Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-2bkkj Total loading time: 0.95 Render date: 2022-09-25T02:51:26.153Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Criteria for optimality

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2011

Michel Cabanac
Department of Physiology, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada, Electronic mail: cabanac@lavalvm1.bitnet


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1991

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Ainslie, G. W. (1974) Impulse control in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21:485–89 [JEM].CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ainslie, G. W. (1985) Beyond microeconomics: Conflict among interests in a multiple self as a determinant of value. In: The multiple self ed. Elster, J.. Cambridge University Press. [JEM]Google Scholar
Alchian, A. A. (1950) Uncertainty, evolution and economic theory. Journal of Political Economy 58:211–21. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ancot, J.-P. & Paelinck, J. H. P. (1983) The spatial econometrics of the European FLEUR-model. In: Evolving geographical structures, ed. Griffith, D. & Lea, A.. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. [JHPP]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1990a) The adaptive character of thought. Erlbaum. [JRA]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1990b) Cognitive psychology and its implications. 3rd ed. H, W.. Freeman. [JRA]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Milson, R. (1989) Human memory: An adaptive perspective. Psychological Review 96(4):703703. [JRA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arrow, K. J. (1951) Social choice and individual values. John Wiley. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Ashby, W. R. (1956) Introduction to cybernetics. John Wiley. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Axelrod, R. (1984) The evolution of cooperation. Basic Books. [APW]Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. (1986) Working memory. Oxford University Press. [JRA]Google ScholarPubMed
Barigozzi, C. (1980) Vito Volterra symposium on mathematical models in biology. Springer-Verlag. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barney, J. B. & Ouchi, W. G. (1986) Organizational economics. Jossey-Bass. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Baron, J. (1988) Thinking and deciding. Cambridge University Press. [JB]Google Scholar
Baron, J. & Brown, R. V. (in press) Teaching decision making to adolescents. Erlbaum. [JB]Google Scholar
Barrow, J. D. & Tipler, F. J. (1986) The anthropic cosmological principle. Cambridge University Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
ateson, G. (1979) Mind and nature. Wildwood House, Ltd. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Battalio, R. C., Kagel, J. H., Rachlin, H. & Green, L. (1981) Commodity-choice behavior with pigeons as subjects. Journal of Political Economy 89:1. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beatty, J. (1987) Natural selection and the null hypothesis. In: The latest onthe best, ed. Dupré, J.. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Becker, G. S. (1976) The economic approach to human behavior. Universityof Chicago Press. [aPJHS, JEM]Google Scholar
Becker, G. S. & Murphy, K. M. (1988) A theory of rational addiction. Journalof Political Economy 96:675–99. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, D., Raiffa, H. & Tversky, H. (1988) Decision making. Cambridge University Press. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blake, A. & Zisserman, A. (1988) Visual reconstruction. MIT Press. [DAM]Google Scholar
Boland, L. A. (1981) On the futility of criticizing the neoclassical maximization hypothesis. American Economic Review 71(5):10311031. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Bordley, R. F. (1983) A central principle of science: Optimization. Behavioral Science 28:5364. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boulding, K. E. (1962) Conflicts and defense. Harper & Row. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Bounds, D. G. (1987) New optimization methods from physics and biology. Nature 329:215–20. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, J. (1971) Mach's philosophy of science. University of London Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Braithwait, R. B. (1966) Causal and teleological explanation. In: Purpose innature, ed. Canfield, J. V.. Prentice Hall. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Brescia, F., Arents, F., Meislich, H. & Turk, A. (1966) Fundamentals ofchemistry. Academic Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Bridgman, P. W. (1948) The logic of modern physics. MacMillan. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Bromberger, S. (1970) Why-questions. In: Readings in the philosophy of science, ed. Brody, B., Prentice-Hall. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Buchanan, J. M. & Tullock, G. (1962) The calculus of consent. University of Michigan Press. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bull, J. J. (ed.) (1983) Evolution of sex-determining mechanisms. Benjamin/Cummings. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Bullock, D. & Grossberg, S. (1988) Neural dynamics of planned armmovements: Emergent invariants and speed-accuracy properties duringtrajectory formation. Psychological Review 95:4990. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bunge, M. (1979) Causality and modern science. Harvard University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Burrell, Q. L. & Cane, V. R. (1982) The analysis of library data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A(145):439–71. [JRA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cabanac, M. & LeBlanc, J. (1983) Physiological conflict in humans: Fatiguevs. cold discomfort. American Journal of Physiology 244:R621–28. [MC]Google ScholarPubMed
Callahan, J. J. (1976) The curvature of space in a finite universe. Scientific American, August:90-99. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Camerer, C. F. (1990) Recent tests of generalizations of expected utilitytheory (manuscript). Department of Decision Sciences, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. [ESh]Google Scholar
