Koller, R. (2003) Effects of the 5-HT(2A) agonist psilocybin on mismatch negativity generation and AX-continuous performance task: Implications for the neuropharmacology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:170181. [rSMS]
Van Berckel, B. N., Hijman, R., van der Linden, J. A., Westenberg, H. G., van Ree, J. M. & Kahn, R. S. (1996) Efficacy and tolerance of D-cycloserine in drugfree schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry 40:1298300. [MAT]
Van Berckel, B. N., Oranje, B., van Ree, J. M., Verbaten, M. N. & Kahn, R. S. (1998) The effects of low dose ketamine on sensory gating, neuroendocrine secretion and behavior in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 137:27181. [MAK, MEP, rSMS]
Van der Velde, F. & de Kamps, M. (2001) From knowing what to knowing where: Modeling object-based attention with feedback disinhibition of activation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13:47991. [PRR]
Van Hoof, J. J. M. (2002) The abnormal development of drive and guidance mechanisms in the brain: The pathogenesis of schizophrenia, Acta Neuropsychiatrica 14:13446. [HPB]
Varela, F. (1995) Resonant cell assemblies: A new approach to cognitive functions and neuronal synchrony. Biological Research 28:8195. [rSMS]
Varela, F. J. (1996) Neurophenomenology; a methodological remedy for the hard problem. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3:33049. [LAS]
Varela, F., Lachaux, J. P., Rodriguez, E. & Martinerie, J. (2001) The brainweb: Phase synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2:22939. [SLB]
Venables, P. (1964) Input dysfunction in schizophrenia. Progress in Experimental Personality Research 1:147. [MAK]
Vizuete, M. L., Venero, J. L., Vargas, C., Revuelta, M., Machado, A. & Cano, J. (2001) Potential role of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in longterm neuronal reorganization of the superior colliculus after bilateral visual deprivation. Neurobiology of Disease 8:86680. [GSS]
Vogt, B. A. & Miller, M. W. (1983) Cortical connections between rat cingulate cortex and visual, motor, and postsubicular cortices. The Journal of Comparative Neurology 216:192210. [GSS]
Vollenweider, F. X., Leenders, K. L., Oye, I., Hell, D. & Angst, J. (1997a) Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilization produced by (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emision tomography (Pet). European Neuropsychopharmacology 7:2538. [aWAP]
Vollenweider, F. X., Leenders, K. L., Scharfetter, C., Antonini, A., Macguire, P., Missimer, J. & Angst, J. (1997b) Metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the ketamine model of psychosis using positron emission tomography (Pet) and (F-18) fluorodexyglucose (Fdg). European Neuropsychopharmacology 7:924. [aWAP]
Von der Malsburg, C. & Schneider, W. (1986) A neural cocktail-party processor. Biological Cybernetics 54:2940. [aWAP]
Von Stein, A., Chiang, C. & Konig, P. (2000) Top-down processing mediated by interareal synchronization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:1474853. [rSMS]
Waberski, T. D., Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I., Kawohl, W., Darvas, F., Ryang, Y., Gobbele, R. & Buchner, H. (2001) Spatio-temporal source imaging reveals subcomponents of the human auditory mismatch negativity in the cingulum and right inferior temporal gyrus. Neuroscience Letters 308:10710. [GSS]
Walker, E. F. & DiForio, D. (l996) Schizophrenia: A neural diathesis-stress model. Psychological Review 104:66785. [DCG]
Waltz, J. A., Knowlton, B. J., Holyoak, K. J., Boone, K. B., Mishkin, F. S., Santos, M. D., Thomas, C. R. & Miller, B. L. (1999) A system for relational reasoning in human prefrontal cortex. Psychological Science 10(2):11925. [DL]
Wang, X. J. (1999) Synaptic basis of cortical persisent actyivity; the importance of NMDA receptors to working memory. Journal of Neuroscience 19:9587603. [aWAP]
Warren, D. (1994) Blindness and children: An individual differences approach. Cambridge University Press. [GSS]
Watanabe, M., Inoue, Y., Sakimura, K. & Mishina, M. (1992) Developmental changes in distribution of NMDA receptor channel subunit mRNAs. NeuroReport 3:113840. [aWAP]
Watt, R. J. & Phillips, W. A. (2000) The function of dynamic grouping in vision. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:447454. [aWAP, rSMS]
Weiler, M. A., Thaker, G. K., Lahti, A. C. & Tamminga, C. A. (2000). Ketamine effects on eye movements. Neuropsychopharmacology 23:64553. [aWAP]
Whittington, M. A., Stanford, I. M., Colling, S. B., Jefferys, J. G. & Traub, R. D. (1997) Spatiotemporal patterns of gamma frequency oscillations tetanically induced in the rat hippocampal slice. Journal of Physiology 502:591607. [aWAP]
Whittington, M. A., Traub, R. D. & Jefferys, J. G. R. (1995) Synchronized oscillations in interneuron networks driven by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Nature 373:61215. [aWAP]
Winter, J. C., Fiorella, D. J., Timinieri, D. M., Filipink, R. A., Helsley, S. E. & Rabin, R. A. (1999) Serotonergic receptor subtypes and hallucinogen-induced stimulus control. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 64:28393. [RDO]
Winterer, G., Egan, M. F., Radler, T., Hyde, T., Coppola, R. & Weinberger, D. R. (2001) An association between reduced interhemispheric EEG coherence in the temporal lobe and genetic risk for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 49:12943. [rSMS]
Wooley, D. W. & Shaw, W. (1954) A biochemical and pharmacological suggestion about certain mental disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 40:22831. [rSMS]
Wörgötter, F. & Eysel, U. F. (2000) Context, state and the receptive fields of striatal cortex cells. Trends in the Neurosciences 23:497503. [aWAP]
Wright, J. J., Robinson, P. A., Rennie, C. J., Gordon, E., Bourke, P. D., Chapman, C. J., Hawthorn, N., Lees, G. J. & Alexander, D. (2001) Toward an integrated continuum model of cerebral dynamics: The cerebral rhythms, synchronous oscillation and cortical stability. Biosystems 63:7188. [aWAP]
Xing, J. & Heeger, D. J. (2000) Center-surround interactions in foveal and peripheral vision. Vision Research 40(22):306572. [YC]
Yamaguchi, K., Nabeshima, T., Ishikawa, K., Yoshida, S. & Kameyama, T. (1987) Phencylidine-induced head-weaving and head-twitch through interaction with 5-HT2A receptors in reserpinized rats. Neuropharmacology 26:148997. [rSMS]
Yung, A. R., Phillips, L. J., Yuen, H. P., Francey, S. M., McFarlane, C. A., Hallgren, M. & McGorry, P. D. (2003) Psychosis prediction: 12-month follow up of a high-risk (“prodromal”) group. Schizophrenia Research 60:2132. [rSMS]
Zipser, K., Lamme, V. A. F. & Schiller, P. H. (1996) Contextual modulation in primary visual cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 16:737689. [aWAP, PPR, rSMS]
Zukin, S. R., Fitz-Syage, M. L., Nichtenhauser, R. & Zukin, R. S. (1983) Specific binding of [3H]phencyclidine in rat central nervous tissue: Further characterization and technical considerations. Brain Research 258:27784. [rSMS]
Zukin, S. R. & Zukin, R. S. (1979) Specific [3H]phencyclidine binding in rat central nervous system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 76:537276. [rSMS]