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Heinrich Rauchberg (1860–1938): A Reappraisal of a Central European Demographer's Life and Work

  • Iris Nachum

Extract

In the small, idyllic German Evangelical Cemetery in Prague-Strašnice, a simple tombstone stands in the back row of graves, dedicated to the memory of “Dr. Heinrich Rauchberg, Professor at the German University in Prague, 1860–1938” and his wife Freia (1874–1939) (see Figures 1 and 2). When the Viennese-born demographer passed away, he left behind him an impressive professional career in the Habsburg monarchy and later in Czechoslovakia: he published a massive body of professional studies in population statistics and was an important figure at the German University in Prague, where he founded the Institute of Political Science in 1898 and served as dean of the Faculty of Law (1902–3, 1916–17, and 1926–27) and as university rector (1911–12). Outside the academic realm, Rauchberg was also involved in a broad range of activities. In 1890, for instance, he headed the Austrian census, in which the Hollerith electric counting machine was employed for the first time in Europe; Franz Kafka, his student in 1905, would later craft a literary monument to Rauchberg, the machine expert, in the short story “In the Penal Colony.” Especially after the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, Rauchberg became a familiar figure among the local German minority, particularly because of his radio broadcasts on legal questions; his frequent articles in the German-speaking press on current issues; his numerous public lectures on social topics; his tireless engagement with housing assistance, tenant protection, and social insurance; and his involvement in the German League of Nations Union in the Czechoslovak Republic, which he cofounded in 1922. In short, he was a scholar very much in the public eye.

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1 For his studies on population statistics, see e.g., Rauchberg, Heinrich, Österreichische Bürgerkunde (Vienna, 1911); Rauchberg, Bürgerkunde der Tschechoslowakischen Republik (Liberec, 1922). For a list of his main publications, see Petráš, René, “Heinrich Rauchberg,” in Antologie československé právní vědy v letech 1918–1939 [Anthology of Czechoslovak jurisprudence in the years 1918–1939], ed. Skřejpková, Petra (Prague, 2009), 481–90, here 485; Horáček, Cyril, “Profesor Rauchberg zemřel” [Professor Rauchberg dead], Právník [Lawyer] 77 (1938): 541–42. On his time at the German University, see Archive of the Charles University, Prague (AUK), Personal Files–Heinrich Rauchberg (PF-HR), 1896–1938 (box 6), manuscript, Oskar Engländer, “Persönliche Erinnerungen,” 12 Apr. 1930; cf. Engländer, “Rauchberg als Wissenschaftler,” Prager Tagblatt, 10 Apr. 1930, p. 3; Slapnicka, Helmut, “Rauchberg, Heinrich,” in Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950, ed. Austrian Academy of Sciences, 12 vols. (Vienna, 1983), 8: 437–38, here 437.

2 Wagner, Benno, “Connecting Cultures: Heinrich Rauchberg, Franz Kafka, and the Hollerith Machine,” Austriaca. Cahiers universitaires d'information sur l'Autriche 60 (2005): 5368.

3 On his radio broadcasts, see Slapnicka, “Rauchberg,” 437; cf. Adam, Alfons, Unsichtbare Mauern: Die Deutschen in der Prager Gesellschaft zwischen Abkapselung und Interaktion (1918–1938/39) (Essen, 2013), 299. On his engagement with housing assistance, tenant protection, and social insurance, see “Prof. Dr. Rauchberg gestorben,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 27 Sept. 1938, p. 5. On his involvement in the German League of Nations, see “Gründungsversammlung der deutschen Völkerbundliga,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 27 Mar. 1922, p. 1. On Rauchberg's advocacy of minority protection and his pro-German lobbying at the League of Nations, see Petráš, “Heinrich Rauchberg,” 483–84. On Rauchberg's membership in various public institutions in the Habsburg monarchy, see “Rektorswahl an der Universität,” Bohemia, 24 June 1911, p. 5.

4 Among the exceptions is Petráš, “Heinrich Rauchberg.”

5 Among the exceptions are ibid., 481; Wein, Martin, History of the Jews in the Bohemian Lands (Leiden, 2016), 172 (note 3); Kaznelson, Siegmund, “Nationalities Struggle,” in Prague and Jerusalem: A Memorial Volume for Leo Herrmann, ed. Weltsch, Felix (Jerusalem, 1954), 5763, here 61 [in Hebrew]. See also the reference books, Staudacher, Anna L., “… meldet den Austritt aus dem mosaischen Glauben”: 18000 Austritte aus dem Judentum in Wien, 1868–1914: Namen—Quellen—Daten (Frankfurt, 2009), 476 (note 6); Staudacher, , Jüdisch-protestantische Konvertiten in Wien 1782–1914, 2 vols. (Frankfurt, 2004), 2:564 (note 29); Austrian National Library, ed., Handbuch österreichischer Autorinnen und Autoren jüdischer Herkunft: 18. bis 20. Jahrhundert, 3 vols. (Munich, 2002), 2:1096; Wlaschek, Rudolf M., Biographia Judaica Bohemiae, 3 vols. (Dortmund, 1995), 1:173.

6 Lowenstein, Steven M., “Jewish Participation in German Culture,” in German-Jewish History in Modern Times, vol. 3, Integration in Dispute, 1871–1918, eds. Lowenstein, Steven M., Mendes-Flohr, Paul, Pulzer, Peter, and Richarz, Monika (New York, 1997), 305–35.

7 Shumsky, Dimitry, “Introducing Intellectual and Political History to the History of Everyday Life: Multiethnic Cohabitation and Jewish Experience in Fin-de-Siècle Bohemia,” Bohemia: Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kultur der böhmischen Länder 46 (2005): 3967, here 61; Brix, Emil, “Die Erhebungen der Umgangssprache im zisleithanischen Österreich (1880–1910): Nationale und sozio-ökonomische Ursachen der Sprachenkonflikte,” Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung 87 (1979): 363439, here 381; Brix, Die Umgangssprachen in Altösterreich zwischen Agitation und Assimilation: Die Sprachenstatistik in den zisleithanischen Volkszählungen 1880 bis 1910 (Vienna, 1982), 296.

8 “Prof. Dr. Rauchberg gestorben,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 27 Sept. 1938, p. 5.

9 Cf. Heinrich Rauchberg, Der nationale Besitzstand in Böhmen, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1905), vi–vii. On the term Nationalbesitzstand (national property or national ownership), see Pieter M. Judson, “‘Not Another Square Foot!’ German Liberalism and the Rhetoric of National Ownership in Nineteenth-Century Austria,” Austrian History Yearbook 26 (1995): 83–97.

10 Heinrich Rauchberg, Der nationale Besitzstand in Böhmen, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1905). For an analysis of Rauchberg's magnum opus, see, e.g., Petr Kadlec, Pavel Kladiwa, Dan Gawrecki, Andrea Pokludová, and Petr Popelka, eds., Národnostní statistika v českých zemích 1880–1930: Mechanismy, problémy a důsledky národnostní klasifikace [Ethnic statistics in the Bohemian lands in 1880–1930: The mechanisms, problems and consequences of ethnic classification], 2 vols. (Ostrava, 2016), 1:passim.

11 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 670–71. On the nationalistic term “language border” (Sprachgrenze), see Pieter M. Judson, “Frontier Germans: The Invention of the Sprachgrenze,” in Identität—Kultur—Raum: Kulturelle Praktiken und die Ausbildung von Imagined Communities in Nordamerika und Zentraleuropa, eds. Susan Ingram, Markus Reisenleitner, and Cornelia Szabó-Knotik (Vienna, 2001), 85–99; Mark Cornwall, “The Struggle on the Czech-German Language Border, 1880–1940,” The English Historical Review 109, no. 433 (1994): 914–51.

12 “Deutsche und tschechische Minoritäten,” Bohemia, 2 Nov. 1905, p. 1.

13 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 257, 298, 663–67; cf. Kadlec et al., eds., Národnostní statistika, 1:171.

14 Berthold Sutter, “Die politische und rechtliche Stellung der Deutschen in Österreich 1848 bis 1918,” in Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848–1918, vol. 3/1, Die Völker des Reiches, eds. Adam Wandruszka and Peter Urbanitsch (Vienna, 1980), 154–339, here 307–9; Hugo Herz, “Der nationale Besitzstand und die nationalen Siedlungsverhältnisse in Mähren und (österr.) Schlesien,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft 65 (1909): 609–50.

15 Emily Greene Balch, “Der Nationale Besitzstand in Böhmen by Heinrich Rauchberg. Review,” Political Science Quaterly 21, no. 1 (1906): 155–58, here 155.

16 Heinrich Herkner, “Neuere Literatur über die deutsch-böhmische Frage,” Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik 24 (1907): 451–63, here 462.

17 See, for example, Pavel Kladiwa, “(Nejen) Boháč versus Rauchberg: Dobová reflexe výsledků sčítání lidu 1880–1930 v českých zemích” [(Not only) Boháč versus Rauchberg: Reflecting the results of the census of 1880–1930 in the Czech lands], Časopis Matice moravské [Journal of the Moravian Foundation] 132, no. 2 (2013): 369–406.

18 Pieter M. Judson, Guardians of the Nation: Activists on the Language Frontiers of Imperial Austria (Cambridge, MA, 2006), 31–32.

19 Shumsky, “Introducing Intellectual,” 59–61.

20 Ibid., 61.

21 Peter Pulzer, “Legal Equality and Public Life,” in German-Jewish History in Modern Times, vol. 3, Integration in Dispute, 1871–1918, eds. Peter Pulzer, Steven M. Lowenstein, Paul Mendes-Flohr, and Monika Richarz (New York, 1997), 153–95, here 170.

22 Moravus, “Eine deutsche Drohung,” Die Welt (Vienna), 3 Nov. 1905, p. 8.

23 Shumsky, “Introducing Intellectual,” 61.

24 Brix, “Erhebungen der Umgangssprache,” 381; Brix, Umgangssprachen, 296.

25 Cornwall, “Struggle on the Czech-German Language Border,” 920–22.

26 Catherine Albrecht, “Economic Nationalism among German Bohemians,” Nationalities Papers 24, no. 1 (1996): 17–30, here 20.

27 Peter Haslinger, Nation und Territorium im tschechischen politischen Diskurs 1880–1938 (Munich, 2010), 152.

28 Judson, Guardians of the Nation, 71; Judson, “Frontier Germans,” 96 (note 4).

29 Tara Zahra, Kidnapped Souls: National Indifference and the Battle for Children in the Bohemian Lands, 1900–1948 (Ithaca, 2008), 74. Jason D. Hansen, Mapping the Germans: Statistical Science, Cartography, and the Visualization of the German Nation, 1848–1914 (Oxford, 2015), 75.

30 Cf. Petschar, “Ansichten des Volkes,” 192.

31 Vienna Jewish Community (IKG), Vienna Jewish Records Office (JRO), Marriage Register Vienna (city), vol. B (1857–1871), row 129.

32 IKG-JRO, Birth Register Vienna, vol. C (1858 May–1864), r. 1238. Rauchberg was probably named after his maternal grandfather, Hirsch Schilder, who lived in L'viv (Lemberg).

33 On Helene Rauchberg's moral-pedagogical activism, see Renate Seebauer, Frauen, die Schule machten (Vienna, 2007), 134–46.

34 Robert S. Wistrich, The Jews of Vienna in the Age of Franz Joseph (Oxford, 1989), 43.

35 “Hinterwasser: Rauchberg Jos., Seidenwaren-Fabrik, F.: ‘Jos. Rauchberg,’ ]handelsgerichtlich protokolliert am] 24. Juli 1865,” in Allgemeines Adress- und Handels-Handbuch der Hauptstadt Prag sammt Vorstädten, vol. 2, Böhmen ausser Prag (Prague, 1871), 47 and 218.

36 “Rauchberg Josef, Seidenzeug- und Sammtfab., VII. Zieglerg. 18,” in Allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger nebst Handels- und Gewerbe-Adreßbuch der k. k Reichshaupt- und Residenzstadt Wien und Umgebung (Vienna, 1865), 261.

37 Josef Rauchberg was buried on 13 December 1905 (gate I). His wife was laid to rest in the same grave on 25 Feb. 1917. See “Cemetery Database,” IKG, accessed 5 Nov. 2018, https://www.ikg-wien.at/friedhofsdatenbank; cf. “Sterbefälle,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 27 Feb. 1917, evening edition, p. 3.

38 “Prof. Dr. Rauchberg gestorben,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 27 Sept. 1938, p. 5. Slapnicka, “Rauchberg,” 437; “The Faculty for Law and State of the University of Vienna between 1918 and 1938,” University of Vienna, accessed 5 Nov. 2018, http://www.univie.ac.at/restawi/index.php?article_id=7&clang=0.

39 Cf. Jacques Kornberg, Theodor Herzl: From Assimilation to Zionism (Bloomington, 1993), 13.

40 Monika Richarz, “Occupational Distribution and Social Structure,” in German-Jewish History in Modern Times, vol. 3, Integration in Dispute, 1871–1918, eds. Monika Richarz, Steven M. Lowenstein, Paul Mendes-Flohr, and Peter Pulzer (New York, 1997), 35–67, here 37 and 54–56.

41 Hans Tietze, Die Juden Wiens: Geschichte—Wirtschaft—Kultur (Vienna, 1987), 232.

42 Cited in Peter Pulzer, The Rise of Political Antisemitism in Germany and Austria (Cambridge, 1964), 245.

43 “Prof. Dr. Rauchberg gestorben,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 27 Sept. 1938, p. 5.

44 Rauchberg, “Karl Theodor von Inama-Sternegg,” Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft, Sozialpolitik und Verwaltung 18 (1909): 1–28, here 5.

45 Ibid., 5.

46 For the biographical data, see Vienna University Archive, Faculty of Law, Nationalien, Sig. 134–36, 1878/79 L-Z, reel 1219; M 32.2-766; Rauchberg, “Inama-Sternegg,” 15–16; Staudacher, Jüdisch-protestantische Konvertiten, 564 (note 29); “Rektorswahl an der Universität,” Bohemia, 24 June 1911, p. 5.

47 Ilse Reiter-Zatloukal, “Antisemitismus und Juristenstand: Wiener Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftliche Fakultät und Rechtspraxis vom ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert bis zum ‘Anschluss’ 1938,” in Der lange Schatten des Antisemitismus. Kritische Auseinandersetzungen mit der Geschichte der Universität Wien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Oliver Rathkolb (Vienna, 2013), 183–206, here 185; Tietze, Juden Wiens, 212–13.

48 Staudacher, Jüdisch-protestantische Konvertiten, 564 (note 29); cf. Staudacher, Meldet den Austritt, 476 (note 6). For Rauchberg's break with Judaism, his descendants cite discord with his father, caused by his decision to become a university student and not to take over his father's firm. See e-mails, Bertrand Wägenbaur to the author, 22 Feb. 2013 and 29 Oct. 2013.

49 Steven Beller, Vienna and the Jews, 1867–1938: A Cultural History (Cambridge, 1989), 152–53.

50 “Rektorswahl an der Universität,” Bohemia, 24 June 1911, p. 5.

51 “Personalien,” Österreichische Zeitung für Verwaltung, 24 Feb. 1887, p. 34.

52 Rauchberg, “Inama-Sternegg,” 20; Rauchberg, “Erfahrungen mit der elektrischen Zählmaschine,” Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv 4 (1896): 131–63, here 161. On Rauchberg's praise for the counting machine, see Wolfgang Göderle, Zensus und Ethnizität: Zur Herstellung von Wissen über soziale Wirklichkeiten im Habsburgerreich zwischen 1848 und 1910 (Göttingen, 2016), 154–59.

53 For the biographical data, see “Nichtamtlicher Theil” and “Amtlicher Theil,” Wiener Zeitung, 10 May 1891, p. 4; “Kleine Chronik,” Die Presse, 26 Nov. 1894, p. 1; AUK, PF-HR, 1896–1938 (b. 6), letter, Law Faculty to Ministry of Culture and Education, 4 Sept. 1896. Later sources incorrectly date the grant to Rauchberg of the title Hofsekretär as taking place in 1884. Cf. Slapnicka, “Rauchberg,” 437.

54 “Kleine Chronik,” Neue Freie Presse, 13 Aug. 1888, evening edition, p. 1; Marie Rauchberg died of diphtheria. “Verstorbene,” Wiener Zeitung, 25 Jan. 1891, p. 10; e-mails, Wägenbaur to the author, 22 Feb. 2013 and 29 Oct. 2013.

55 Rauchberg was resident in the 3rd district of Vienna, Reisnerstrasse 20. See Lehmann's Allgemeiner Wohnungs-Anzeiger (Vienna, 1891), 936; Slapnicka, “Rauchberg,” 437.

56 Ibid.; “Deutsche Universität Prag,” Die Presse, 31 Aug. 1896, p. 3. In Prague, Rauchberg became a close friend of his colleague Ludwig Spiegel, the renowned German-Jewish law professor. Along with Spiegel, the jurist and economist Robert Zuckerkandl, the economic historian Paul Sander, and the economist Arthur Spiethoff were part of Rauchberg's immediate scientific network. See Helmut Slapnicka, “Ludwig Spiegel,” in Lebensbilder zur Geschichte der böhmischen Länder, vol. 4, ed. Ferdinand Seibt (Munich, 1981), 243–63, here 262; Slapnicka, “Die juridischen Fakultäten der Prager Universitäten 1900–1939,” in Universitäten in nationaler Konkurrenz. Zur Geschichte der Prager Universitäten im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, ed. Hans Lemberg (Munich, 2003), 63–84, here 77. No evidence for the existence of scientific interactions between Rauchberg and national Jewish demographers was found.

57 Jörg Osterloh, Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung im Reichsgau Sudetenland 1938–1945 (Munich, 2006), 108–28.

58 Pulzer, “Legal Equality and Public Life,” 170–71.

59 Jiří Pešek, “Prager jüdische Studenten am Ende der Ersten Tschechoslowakischen Republik: Juristen 1937/38,” in Juden zwischen Deutschen und Tschechen: Sprachliche und kulturelle Identitäten in Böhmen 1800–1945, eds. Marek Nekula and Walter Koschmal (Munich, 2006), 65–72, here 68.

60 Prague City Archives (AHMP), Magistrate of the Capital City Prague I (MHMP I), department IV, record sheets, b. 239, sheet 260, year 1896 (Rauchberg, 1860); National Archives, Prague (NA), Police Headquarters I, conscription, b. 499, p. 943, 11 June 1897 and 10 May 1901 (Rauchberg). On the dates of death of Rauchberg's children, see e-mail, Wägenbaur to the author, 29 Oct. 2013; “Gravestones,” genealogy.net, accessed 5 Nov. 2018, http://grabsteine.genealogy.net/tomb.php?cem=782&tomb=2469&b=K&lang=en.

61 “Mitteilungen der R.D.H.Ö. [Reichsorganisation der Hausfrauen Österreichs],” Bohemia, 8 Mar. 1917, p. 8; “Ball der deutschen Hochschulen,” Bohemia, 24 Jan. 1912, p. 5; “Deutscher Theatervereinsball,” Bohemia, 17 Jan. 1912, p. 8; “Deutscher Schulverein,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 14 Feb. 1904, p. 3. On the German School Association, see Cornwall, “Struggle on the Czech-German Language Border.” The family lived at Koperníkova ul. 91. See Carl Bellmann, Bellmann's Jahrbuch für Böhmen. Politisch-statistischer Auskunfts-Kalender (Prague, 1907), 131. In the 1930s, the Rauchberg couple moved to Letohradská 1307/36 in the district of Holešovice, Prague 7. On Královské Vinohrady, see Adam, Unsichtbare Mauern, 109.

62 Stenographisches Protokoll, Haus der Abgeordneten, session XVIII, meeting 125, 20 Jan. 1909, interpellation Srb (annex II, 4194/I), 13965–14001, here 13998; cf. Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 14–17.

63 Brix, “Erhebungen der Umgangssprache,” 429. Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 14. On Rauchberg's approach to the mother tongue as the decisive marker of nationality, see Kateřina Čapková, Czechs, Germans, Jews? National Identity and the Jews of Bohemia (New York, 2012), 42–43; Hansen, Mapping the Germans, 89.

64 On Rauchberg's approach to assimilation, see Hans Petschar, “Ansichten des Volkes: Über die Transformationen von Kollektivvorstellungen vom 18. bis zum 20. Jahrhundert,” in Clios Rache. Neue Aspekte strukturgeschichtlicher und theoriegeleiteter Geschichtsforschung in Österreich, eds. Karl Kaser and Karl Stocker (Vienna, 1992), 173–99, here 196–98.

65 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 300.

66 AUK, PF-HR, 1896–1938 (b. 6), letter, Statthalter (Governor) to Rector's Office, 28 June 1909; “Auszeichnungen,” Bohemia, 21 June 1909, p. 3.

67 “Rektorswahl an der Universität,” Bohemia, 24 June 1911, p. 5.

68 Čapková, Czechs, Germans, Jews, 65.

69 “Rektorswahl an der Universität,” Bohemia, 24 June 1911, p. 5; cf. Rauchberg, Die politische Erziehung des Staatsvolkes. Rektoratsrede gehalten in der Aula der k.k. Deutschen Karl-Ferdinands-Universität in Prag von Hofrat Professor Dr. Rauchberg am 28. Oktober 1911 (Prague, 1911).

70 “Der getaufte Rektor,” Die Welt (Berlin), 12 Apr. 1912, p. 445.

71 “Rektor Rauchbergs Protektorat,” Jüdische Volksstimme (Vienna), 6 June 1912, p. 2.

72 Ibid.; cf. “Dickhäuter,” Jüdische Volksstimme (Vienna), 27 June 1912, p. 4 (emphasis in original).

73 “Prager Brief,” Jüdische Volkstimme (Vienna), 15 Aug. 1912, p. 3.

74 “Rektor Rauchberg und der arische Verein,” Montagsblatt aus Böhmen, 22 July 1912, p. 6.

75 “Rektor Rauchbergs Amtsführung,” Jüdische Volksstimme (Vienna), 25 July 1912, p. 5.

76 Moravus, “Eine deutsche Drohung,” Die Welt (Vienna), 3 Nov. 1905, p. 8.

77 Rauchberg, “Die nächste Volkszählung,” Deutsche Zeitung Bohemia, 16 Jan. 1921, p. 1.

78 “Der getaufte Rektor,” Die Welt (Berlin), 12 Apr. 1912, p. 445.

79 Gerald Stourzh,“Galten die Juden als Nationalität Altösterreichs?,” in Prag—Czernowitz—Jerusalem. Der österreichische Staat und die Juden vom Zeitalter des Absolutismus bis zum Ende der Monarchie, eds. Gerald Stourzh, Anna M. Drabek, and Mordechai Eliav (Eisenstadt, 1984), 73–117.

80 For this reason, he often drew harsh criticism from the Czech-language Zionist journal Židovské zprávy [Jewish News]. See “Židé a sčítání lidu” [Jews and the population census], Židovské zprávy, 3 Feb. 1921, p. 1; “K sčítání lidu: Návrh, který musí padnouti” [Regarding the population census: A proposition that must be defeated], Židovské zprávy, 14 Feb. 1930, p. 1; “Sčítání lida v duchu ústavy” [Census in the spirit of the constitution], Židovské zprávy, 4 July 1930, p. 1. On Rauchberg's activities against the recognition of a Jewish nationality in the Czechoslovak census, see Kadlec et al., eds., Národnostní statistika, 2: 196; Čapková, Czechs, Germans, Jews, 43; Ines Koeltzsch, Geteilte Kulturen: Eine Geschichte der tschechisch-jüdisch-deutschen Beziehungen in Prag (1918–1938) (Munich, 2012), 39; Tatjana Lichtenstein, “Racializing Jewishness: Zionist Responses to National Indifference in Interwar Czechoslovakia,” Austrian History Yearbook 43 (2012): 75–97, here 83 (note 32).

81 Rauchberg, “Die nächste Volkszählung,” Prager Tagblatt, 19 June 1929, p. 1.

82 Rauchberg, “Die Volkszählung in Böhmen,” Prager Tagblatt, 14 July 1922, p. 1.

83 Antonín Boháč, “Národnost při druhém sčítání lidu [Nationality in the second census],” Statistický obzor [Statistical Review] 12 (1931): 14–30, here 17.

84 Ibid.

85 Čapková, Czechs, Germans, Jews, 43.

86 Rauchberg, “Die Nationalitätenerhebung der nächsten Volkszählung,” Prager Tagblatt, 5 Feb. 1930, p. 1.

87 Leo Baeck Institute, New York (LBI), Robert Weltsch Collection, series II: correspondence, 1770–1980/general correspondence, 1972–77, b. 2, flr. 9, letter, Robert Weltsch to Guido Kisch, 22 Oct. 1975.

88 Eberhard Demm, Ein Liberaler in Kaiserreich und Republik: Der politische Weg Alfred Webers bis 1920 (Boppard am Rhein, 1990), 45–46.

89 Staudacher, Meldet den Austritt, 215 (note 66).

90 Federal Archives (BArch) N 1197 (Nachlass Alfred Weber)/47, letter, Alfred Weber to Max Weber, 21 Apr. 1904 (emphasis in original); Demm, Liberaler in Kaiserreich, 46.

91 BArch, N 1197/47, letter, A. Weber to M. Weber, 21 Apr. 1904.

92 Rudolf Vrba, Die Revolution in Russland: Statistische und sozialpolitische Studien, (Prague, 1906), 391. About the circulation of his book in antisemitic circles, see Brigitte Hamann, Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man (London, 2010), 343–44.

93 Alexander Pinwinkler, Wilhelm Winkler (1884–1984)—eine Biografie: Zur Geschichte der Statistik und Demografie in Österreich und Deutschland (Berlin, 2003), 52–53.

94 “Eine Aktion gegen Professor Rauchberg,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 3 May 1906, pp. 11–12.

95 “Ein antideutscher Beschluß des Landesausschusses,” Bohemia, 2 May 1906, evening edition, p. 1 (emphasis added).

96 “Ein peinlicher Zwischenfall,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 12 May 1912, p. 8.

97 “Zwischenfall bei einer Promotion,” Bohemia, 19 June 1914, evening edition, p. 2.

98 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 662–63.

99 Rauchberg, “Die Bedeutung der Deutschen in Österreich. Vortrag gehalten in der Gehe-Stiftung zu Dresden am 14. März 1908,” Jahrbuch der Gehe-Stiftung zu Dresden 14 (1908): 131–70, here 131.

100 Rauchberg, “Kleindeutsche oder großdeutsche Politik,” Pilsner Tagblatt, 3 Aug. 1918, p. 2.

101 Cf. René Petráš, Menšiny v meziválečném Československu: Právní postavení národnostních menšin v první Československé republice a jejich mezinárodněprávní ochrana [The minorities in interwar Czechoslovakia: The legal status of the national minorities in the First Czechoslovak Republic and their international protection] (Prague, 2009), 51–53.

102 “Die Zweitheilung Böhmens,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 5 Dec. 1897, p. 1.

103 Alena Míšková,“‘Pryč z Prahy!’—plány na budování a přesuny německých vysokých škol v Čechách” [“Away from Prague!”: Plans to build and relocate German universities in Bohemia], in Hledání centra: Vědecké a vzdělávací instituce Němců v Čechách v 19. a první polovině 20. století [Searching for a center: Scientific and educational institutions of Germans in Bohemia in the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries], eds. Kristina Kaiserová and Miroslav Kunštát (Ústí nad Labem, 2011), 99–120.

104 “Rektor Hofrat Rauchberg,” Bohemia, 12 Mar. 1912, p. 5. On the myth that the German University in Prague, which has existed only since the bifurcation of Prague University in 1882–83, is the oldest German university, see Tobias Weger, “Das ‘deutsche Prag’: Von der Beständigkeit eines Mythos,” Jahrbuch für deutsche und osteuropäische Volkskunde 44 (2001): 135–56, here 142.

105 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 56–57, 305, and 674–75.

106 “Die Prager Universität nach Deutschböhmen,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 20 Dec. 1918, p. 3 (emphasis added).

107 Philip Ajouri, Literatur um 1900: Naturalismus—Fin de Siècle—Expressionismus (Berlin, 2009), 76; Herbert Schnädelbach, Philosophy in Germany 1831–1933 (Cambridge, 1984), 139.

108 Cf. Christian Jansen, Professoren und Politik: Politisches Denken und Handeln der Heidelberger Hochschullehrer 1914–1935 (Göttingen, 1992), 80. On the Lebensphilosphie movement, see Boaz Neumann, Die Weltanschauung des Nazismus: Raum—Körper—Sprache (Göttingen, 2010), 28–29.

109 “Die deutschen Hochschulen ins deutsche Siedlungsgebiet!,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 7 Jan. 1921, p. 2.

110 Rauchberg, Nationale Besitzstand, 675. “Rektor Hofrat Rauchberg,” Bohemia, 12 Mar. 1912, p. 5.

111 “Die deutschen Hochschulen ins deutsche Siedlungsgebiet!,” Reichenberger Zeitung, 7 Jan. 1921, p. 2.

112 Ibid., p. 3.

113 Report no. 179, Saenger to Foreign Office, 5 Apr. 1921. Reprinted in Alexander, Manfred, ed., Deutsche Gesandtschaftsberichte aus Prag, vol. 1, Von der Staatsgründung bis zum ersten Kabinett Beneš 1918–1921 (Munich, 2003), 416 (emphasis in the original).

114 Foucault, Michel, “Appendix: The Discourse on Language,” in The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York, 1972), 215–37, here 224.

115 Achim Landwehr, Historische Diskursanalyse (Frankfurt, 2008), 73.

116 Slapnicka, “Rauchberg,” 437.

117 AUK, PF-HR, 1896–1938 (b. 6), confirmation, Dean's Office, 18 Feb. 1932; cf. letter, Law Faculty to Ministry of Education and Culture, 14 Oct. 1937. Along with teaching after retirement, Rauchberg also continued to work in the Statistical State Council. See AUK, PF-HR, 1896–1938 (b. 6), letter, Rector's Office to Dean's Office, 1 Feb. 1938.

118 AUK, PF-HR, 1896–1938 (b. 6), minutes, Rectorate Council, 19 Apr. 1934; cf. letters, Dean's Office to Ministry of Education and Culture, 15 May 1934 and 14 Oct. 1937. Finding a successor to Rauchberg became a politicized, antisemitic affair when the jurist of Jewish origin, Hans Kelsen, was hired to fill Rauchberg's vacant chair in international law. Kelsen's inaugural lecture in 1936 was interrupted by very violent antisemitic protests led by the völkisch-minded Sudeten German student body. In the Faculty of Law, they mounted a poster that read: “The lecture on international law by Prof. Kelsen has been canceled due to the abolition of international law.” There are no extant comments by Rauchberg on the “Kelsen affair.” On the “Kelsen affair,” see Thomas Olechowski and Jürgen Busch, “Hans Kelsen als Professor an der Deutschen Universität Prag: Biographische Aspekte der Kelsen-Sander-Kontroverse,” in Československé právo a právní věda v meziválečném období 1918–1938 a jejich místo ve střední Evropě [Czechoslovak law and jurisprudence in the interwar period 1918–1938 and their place in Central Europe], eds. Karel Malý and Ladislav Soukup, vol. 2 (Prague, 2010), 1106–34; Adam, Unsichtbare Mauern, 203.

119 Rauchberg, “Wie würde eine neuer Krieg aussehen?,” Oesterreichs Illustrierte Zeitung (Vienna), 20 Dec. 1931, p. 5; cf. Rauchberg, “Ein Sicherheitspakt?,” Prager Tagblatt, 23 Jan. 1931, p. 1.

120 Rauchberg, “Die Völkerbundligen,” Prager Tagblatt, 14 June 1933, p. 1; Rauchberg, “Minderheitenschutz,” Prager Tagblatt, 6 Oct. 1933, p. 1.

121 Osterloh, Nationalsozialistische Judenverfolgung, 95.

122 Taking a different path from Rauchberg's was his colleague at the German University in Prague, the jurist and “baptized Jew” Fritz (Friedrich) Sander who espoused authoritarian and fascist thinking and collaborated with the Nazis in Prague. On Sander and his confrontation with Hans Kelsen, see Olechowski and Busch, “Hans Kelsen als Professor.”

123 “Deutsche Völkerbundliga,” Westböhmische Tageszeitung, 12 Dec. 1935, p. 1. On the infiltration of the German League of Nations Union in the Czechoslovak Republic by the Sudeten German Party, see Cornwall, Mark, The Devil's Wall: The Nationalist Youth Mission of Heinz Rutha (Cambridge, 2012), 185–86.

124 Cited in Bamberger-Stemmann, Sabine, Der Europäische Nationalitätenkongreß 1925 bis 1938: Nationale Minderheiten zwischen Lobbyistentum und Großmachtinteressen (Marburg, 2000), 255.

125 Cf. Petráš, “Heinrich Rauchberg,” 481; Renata Veselá, “K některým německým profesorům působícím na pražské německé univerzitě” [A few remarks on German professors working at the German University in Prague], in Vybrané problémy právních dějin [Selected Issues of Legal History], vol. 1, ed. Karel Schelle (Ostrava, 2014), 115–21, here 116.

126 Rauchberg, Die Reform des Minderheitenschutzes (Breslau, 1930); “Vorträge Rauchbergs in Haag,” Prager Tagblatt, 21 Jan. 1931, p. 3; Rauchberg, “Und der Völkerbund?,” Prager Tagblatt, 28 Feb. 1933, p. 1; Rauchberg, “Reform des Völkerbunds!,” Prager Tagblatt, 13 May 1936, p. 1.

127 Čapková, Czechs, Germans, Jews, 58. Several German-Jewish liberal politicians in Czechoslovakia, such as Franz Bacher (1884–1945), Josef (Joseph) Eckstein (1866–1936), and Leo Epstein (1883–1933), experienced a similar political journey to Rauchberg's. On their political developments, see Koeltzsch, Geteilte Kulturen, 53, 108–10, 116–18.

128 “Rauchberg, Dr. Heinrich,” Verzeichnis jüdischer Autoren. Vorläufige Zusammenstellung des Amtes Schrifttumspflege bei dem Beauftragten des Führers für die gesamte geistige und weltanschauliche Erziehung der NSDAP und der Reichsstelle zur Förderung des deutschen Schrifttums. Streng vertraulich! Nur für den Dienstgebrauch! Sachbearbeiter: Joachim Menzel, vol. 5, N-R (May 1939), 4.

129 Cf. e-mail, Wägenbaur to the author, 29 Oct. 2013. In the Nazi state, persons “with at least three Jewish grandparents” were defined as “full Jews.” Those persons “who did not belong to the Jewish religion” but “had two Jewish grandparents” were categorized as “Mischlinge of the first degree,” i.e., “half-Jews.” See Kaplan, Marion A., Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany (New York, 1998), 77.

130 E-mail, Wägenbaur to the author, 22 Feb. 2013.

131 State Archive Baden-Württemberg, Sigmaringen, holdings: Ministry of Culture, Wü 80 T 1–2, no. 1094, personal files—Hildegard Rauchberg, scientific illustrator (12 Dec. 1900, Prague).

132 “Austrian Victims of the Holocaust,” Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance, accessed 5 Nov. 2018, http://www.doew.at/personensuche?lastname=Rauchberg&shoah=1&gestapo=1&politisch=1&spiegelgrund=1&lang=de.

Heinrich Rauchberg (1860–1938): A Reappraisal of a Central European Demographer's Life and Work

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