Campbell, N. (1970) What is a theory? In: Readings in the philosophy ofscience, ed. Brody, B. A.. Prentice-Hall. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Canfield, J. V. (1966) Purpose in nature. Prentice-Hall. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Carver, C. S. & Scheier, M. F. (1982) Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin 92:111–35. [MEH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chandrasekhar, S. (1987) Truth and beauty: Aesthetics and motivations inscience. University of Chicago Press. [APW]Google Scholar
Charnov, E. L. (1976) Optimal foraging: The marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology 9:126–43. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chicago Tribune (1988) Article on 1988 Nobel Prize winners in physics, Oct.20, p. 2. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Chisholm, R. M. (1956) Sentences about believing. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56:125–40. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1980) Rules and representation. Columbia Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Clark, C. W. (1991) Modeling behavioral adaptations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14(1):8585. [rPJHS, DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coase, R. H. (1960) The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics 3:145. [arPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, L. J. (1981) Can human irrationality be experimentally demonstrated? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:317–70. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coleman, J. S. (1990) Foundations of social theory. Harvard University Press. [APW]Google Scholar
Coombs, C. H., Dawes, R. M. & Tversky, A. (1970) Mathematical psychology: An introduction. Prentice-Hall. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Cooper, W. S. (1987) Decision theory as a branch of evolutionary theory: Abiological derivation of the savage axioms. Psychological Review 94(4):395395. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cosmides, L. M. & Tooby, J. (1981) Cytoplasmic inheritance andintragenomic conflict. Journal of Theoretical Biology 89:83129. [MDal]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosmides, L. M. & Tooby, J.Cytoplasmic inheritance and intragenomic conflict. Journal of Theoretical Biology 89:83129 [MDal]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cosmides, L. M. & Tooby, J. (1987) From evolution to behavior: Evolutionary psychology as the missinglink. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
Cournot, A. (1838/1971) Researches into the mathematical principles of the theory of wealth. Augustus M. Kelly. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Cyert, R. & March, J. (1963) A behavioral theory of the firm. Prentice-Hall. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
D'ArcyThompson, W. Thompson, W. (1917/1942) On growth and form. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Darwin, C. (1859) On the origin of species. J. Murray. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Davidson, D. (1986) Essays on actions and events. Oxford University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Davison, M. & Kerr, A. (1989) Sensitivity of time allocation to an overall reinforcer-rate feedback function in concurrent interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 51:215–31. [MD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1982) The extended phenotype. W. H. Freeman. [MDal]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1988) The blind watchmaker. Penguin Books. [JHPP]Google Scholar
deChardin, P. T. Chardin, P. T. (1968) Future of man. Fontana. [MEH]Google Scholar
DeFinetti, B. Finetti, B. (1975) Theory of probability. John Wiley & Sons. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1978) Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind andpsychology. Bradford Books. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1987) The intentional stance. MIT Press/Bradford Books. [PD]Google Scholar
d'Espagnat, B. (1979) The quantum theory and reality. Scientific American, vol. 241. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Downs, A. (1957) An economic theory of democracy. Harper. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Dupré, J. (ed.) (1987) The latest on the best: Essays on evolution andoptimality. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Eatwell, J., Milgate, M. & Newman, P. (1988). The new Palgrave: Adictionary of economics. Macmillan. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Edwards, P. (ed.) (1972) The encyclopedia of philosophy, vol. 1–8. Macmillan. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Einhorn, H. & Hogarth, R. M. (1981) Behavioral decision theory: Processesof judgment and choice. Annual Review of Psychology 32:5388. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Einhorn, H. & Hogarth, R. M. (1986) Judging probable cause. Psychological Bulletin 99(1):33. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eldredge, N. & Gould, J. (1972) Punctuated evolution: An alternative tophyletic gradualism. In: Models of paleobiology, ed. Schopf, T.. Freeman. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Ellsberg, D. (1961) Risk, ambiguity, and the Savage axioms. Quarterly Journal of Economics 75:643–99. [JB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elster, J. (1979) Ulysses and the sirens. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Elster, J. (1982) Explaining technical change. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Elster, J. (1983) Sour grapes. In: Studies in the subversion of rationality. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elster, J. (1989) Solomonic judgments: Studies in the limitations of rationality. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Euler, L. (1744/1952). Methodus inveniendi lineas curvas maximi minimive proprietate gaudentes, Lausanne. Reprinted in Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia. vol. 24, Series 1 Bern. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Evans, J. St. B. T. (1989) Bias in human reasoning. Erlbaum. [MEH]Google Scholar
Fama, E. F. (1976) Foundations of finance. Basic Books. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Fama, E. F. & Miller, M. H. (1972) The theory of finance. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Fantino, E. & Abarca, N. (1985) Choice, optimal foraging, and the delay-reduction hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:315–62. [aPJHS, SS-F]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. & Preston, R. A. (1988a) Foraging for integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:683–84. [SS-F]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. & Preston, R. A. (1988b) Choice and foraging: The effects of accessibility on acceptability. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 50:395403. [SS-F]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farris, S. (1983) The logical basis of phylogenetic analysis. In: Advances incladistics, 2nd ed., ed. Platnick, N. & Funk, V.. Columbia University Press. Also in E. Sober, ed. (1984) Conceptual issues in evolutionarybiology. MIT Press. [ESo]Google Scholar
Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B. & Sands, M. (1964) The Feynman lecturesof physics, vol. 1. Addison-Wesley. [aPJHS, FLB]Google Scholar
Fisher, R. A. (1930/1958) The genetical theory of natural selection. The Clarendon Press. Revised edition. Dover Publications. [JFC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flash, T. & Hogan, N. (1985) The coordination of arm movements: Anexperimentally confirmed mathematical model. Journal of Neuroscience 5:16881703. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fodor, J. A. (1975) The language of thought. Harvester Press. [PD]Google Scholar
Fodor, J. A. (1981) Three cheers for propositional attitudes! In: Representations. Harvester Press. [PD]Google Scholar
Foster, C. (1990) Algorithms, abstraction and implementation. PhD. thesis, Centre for Cognitive Science, University of Edinburgh. [PD]Google Scholar
Friedman, M. (1953) Essays in positive economics. University of Chicago Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Frisch, D. & Baron, J. (1988) Ambiguity and rationality. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 1:149–57. [JB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garey, M. R. & Johnson, D. S. (1979) Computers and intractability. W. H. Freeman & Co1. [DAM]Google Scholar
Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971) The entropy law and the economic process. Harvard University Press. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghiselin, M. T. (1974) The economy of nature and the evolution of sex. University of California Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Gōttinger, H. W. (1982) Computational cost and bounded rationality. In:Philosophy of economics, ed. Stegmiiler, W., Balzer, W. & Spohn, W.. Springer. [PM]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J. (1980) The panda's thumb. Norton. [DSL]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J. & Lewontin, R. C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptionist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 205:591–98. [aPJHS, DAH, KMS, MDal, PD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gray, J. A. & Smith, P. T. (1969) An arousal-decision model for partialreinforcement and discrimination learning. In: Animal discriminationlearning, ed. Gilbert, R. M. & Sutherland, N. S.. Academic Press. [DSL]Google Scholar
Grether, D. M. & Plott, C. R. (1979) Economic theory of choice and the preference reversal phenomenon. American Economic Review 69(4):623623. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Griffin, D. R. (1981) The question of animal awareness. Rockefeller University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Grossberg, S. & Gutowski, W. (1987) Neural dynamics of decision makingunder risk: Affective balance and cognitive-emotional interactions. Psychological Review 94:300–18. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grossberg, S. & Mingolla, E. (1985) Neural dynamics of form perception:Boundary completion, illusory figures, and neon color spreading. Psychological Review 92:173211. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hacking, I. (1983) Representing and intervening: Introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge University Press. [N-ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haldane, J. B. S. (1927) Possible worlds. Chatto & Windus. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. R. (1834/1940) On a general method in dynamics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Also in The mathematical papers of Sir William Rowan Hamilton, vol. 2, Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. R. (1835/1940) Second essay on a general method in dynamics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. (Also in The mathematical papers of Sir William Rowan Hamilton, vol. 2, Dynamics. Cambridge University Press.) [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hannan, M. & Freeman, j. (1989) Organizational ecology. Harvard University Press. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Hansson, B. (1988) Risk aversion as a problem of conjoint measurement. In: Decision, probability, and utility, ed. Gardenfors, P. & Sahlin, N.-E.. Cambridge University Press. [N-ES]Google Scholar
Hecht-Nielsen, R. (1987) Kolmogorov's mapping neural network existence theorem. Proceedings of the IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks, San Diego, CA, vol. 3. [rPJHS, DAH]Google Scholar
Heiner, R. A. (1983) The origin of predictable behavior. American Economic Review 73:560–85. [DSL]Google Scholar
Heisenberg, W. (1955) Das Naturbild der Heutige Physik. Hamburg. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1990) Rational choice theory: Necessary but not sufficient. American Psychologist 45:356–67. [MD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Mazur, J. E. (1987) Making up our minds: A new modelof economic behavior. The Sciences 27:4047. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Vaughan, W. (1980) Melioration and behavioral allocation. In: Limits to action: The allocation of individual behavior, ed. Staddon, J. E. R.. Academic Press. [MD]Google Scholar
Hershey, J. C. & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1985) Probability vs. certaintye quivalence methods. In: Utility measurement: Are they equivalent? Management Science 31:1213–31. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hershey, J. C., Kunreuther, H. C. & Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1982) Sources of bias in assessment procedures for utility functions. Management Science 28:936–54. [arPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hess, E. H., (1973) Imprinting. D. Van Nostrand. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hesse, M. (1969) Simplicity. In: The encyclopedia of philosophy, ed. Edwards, P.. Macmillan. [ESo]Google Scholar
Hirshleifer, J. (1977) Economics from a biological point of view. Journal of Law and Economics 20:152. [aPJHS, SEGL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirshleifer, J. (1987) Economic behavior in adversity. University of Chicago Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hobbes, T. (1909) Leviathan. The Clarendon Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hogarth, R. M. & Reder, M. W., eds. (1986) The behavioral foundations of economic theory. Journal of Business 59(4) Part 2. [arPJHS, ESh]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1987) Singing to attract a mate: Astochastic dynamic game. Journal of Theoretical Biology 129:5768. [DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1988) A framework for the functional analysis of behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:117–63. [rPJHS, DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houthakker, H. S. (1956) Economics and biology: Specialization andspeciation. Kyklos 9:181–89. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. (1979) Brain mechanisms of vision. Scientific American, September. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1930) Knowledge and purpose as habit mechanisms. Psychological Review 37:511–25. [KMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1931) Goal attraction and directing ideas conceived as habit phenomena. Psychological Review 38:487506. [KMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1943) Principles of behavior. Appleton Century. [KMS]Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1952) A behavior system: An introduction to behavior theory concerningthe individual organism. Yale University Press. [KMS]Google Scholar
Hume, D. A. (1988) A treatise on human nature, ed. Selby-Bigge, L. A..Google Scholar
Hume, A. L. & Irwin, R. J. (1974) Bias functions and operating characteristics of rats discriminating auditory stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21:285–95. [MD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hyland, M. E. (1988) Motivational control theory: An integrative framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55:642–51. [MEH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hylleraas, E. A. (1970) Mathematical and theoretical physics, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Jantsch, E. & Waddington, C. H. (1976) Evolution and consciousness. Addison-Wesley. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Johnson, E. & Payne, J. (1985) Effort and accuracy in choice. Management Science 30:395414. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, E. J. & Schkade, D. A. (1989) Bias in utility assessments: Further evidence and explanations. Management Science 35:406–24. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jungermann, H. (1983) The two rationality camps. In: Decision-making underuncertainty, ed. Scholz, R. W.. North-Holland. [OL]Google Scholar
Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979) Prospect theory: An analysis of decisionunder risk. Econometrica 47(2):263–91. [arPJHS, JB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1984) Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist 39:341–50. [JB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, D., Slovic, P. & Tversky, A. (1982) Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamil, A. (1978). Systematic foraging by a nectar feeding bird: The amakihi (Loxops virens). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 92:388–96. [DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamil, A. C. & Roitblat, H. L. (1985) Foraging theory: Implications for animal learning and cognition. Annual Review of Psychology 36:141–69. [DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karlin, S. & Lessard, S. (1986) Theoretical studies on sex ratio evolution. Princeton University Press. [aPJHS]Google ScholarPubMed
Keeney, R. L. & Raiffa, H. (1976) Decisions with multiple objectives: Preferences and value tradeoffs. John Wiley & Sons. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Kim, J. (1981) Causes as explanations: A critique. Theory and Decision 13:293309. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimura, M. (1979) The neutral theory of molecular evolution. Scientific American vol. 241. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kimura, M. (1983) The neutral theory of molecular evolution. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimura, M. (1989) The neutral theory of molecular evolution and the world view ofneutralists. Genome 31:2431. [rPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kingsland, S. E. (1985) Modeling nature. University of Chicago Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt, C. D. & Vecchi, M. P. (1983) Optimization bysimulated annealing. Science 220:671–79. [aPJHS, DAH, DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirousis, L. M. & Papadimitriou, C. H. (1988) The complexity of recognizingpolyhedral scenes. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 37:1438. [DAM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitcher, P. (1985) Vaulting ambition: Sociobiology and the quest for humannature. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Kitcher, P. (1987) Why not the best? In: The latest on the best, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Kleidon, A. W. (1986) Anomalies in financial economics: Blue print for change. Journal of Business 59, 4(2):5451–68. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Kleindorfer, P., Kunreuther, H. & Schoemaker, P. (1991) Decision sciences: An integrative perspective. Cambridge University Press (in press). [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Klopf, A. H. (1982) The hedonistic neuron. Hemisphere. [DSL]Google Scholar
Klopf, A. H. (1988) A neuronal model of classical conditioning. Psychohiology 16:85125. [DSL]Google Scholar
Koopmans, T. C. (1972) Representation of preference orderings over time. In: Decisions and organizations, ed. McGuire, C. B. & Radner, T. R.. North-Holland. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B., eds. (1978) Behavioral ecology: An evolutionaryapproach. Sinauer. [JEM]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R., Kacelnik, A. & Taylor, P. J. (1978) Test of optimal sampling byforaging great tits. Nature 275:2731. [DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Lagrange, L. (1788/1853) Mécanique analytique, Paris. (Also 3rd ed., ed. Bertrand, M. J.. Mallet-Bachelier.) [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Lakatos, I. (1970) Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In: Criticism and the growth of knowledge, ed. Lakatos, I. & Musgrave, A.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanczos, C. (1970) The variational principles of mechanics, 4th ed. University of Toronto Press. [FLB]Google Scholar
Langton, C. (1990) Computation at the edge of chaos: Phase transitions andemergent computation. T-13 and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Report, LA-UR-90-379. [GFM]Google Scholar
Larichev, O. & Moshkovich, H. (1988) Limits to decision-making ability indirect multiattribute alternative evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision 42:217–33. [OL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larrick, R. P., Morgan, J. N. & Nisbett, R. E. (in press). Teaching the use of cost-benefit reasoning in everyday life. Psychological Science. [JB]Google Scholar
Layzer, D. (1975) The arrow of time. Scientific American December:5669. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lea, S. E. G. (1984) Instinct, environment and behaviour. Methuen. [SEGL]Google Scholar
Lea, S. E. C., Tarpy, R. M. & Webley, P. (1987) The individual in the economy. Cambridge University Press. [SEGL]Google Scholar
Lenoir, T. (1982) The strategy of life: Teleology and mechanics in nineteenth century German biology. D. Reidel. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Leven, S. J. & Levine, D. S. (1987) Effects of reinforcement on knowledge retrieval and evaluation. First International Conference on Neural Networks, San Diego, CA. IEEE/ICNN, vol. 2. [DSL]Google Scholar
Levine, D. S. (1983) Neural population modeling and psychology: A review. Mathematical Biosciences 66:186. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levine, D. S. & Grossberg, S. (1976) Visual illusions in neural networks: Lineneutralization, tilt after-effect, and angle expansion. Journal of The oretical Biology 61:477504. [DSL]Google ScholarPubMed
Levine, D. S. & Leven, S. J., eds. (1990) Motivation, emotion, and goaldirection in neural networks. Erlbaum. [DSL]Google Scholar
Levine, D. S. & Prueitt, P. S. (1989) Modeling some effects of frontal lobedamage: Novelty and perseveration. Neural Networks 2:103–16. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewin, K. (1943) Defining the “field at a given time.” Psychological Review 50:292310. [MEH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewontin, R. C. (1974) The genetic basis of evolutionary change. Columbia University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Loewenstein, G. (1987) Anticipation and the valuation of delayed consumption. The Economic Journal 97:666–84. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, F. A. (1965) Decision making by rats: Delay versus amount of reward. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 59:112. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loomes, G. & Sugden, S. (1982) Regret theory: An alternative approach torational choice under uncertainty. Economic Journal 92:805–24. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Losee, J. (1980) A historical introduction to the philosophy of science, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. [N-ES]Google Scholar
Lotka, A. J. (1956) Elements of mathematical biology. Dover. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Lucas, R. E. (1980) Two illustrations of the quantity theory of money. American Economic Review 70:1005–14. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Luce, R. D. & Raiffa, H. (1957) Games and decisions. Wiley. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Mach, E. (1883/1942) The science of mechanics. Open Court. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Machina, M. (1982) Expected utility analysis without the independence axiom. Econometrica 50:277323. [aPJHS, ESh]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackie, J. L. (1980) The cement of the universe: A study of causation. Oxford University Press (Oxford). [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magill, M. J. P. (1970) On a general economic theory of motion. Springer-Verlag. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malkiel, B. G. (1989) Is the stock market efficient? Science 243:1313–18. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
March, J. G. (1978) Bounded rationality, ambiguity and the engineering choice. Bell Journal of Economics 9:587608. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
March, J. G. (1988) Decision and organizations. Basil Blackwell. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Marr, D. (1982) Vision. Freeman. [JRA, PD]Google Scholar
Maupertuis, P. L. M. (1744) Accord de differentes loix de la nature, quiavoient jusqu'ici paru incompatibles. Mémoires de I'Académie des Sciences de Paris, April 15. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
MaynardSmith, J. Smith, J. (1974) The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts. Journal of Theoretical Biology 47:209–21. [PD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MaynardSmith, J. Smith, J. (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 9:3156. [aPJHS, DAH]Google Scholar
MaynardSmith, J. Smith, J. (1982) Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [aPJHS]Google Scholar
MaynardSmith, J. Smith, J. (1984) Game theory and the evolution of behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7(1):95100. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
MaynardSmith, J. Smith, J. (1986) The problems of biology. Oxford University Press. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Mayr, E. (1963) Animal species and evolution. Harvard University Press. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayr, E. (1983) How to carry out the adaptationist program. American Naturalist 121:324–34. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. E. (1981) Optimization theory fails to predict performance of pigeons in a two-response situation. Science 214:823–25. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. E. (1987) An adjusting procedure for studying delayed reinforcement. In: Quantitative analyses of behavior, vol. 5, The effect of delay and ofintervening events on reinforcement value, ed. Commons, M. L., Mazur, J. E., Nevin, J. A. & Rachlin, H.. Erlbaum. [JEM]Google Scholar
Mazur, J. E. (1988) Choice between small certain and large uncertain reinforcers. Animal Learning & Behavior 16:199205. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCarthy, D. & Davison, M. (1984) Isobias and alloiobias functions in animal psychophysics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 10:390409. [MD]Google Scholar
McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E. & the PDF research group (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. I. Bradford Books. [JRA]Google Scholar
McClosky, D. (1985) The rhetoric of economics. University of Wisconsin Press. [FLB]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J. (1977) Decision making in animals. Nature 269, Sept.1. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D. A. & Zucker, S. W. (1990) Copositive-plus Lemke algorithm solvespolymatrix games. Technical paper, McGill Research Centre for Intelligent Machines. [DAM]Google Scholar
Miller, M. (1986) Behavioral rationality in finance: The case of dividends. Journal of Business 59, 4(2):5451–68. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Milnor, J. (1954) Games against nature. In: Decision Processes, ed. Thrall, R. M., C. H. Coombs & Davis, R. L.. Wiley. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Mongin, P. (1986) Are “all-and-some” statements falsifiable after all? The example of utility theory. Economics and Philosophy 2:185–95. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagel, E. (1953) Teleological explanations and ideological systems. In: Visionand action, ed. Ratner, S.. Rutgers University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Nagel, E. (1961) The structure of science. Harcourt, Brace & World. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Nagylaki, T. (1989) Rate of evolution of a character without epistasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86:1910–13. [JFC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, R. & Winter, S. (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. Harvard University Press. [rPJHS, APW]Google Scholar
Newell, A. & Simon, H. W. (1972) Human problem solving. Prentice-Hall. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. & Ross, L. (1980) Human inference: Strategies and shortcomingsof social judgment. Prentice-Hall. [SS-F]Google Scholar
Qppenheimer, R. (1956) Analogy in science. American Psychology 11. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Oster, G. F. & Wilson, E. O. (1978) A critique of optimization theory inevolutionary biology. In: Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press. [aPJHS]Google ScholarPubMed
Paelinck, J. H. P. (1990) Vreemde dynamiek in de scheikunde en deruimtelijke economic (Strange dynamics in chemistry and spatialeconomics). In: Schetsen van een tijdperk (Dedicatus Prof, dr B. Leijnse), ed. Blijenberg, B. G. & Boerma, G. J. M.. Erasmus University Press. [JHPP]Google Scholar
Paelinck, J. H. P. & Vossen, P. H. (1984) The quest for optimality. Gower. [JHPP]Google Scholar
Paltridge, G. W. (1975) Global dynamics and climate - A system of minimumentropy exchange. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 101:475–84. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pareto, V. (1897) The new theories of economics. Journal of Political Economy 5:485502. [arPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, G. A. (1978) Searching for mates. In: Behavioral ecology: Anevolutionary approach, ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B.. Blackwell. [MC]Google Scholar
Partington, J. R. (1964) A history of chemistry. Macmillan & Co., Ltd. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pen, J. (1988) Boekbesprekingen: Review of S. E. G. Lea, R. M. Tarpy & P. Webley “The Individual in the Economy.” De Economist 136:403–05. [SEGL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pepper, C. S. (1942) World hypotheses. University of California Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1975) The origin of the idea of chance in children. Norton. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Pierce, G. J. & Ollason, J. G. (1987) Eight reasons why optimal foraging theory is a complete waste of time. Oikos 49:111–17. [DAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Popper, K. (1959) The logic of scientific discovery. Hutchinson. [ESo]Google Scholar
Popper, K. (1968) Conjectures and refutations: The growth of scientific knowledge. Harper & Row. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Posner, R. (1977) Economic analysis of law. Little, Brown. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Powers, W. T. (1978) Quantitative analysis of purposive systems. Psychological Review 85:417–35. [MEH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Press, F. & Siever, R. (1974) Earth. W. H. Freeman & Co. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Prigogine, I. (1980) Physique, temps et devenir. Masson. [JHPP]Google Scholar
Prigogine, I. & Stengers, I. (1984) Order out of chaos. Bantam Books. [aPJHS, GFM]Google Scholar
Quine, W. (1966) Simple theories of a complex world. In: The ways ofparadox and other essays. Random House. [ESo]Google Scholar
Quine, W. (1969) Ontological relativity and other essays. Columbia University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1985) Maximization theory and Plato's concept of the good. Behaviorism 13(1):320. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. & Green, L. (1972) Commitment, choice and self-control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 17:1522. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachlin, H., Battalio, R., Kagel, J. & Green, L. (1981) Maximization theoryin behavioral psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:371417. [JEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ramsey, F. P. (1929/1990) General propositions and causality. In: Philosophical papers, ed. Mellor, D. H.. Cambridge University Press. [N-ES]Google Scholar
Rapoport, A., Guyer, M. & Gondon, O. (1976) The 2 × 2 game. University of Michigan Press. [APW]Google Scholar
Rapport, D. J. (1971) An optimization model of food selection. American Naturalist 105:575–88. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reseller, N. (1979) Leibniz: An introduction to his philosophy. Basil Blackwell. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Rodman, P. S. & Cant, J. G. H., eds. (1984) Adaptations for foraging innonhuman primates. Columbia University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Roitblat, H. L. (1982) Decision making, evolution and cognition. In: Evolutionand determinism of animal and human behavior, ed. Schmidt, H. D. & Tembrock, G.. Springer-Verlag. [DAH]Google Scholar
Roll, R. (1989) The international crash of October 1987. In: Black Monday and the future of financial markets, ed. Kamphuis, R. W., Kormendi, R. C. & Watson, J. W. H.. Dow Jones-Irwin, Inc. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Rosen, R. (1967) Optimality principles in biology. Butterworths. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, A. (1976) Microeconomic laws. Pittsburgh University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Rosenberg, A. (1985) The structure of biological science. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenblueth, A.Wiener, N. & Bigelow, J. (1943) Behavior, purpose andteleology. Philosophy of Science vol. 10(1):1824. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothschild, M. (1973) Models of market organization with imperfect information: A survey. Journal of Political Economy 81:12831308. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothschild, M. (1974) Searching for the lowest price when the distribution of prices is unknown. Journal of Political Economy 82:689711. [arPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumelhart, D. E., McClelland, J. L. & the PDF research group (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. II. Bradford Books. [JRA]Google Scholar
Russell, B. (1959) Mysticism and logic. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. [aPJHS, KMS]Google Scholar
Sahlin, N. E. (1990) The philosophy of F. P. Ramsey. Cambridge University Press. [N-ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salton, G. & McGill, M. J. (1983) Introduction to modern iriformation retrieval. McGraw-Hill. [JRA]Google Scholar
Samuelson, P. (1946) Foundations of economic analysis. Harvard University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Samuelson, P. (1963) Discussion: Problems of methodology. American Economic Review 53 (suppl.):227–36. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Samuelson, P. (1970) Maximum principles in analytical economics. Nobel Memorial Lecture, Dec. 11. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Satterthwaite, M. A. (1975) Strategy-proofhess and Arrow's conditions. Journal of Economic Theory 1:187217. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sayre, K. M. (1986) Intentionality and information processing: An alternativemodel for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9:121–37. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schelling, T. C. (1960) The strategy of conflict. Harvard University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Schlick, M. (1939) When is man responsible? In: Problems of ethics. Prentice-Hall, Inc. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1982) The expected utility model: Its variants, purposes, evidence and limitations. Journal of Economic Literature 20:529–63. [aPJHS, ESh]Google Scholar
Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1984) Optimality principles in science: Some epistemological issues. In: The quest for optimality, ed. Paelinck, J. H. P. & Vossen., P. H.Gower. [arPJHS]Google Scholar
Schoemaker, P. J. H. (1990) Strategy, complexity and economic rent. Management Science 36(3). [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schoemaker, P. & Hershey, J. (1991) Utility measurement: Signal, noise andbias. In: Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (in press). [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Schroedinger, E. (1954) Nature and the Greeks. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Schroedinger, E. (1967) What is liffe?-Mind and matter. Cambridge University Press(Cambridge). [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Scitovsky, T. (1976) The joyless economy. Oxford University Press. [rPJHS]Google Scholar
Shannon, C. E. & Weaver, W. (1949) The mathematical theory of communications. University of Illinois Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1964) On subjectively optimum selections among multi-attribute alternatives. In: Human judgment and optimality, ed. Shelby, M. W. & Bryan, G. L.Wiley. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1987) Evolution of a mesh between principles of the mind and regularities of the world. In: The latest of the best, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Shiller, R. (1981) Do stock prices move too much to be justified bysubsequent changes in dividends? American Economic Review 7:421–36. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1957) Models of man: Social and rational. Wiley. [arPJHS]Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1981) The sciences of the artificial, 2nd ed. MIT Press. [arPJHS]Google Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1983) Models of bounded rationality. MIT Press. [PM]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1969) Contingencies of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Slovic, P. & Lichtenstein, S. (1983) Preference reversals: A broaderperspective. American Economic Review 73:596605. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Slovic, P. & Tversky, A. (1974) Who accepts Savage's axiom? Behavioral Science 19:368–73. [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slovic, P., Lichtenstein, S. & Fischhoff, B. (1989) Decision making. In: Stevens handbook of experimental psychology, ed. Atkinson, R. C., Hermstein, R. J., Lindzey, G. & Luce, R. D.. Wiley. [ESh]Google Scholar
Smith, A. (1776/1976) The wealth of nations. University of Chicago Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Smith, E. A. (1987) Optimization theory in anthropology: Applications andcritiques. In: The latest on the best, ed. Dupré, J.. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Sober, E. (1988) Reconstructing the past: Parsimony, evolution, and inference. MIT Press. [ESo]Google Scholar
Sober, E. (in press) Let's razor Occam's razor. In: Explanation and its limits, ed. Knowles, D.. Royal Institute of Philosophy, suppl. vol. 27. Cambridge University Press. (Cambridge) [ESo]Google Scholar
Solomon, R. L., Kamin, L. J. & Wynne, L. C. (1953) Traumatic avoidancelearning: The outcome of several extinction procedures with dogs. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 48:291302. [DSL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sopron, , (1984) Plural rationality and interactive decision processes. Proceedings of the conference. Springer-Verlag. [AAW]Google Scholar
Sorenson, A. (1978) Mathematical models in sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 9:3156. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Spranca, M., Minsk, E. & Baron, J. (in press) Omission and commission injudgment and choice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1983) Adaptive behavior and learning. Cambridge University Press. [KMS]Google Scholar
Stigler, G. (1961) The economics of information. Journal of Political Economy 69:213–25. [arPJHS, PM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stritter, E. (1977) File migration. (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis STAN-CS-77-594.) Stanford University. [JRA]Google Scholar
Svirezhev, Y. M. (1972) Optimum principles in population genetics. In: Studies on theoretical genetics, ed. Ratner, V. A.. Academy of Sciences, USSR, Novosibirsk. (In Russian with an English summary.) [JFC]Google Scholar
Teller, R. (1980) The pursuit of simplicity. Pepperdine University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Tinbergen, J. (1928) Minimum problemen in de Natuurkunde en Economie. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden, The Netherlands. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Tipler, P. A. (1969) Foundations of modern physics. Worth. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Tsotsos, J. (1988) A “complexity-level” analysis of intermediate vision. International Journal of Computer Vision 1:303–20. [DAM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristicsand biases. Science 185:1124–31. [aPJHS, DSL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1981) The framing of decisions and the rationality of choice. Science 211:453–58. [aPJHS, DSL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1982) Evidential impact of base rates. In: Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases, ed. Kahnemann, D., Slovic, P. & Tversky, A.. Cambridge University Press (Cambridge). [SS-F]Google Scholar
Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1986) Rational choice and the framing of decisions. Journal of Business 59(4) Part 2:251–78. [ESh]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Gastel, M. A. J. J. & Paelinck, J. H. P. (in press) Hypergraph conflict analysis. Economics Letters. [JHPP]Google Scholar
Varela, F. J. (1979) Principles of biological autonomy. Elsevier North-Holland. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Vaughan, W. & Miller, H. L. (1984) Optimization versus response-strength accounts of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 42:337–48. [MD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vergis, A., Steiglitz, K. & Dickinson, B. (1986) The complexity of analog computation. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 28:91113. [DAM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voltaire, M. de (1759/1966) Candide (trans. Adams, R. M.). W. W. Norton. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
VonHelmholtz, H. Helmholtz, H. (1886) Ueber Die Physikalische Bedeutung des Principsder Kleinsten Wirkung. Journal für Mathematik, Bd. C. (2):1828. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
VonNeumann, J. Neumann, J. & Morgenstern, O. (1947) Theory of games and economic behavior, 2nd ed. Princeton University Press. [arPJHS, ESh]Google Scholar
VonNeumann, J. Neumann, J. & Morgenstern, O. (1953) Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton University Press. [OL]Google Scholar
Wagner, H. M. (1969) Principles of operations research. Prentice-Hall. [OL]Google Scholar
Warren, H. C. (1916) A study of purpose. The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods 13(1-3). [aPJHS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wasserman, P. D. (1989) Neural computing: Theory and practice. Van Nostrand Reinhold. [DAH]Google Scholar
Whitehead, A. N. (1920) The concept of nature. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Wiener, N. (1961) Cybernetics, 2nd ed. MIT Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Wigner, E. P. (1967) The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences. In: Symmetries and reflections: Scientific essays of Eugene P. Wigner. MIT Press. [FLB]Google Scholar
Williams, G. C. (1966) Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton University Press. [MDal]Google Scholar
Wilson, E. O. (1975) Sociology: The new synthesis. Harvard University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Wimsatt, W. C. (1972) Teleology and the logical structure of function statements. Studies in the History of Philosophy of Science 3(1):179. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Winter, S. (1975) Optimization and evolution in the theory of the firm. In: Adaptive economic models, ed. Day, R. H. & Groves, T.. Academic Press. [PM]Google Scholar
Woodfleld, A. (1976) Teleology. Cambridge University Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Wright, L. (1976) Teleological explanation: An etiological analysis of goals and functions. University of California Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Wright, S. (1954) The interpretation of multivariate systems. In: Statistics and mathematics in biology, ed. Kempthorne, O., Bancroft, T. A., Gowen, J. W. & Lush, J. L.. Iowa State College Press. [FLB]Google Scholar
Zipf, G. K. (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Addison-Wesley Press. [aPJHS]Google Scholar
Zucker, S. W., Dobbins, A. & Iverson, L. (1989) Two stages of curvedetection suggest two styles of visual computation. Neural Computation 1:6881. [DAM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar