Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Implicit learning: What does it all mean?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2011

David R. Shanks
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; david.shanks@psychol.ucl.ac.uk;
Mark F. St. John
Affiliation:
Department of Cognitive Science, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093. mstjohn@cogsci.ucsd.edu

Abstract

In the original target article (Shanks & St. John 1994), one of our principal conclusions was that there is almost no evidence that learning can occur outside awareness. The continuing commentaries raise some interesting questions, especially about the definition of learning, but do not lead us to abandon our conclusion.

Type
Author's Responses
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Baer, P. E. & Fuhrer, M. L. (1982) Cognitive factors in the concurrent differential conditioning of eyelid and skin conductance responses. Memory and Cognition 10: 135140. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bechtel, W. (1988) Philosophy of mind: An overview for cognitive science. Erlbaum. [DES]Google Scholar
Brewer, W. F. (1974) There is no convincing evidence for operant or classical conditioning in adult humans. In: Cognition and the symbolic processes, ed Weimer, W. B. & Palermo., D. S. Erlbaum.[JJF]Google Scholar
Dawson, M. E. (1973) Can classical conditioning occur without contingency learning? A review and evaluation of the evidence. Psychophysiology 10: 8286. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, M. E. & Furedy, J. J. (1976) The role of awareness in human differential autonomic classical conditioning: The necessary-gate hypothesis. Psychojihysiology 13: 5053. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. (1973) Some limits on the cognitive control of conditioned autonomie behavior. Psychophysiology 10: 108111. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furedy, J. J. (1988) Arguments for and proposed tests of a revised S-R contiguity-reinforcement theory of human Pavlovian autonomic conditioning Some contra-cognitive claims. Biological Psychology 27: 7778. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. (1990) Sharing a common language about conditioning requires accurate characterizations of each others’ positions: Reply to Shanks. Biological Psychology 30: 181187. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. (1991) Alice-in-Wonderland terminological usage in, and communicational concerns about, that peculiarly American flight of technological fancy: The CQT polygraph. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 26: 241247. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. (1992) Reflections on human Pavlovian decelerative heart-rate conditioning with negative tilt as US: Alternative approaches. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 27: 347355. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. Arabian, J. M. Thiels, E. & George, L. (1982) Direct and continuous measurement of relational learning in human Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science 17: 6979. [JJF]Google ScholarPubMed
Furedy, J. J. & Poulos, C. X. (1976) Heart-rate decelerative Pavlovian conditioning with tilt as UCS: Towards behavioral control of cardiac dysfunction. Biological Psychology 4: 93106. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furedy, J. J. & Riley, D. M. (1987) Human Pavlovian autonomic conditioning and the cognitive paradigm. In: Conditioning in humans, G. Davey, Wiley & Sons. [JJF]Google Scholar
Furedy, J. J. & Schiffmann, K. (1973) Concurrent measurement of autonomic and cognitive processes in a test of the traditional discriminative control procedure for Pavlovian electrodermal conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 100: 21217. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, J. E. (1962) Contiguity and reinforcement in relation to CS-UCS intervals in classical aversive conditioning. Psychological Review 69: 176186. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirsh, D. (1990) When is information explicitly represented? In: Hanson, P. P. (ed.), Information, language, and cognition, University of British Columbia Press. [DES]Google Scholar
Lovibond, P. F. (1992) Tonic and phasic electrodermal measures of human aversive conditioning with long duration stimuli. Psychophysiology 29: 621632. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marinkovic, K. Schell, A. M. & Dawson, M. E. (1989) Awareness of the CS-UCS contingency and classical conditioning of skin conductance responses with olfactory CSs. Biological Psychology 29: 3960. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rescorla, R. A. (1967) Pavlovian conditioning and its proper control procedures. Psychological Review 74: 7180. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rescorla, R. A. (1988) Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is. American Psychologist 43: 151160. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In: Classical conditioning, (vol. 2), eds., Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [JJF]Google Scholar
Schiffmann, K. & Furedy, J. J. (1977) The effect of CS-US contingency variation on GSR and on subjective CS/US relational awareness. Memory and Cognition 5: 273277. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shanks, D. R. (1990) On the cognitive theory of conditioning. Biological Psychology 30: 171179. [DRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shanks, D. R. & St. John, M. F. (1994) Characteristics of dissociable human learning systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17: 367395. [JJF, PK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, M. Stem, J. A. Winokur, G. & Frcdman, S. (1961) An analysis of GSR conditioning. Psycliological Review 687: 6067. [JJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turing, A. M. (1936). On computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 42: 230265. [PK]Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 8 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-95hzn Total loading time: 0.582 Render date: 2021-01-16T20:23:08.665Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Sat Jan 16 2021 19:53:25 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Implicit learning: What does it all mean?
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Implicit learning: What does it all mean?
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Implicit learning: What does it all mean?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *