Skip to main content Accessibility help

Beyond perceptual judgment: Categorization and emotion shape what we see

  • Steven B. Most (a1)


By limiting their review largely to studies measuring perceptual judgment, Firestone & Scholl (F&S) overstate their case. Evidence from inattentional blindness and emotion-induced blindness suggests that categorization and emotion shape what we perceive in the first place, not just the qualities that we judge them to have. The role of attention in such cases is not easily dismissed as “peripheral.”



Hide All
Chun, M. M. & Potter, M. C. (1995) A two-stage model for multiple target detection in rapid serial visual presentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21(1):109–27.
Kennedy, B. L. & Most, S. B. (2012) Perceptual, not memorial, disruption underlies emotion-induced blindness. Emotion 12(2):199202.
Kennedy, B. L., Rawding, J., Most, S. B. & Hoffman, J. E. (2014) Emotion-induced blindness reflects competition for early and late processing stages: An ERP study. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 14:1485–98.
Keysers, C. & Perrett, D. I. (2002) Visual masking and RSVP reveal neural competition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6:120–25.
Koivisto, M. & Revonsuo, A. (2007) How meaning shapes seeing. Psychological Science 18:845–49.
Mack, A. & Rock, I. (1998) Inattentional blindness. MIT Press.
MacLeod, C., Mathews, A. & Tata, P. (1986) Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95(1):15.
Most, S. B. (2010) What's “inattentional” about inattentional blindness? Consciousness and Cognition 19:1102–104.
Most, S. B. (2013) Setting sights higher: Category-level attentional set modulates sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Research 77:139–46.
Most, S. B., Simons, D. J., Scholl, B. J., Jimenez, R., Clifford, E. & Chabris, C. F. (2001) How not to be seen: The contribution of similarity and selective ignoring to sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Science 12(1):917.
Most, S. B., Chun, M. M., Widders, D. M. & Zald, D. H. (2005a) Attentional rubbernecking: Cognitive control and personality in emotion-induced blindness. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 12:654–61.
Most, S. B., Laurenceau, J.-P., Graber, E., Belcher, A. & Smith, C. V. (2010) Blind jealousy: Romantic insecurity increases emotion-induced failures of visual perception. Emotion 10:250–56.
Most, S. B., Scholl, B. J., Clifford, E. R. & Simons, D. J. (2005b) What you see is what you set: Sustained inattentional blindness and the capture of awareness. Psychological Review 112:217–42.
Most, S. B. & Wang, L. (2011) Dissociating spatial attention and awareness in emotion-induced blindness. Psychological Science 22:300305.
Simons, D. J. & Chabris, C. F. (1999) Gorillas in our midst: Sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception 28:1059–74.
Wang, L., Kennedy, B. L. & Most, S. B. (2012) When emotion blinds: A spatiotemporal competition account of emotion-induced blindness. Frontiers in Psychology: Special Topic on Emotion and Cognition 3:438.
Ward, E. J. & Scholl, B. J. (2015) Inattentional blindness reflects limitations on perception, not memory: Evidence from repeated failures of awareness. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 22:722–27.
Wolfe, J. M. (1999) Inattentional amnesia. In: Fleeting memories: Cognition of brief visual stimuli, ed. Coltheart, V., pp. 7194. MIT Press.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed