Skip to main content Accessibility help

On choosing the “right” stimulus and rule

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Robin M. Hogarth
Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. 60637


Image of the first page of this article
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1984

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Adrian, E. D. (1928) The basis of sensations: The action of the sense organs. W. W. Norton. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Arbib, M. A. & Caplan, D. (1979) Neurolinguistics must be computational. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:449–84. [EPS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bacon, F. (1620) Novum organum. J. Billius. [LJC]Google Scholar
Berlyne, D. E. (1966) Discussions of papers by Israel Goldiamond, B. F. Skinner, and Arthur W. Staats. In: Problem solving: Research, method and theory, ed. Kleinmuntz, B.. Wiley. [EH]Google Scholar
Berlyne, D. E. (1969) The reward-value of indifferent stimulation. In: Reinforcement and behavior, ed. Tapp, J. T.. Academic Press. [SG]Google Scholar
Bitterman, M. E. (1975) The comparative analysis of learning. Science 188:699709. [NEW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Block, N., ed. (1981) Readings in philosophy of psychology, vol. 2. Methuen. [GK]Google Scholar
Bloomfield, T. M. (1969) Behavioral contrast and the peak shift. In: Animal discrimination learning, ed. Gilbert, R. M. & Sutherland, N. S.. Academic Press. [SG]Google Scholar
Bridgman, P. W. (1952) The nature of some of our physical concepts. Philosophical Library. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Bridgman, P. W. (1959) The way things are. Harvard University Press. [taBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brunswik, E. (1952) The conceptual framework of psychology. University of Chicago Press. [RMH]Google Scholar
Bunge, M. (1968) Scientific research, vol. 2, The search for truth. Springer. [PCD]Google Scholar
Camerer, C. F. (1981) The validity and utility of expert judgment. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago. [RMH]Google Scholar
Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R. & Rees, E. (1982) Expertise in problem solving. In: Advances in the psychology of human intelligence, vol. 1, ed. Sternberg, R. J.. Erlbaum Associates. [EH]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1959) Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal behavior. Language 35:2658. [PJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1969) Comments on Harman. In: Language and philosophy, ed. Hook, S.. New York University Press. [EPS]Google Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1980) Rules and representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:161. [EPS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, H. H. & Haviland, S. E. (1977) Comprehension and the given-new contract. In: Discourse production and comprehension, ed. Freedle, R. O.. Ablex. [EH]Google Scholar
Clark, J. H. (1963) Adaptive machines in psychiatry. In: Nerve, brain and memory models, ed. Wiener, J. & Schade, J. P.. Amsterdam. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Cohen, L. J. (in press) Semantics and the computational metaphor. In: Logic, methodology and philosophy of Science, vol. 7, ed. Marcus, R. Barcan, Dorn, G. & Weingartner, P.. North-Holland. [LJC]Google Scholar
Dawes, R. M. & Corrigan, B. (1974) Linear models in decision making. Psychological Bulletin 81:95106. [RMH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1978) Skinner skinned. In: Brainstorms, by Dennett, D. C.. Bradford/MIT Press. [EPS]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1981) Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. MIT Press. [PJ, GK]Google Scholar
Dodwell, P. C. (1977) Criteria for a neuropsychological theory of perception. Cahiers de psychologic 20:175–82. [PCD]Google Scholar
Einhorn, H. J. (1980) Overconfidence in judgment. In: New directions for methodology of social and behavioral science: Fallible judgment in behavioral research, vol. 4, ed. Shweder, R.. Jossey-Bass. [RMH]Google Scholar
Einhorn, H. J. & Hogarth, R. M. (1982) Prediction, diagnosis, and causal thinking in forecasting. Journal of Forecasting 1:2336. [RMH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Einhorn, H. J. & Hogarth, R. M. (1983) Diagnostic inference and causal judgment: A decision making framework. University of Chicago, Center for Decision Research. [RMH]Google Scholar
Epstein, W., ed. (1977) Stability and constancy in visual perception: Mechanisms and processes. Wiley. [SG]Google Scholar
Fantino, E., Dunn, R. & Meek, W. (1979) Percentage reinforcement and choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 32:335–40. [SG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1975) The language of thought. Crowell. [LJC, EPS]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1980) Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in cognitive psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:63109. [LJC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1981) Representations. Harvester. [LJC]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A., Bever, T. G. & Garrett, M. F. (1974) The psychology of language. McGraw-Hill. [EPS]Google Scholar
Freeman, W. J. (1979) EEG analysis gives model of neuronal template-matching mechanism for sensory search with olfactory bulb. Biological Cybernetics 35:221–34. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gauld, A. & Shotter, J. (1977) Human action and its psychological investigation. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [JGR]Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1975) A neural model of attention, reinforcement, and discrimination learning. International Review of Neurobiology 18:263327. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossberg, S. (1978a) Behavioral contrast in short-term memory: Serial binary memory models or parallel continuous memory models? Journal of Mathematical Psychology 17:199219. [SG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1978b) A theory of human memory: Self-organization and performance of sensory-motor codes, maps, and plans. In: Progress in theoretical biology, vol. 5, ed. Rosen, R. & Snell, F.. Academic Press. [SG]Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1980) How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review 87:151. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossberg, S. (1982a) Processing of expected and unexpected events during conditioning and attention: A psychophysiological theory. Psychological Review 89:529–72. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossberg, S. (1982b) A psychophysiological theory of reinforcement, drive, motivation, and attention. Journal of Theoretical Neurobiology 1:286369. [SG]Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1982c) Studies of mind and brain: Neural principles of learning, perception, development, cognition, and motor control. Reidel Press. [SG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1983a) The adaptive self-organization of serial order in behavior: Speech and motor control. In: Perception of speech and visual form: Theoretical issues, models, and research, ed. Schwab, E. C. & Nusbaum, H.. Academic Press. [SG]Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. (1983b) Some psychophysiological and pharmacological correlates of a developmental, cognitive, and motivational theory. In: Brain and information: Event related potentials, ed. Karrer, R., Cohen, J. & Tueting, P.. New York Academy of Sciences. [SG]Google Scholar
Harris, C. S., ed. (1980) Visual coding and adaptibility. Erlbaum Associates. [SG]Google Scholar
Held, R. (1961) Exposure-history as a factor in maintaining stability of perception and coordination. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 132:2632. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J., Loveland, D. H. & Cable, C. (1976). Natural concepts in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 2:235311. [rBFS]Google Scholar
Hinson, J. M. & Staddon, J. E. R. (1978) Behavioral competition: A mechanism for schedule interactions. Science 202:432–34. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hume, D. (1739) A treatise of human nature. J. Noon. [LJC]Google Scholar
Hunt, E. (1981) The design of a robot mind: A theoretical approach to some issues in intelligence. In: Intelligence and learning, ed. Friedman, M. P., Das, J. P. & O'Connor, N.. Plenum Press. [EH]Google Scholar
Hunt, E. & Pixton, P. (1982) A general model for simulating information processing experiments. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 164–66. [EH]Google Scholar
Julià, P. (1983) Explanatory models in linguistics: A behavioral perspective. Princeton University Press. [PJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Killeen, P. (1982) Incentive theory, 2: Models for choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 38:217–32. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larkin, J. H., McDermott, J., Simon, D. P. & Simon, H. A. (1980) Expert and novice performance in solving physics problems. Science 208:1335–42. [EH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewin, K. (1936) Principles of topological psychology. McGraw-Hill. [MK, taBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. Freeman. [EPS]Google Scholar
Maslow, A. (1962) Toward a psychology of being. Van Nostrand. [taBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michotte, A. (1946) La perception de la causalité. Vrin. [RMH]Google Scholar
Näätänen, R., Hukkanen, S. & Järvilechto, T. (1980) Magnitude of stimulus deviance and brain potentials. In: Progress in brain research, vol. 54, Motivation, motor and sensory processes of the brain, ed. Kornhuber, H. H. and Deecke, L.. Elsevier-North Holland. [SG]Google Scholar
Nagel, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83:435–50. [LJC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neisser, U. (1963) The imitation of man by machine. Science 138:193–97. [taBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newell, A. & Simon, H. A. (1972) Human problem solving. Prentice-Hall. [JMS]Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. & Ross, L. (1980) Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Prentice-Hall. [RMH, EPS]Google Scholar
Paige, J. M. & Simon, H. A. (1966). Cognitive processes in solving algebra word problems. In: Problem solving: Research, method, and theory. ed. Kleinmuntz, B.. Wiley. [EH]Google Scholar
Pelham, G. F. (1982) The psychological writings of B. F. Skinner. Doctoral dissertation, University of Bradford, England. [RH]Google Scholar
Polanyi, M. (1958) The study of man. Routledge. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Polanyi, M. (1960) Personal knowledge. University of Chicago Press. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Popper, K. (1963) Conjectives and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [PCD]Google Scholar
Pounds, W. (1969) The process of problem finding. Industrial Management Review 11(1):119. [GK]Google Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. (1980) Computation and cognition: Issues in the foundation of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:11169. [EPS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raaheim, K. (1961) Problem solving: A new approach. Acta Universitatis Bergensis, Series Humaniorum Litterarum, no. 5 [KR]Google Scholar
Raaheim, K. (1974) Problem solving and intelligence. Universitetsforlaget. [KR]Google Scholar
Rein, J. G. & Svartdal, F. (1979) Limitations of Skinner's concept of an “operant.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 20:6570. [JGR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, C. (1961) On becoming a person: A therapist's view of psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Roughead, W. G. & Scandura, J. M. (1968) “What is learned” in mathematical discovery. Journal of Educational Psychology 59:283–89. [JMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salaman, R. A. (1957) Tradesmen's tools. In: A history of technology, vol. 3. Oxford University Press. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1964) An analysis of exposition and discovery modes of problem solving instruction. Journal of Experimental Education 33:145–48. [JMS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1969) New directions for theory and research on rule learning. II. Empirical research. Acta Psychologica 29:101–33. [JMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1970) The role of rules in behavior: Toward an operational definition of what (rule) is learned. Psychological Review 77:516–33. [JMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1971) Deterministic theorizing in structural learning: Three levels of empiricism. Journal of Structural Learning 3:2153. [JMS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1973) Structural learning, vol. 1, Theory and research. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. [JMS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1976) ed. Structural learning, vol. 2, Issues and approaches. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. [JMS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1977) Problem solving. Academic Press. [JMS]Google Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1981) Problem solving in schools and beyond: Transitions from the naive to the neophyte to the master. Educational Psychologist 16:139–50. [JMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seandura, J. M. (1982) Structural (cognitive task) analysis. I. Background and empirical research. Journal of Structural Learning 7:101–14. [JMS]Google Scholar
Scandura, J. M. & Scandura, A. B. (1980) Structural learning and concrete operations: An approach to Piagetian conservation. Praeger. [JMS]Google Scholar
Schick, K. (1974) Operants. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 15:413–23. [JGR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schneider, W. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing. 1. Detection, search and attention. Psychological Review 84:166. [EH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms. Appleton-Century. [JGR]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1953) Science and human behavior. Macmillan. [JGR, rBFS]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [PJ, tarBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1963a) Behaviorism at fifty, Science 140:951–58. [taBFS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skinner, B. F. (1963b) Operant behavior. American Psychologist 18:503–15. [taBFS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1966) Preface to paperback ed. of The behavior of organisms. 1st ed. 1938, Appleton-Century-Crofts. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1968) The technology of teaching. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1969) Contingencies of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [JGR]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1971) Beyond freedom and dignity. Knopf. [rBFS]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1974) About behaviorism. Knopf. [rBFS]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1983) A matter of consequences. Knopf. [rBFS]Google Scholar
Squires, K., Wickens, C., Squires, N. & Donchin, E. (1976) The effect of stimulus sequence on the waveform of the cortical event-related potential. Science 193:1142–46. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stabler, E. P. (1983) How are grammars represented? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6:391421. [EPS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sternberg, R. J., ed. (1982) Handbook of human intelligence. Cambridge University Press. [KR]Google Scholar
Stinessen, L. (1983) Intentionality, problem solving, and rule-governed behavior. Doctoral dissertation, University of Trondheim. [JGR]Google Scholar
Taube, M. (1961) Computers and common sense: The myth of thinking machines. Columbia University Press. [taBFS]Google Scholar
Taylor, C. (1964) The explanation of behavior. Routledge & Kegan Paul. [PJ]Google Scholar
Tecee, J. J. (1972) Contingent negative variation (CNV) and psychological processes in man. Psychological Review 77:73108. [SG]Google Scholar
Thomas, L. (1983) The youngest science: Notes of a medicine watcher. Viking Press. [RMH]Google Scholar
Ullman, S. (1979) The interpretation of visual motion. MIT Press. [EPS]Google Scholar
Verplanck, W. S. (1962) Unaware of where's awareness: Some verbal operants–notates, monents, and notants. In: Behavior and awareness. Duke University Press. [WSV]Google Scholar
Wallach, H. & Karsh, E. B. (1963) Why the modification of stereoscopic depth-perception is so rapid. American Journal of Psychology 76:413–20. [SG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wanner, E. & Gleitman, L. R. (1982) Language acquisition: The state of the art. Cambridge University Press. [EPS]Google Scholar
Wisdom, J. (1938) Metaphysics and verification, 1. Mind 47:452–98. [PCD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woolridge, D. (1963) The machinery of the brain. McGraw-Hill. [EPS]Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 8 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-87htd Total loading time: 0.441 Render date: 2021-01-25T18:09:00.221Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

On choosing the “right” stimulus and rule
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

On choosing the “right” stimulus and rule
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

On choosing the “right” stimulus and rule
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *