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Behavior is multiply determined, and perception has multiple components: The case of moral perception

  • Ana P. Gantman (a1) and Jay J. Van Bavel (a1)


We introduce two propositions for understanding top-down effects on perception. First, perception is not a unitary construct but is composed of multiple components. Second, behavior is multiply determined by cognitive processes. We call for a process-oriented research approach to perception and use our own research on moral perception as a “case study of case studies” to examine these issues.



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