People diagnosed with psychotic illness continue to be underrepresented in the workforce despite the widespread provision of vocational rehabilitation services for people experiencing mental illness. A systematic literature review was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to identify psychological predictors of successful return to work for this population. The databases searched were PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, ProQuest, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and Taylor & Francis Online. A total of 4,076 articles were located and of these, 29 articles were analysed as part of this review. The data extracted was synthesised using a narrative approach. A number of psychological factors were identified which are predictive of successful return to work. These factors include but are not limited to identity, self-management of illness, social cognition, hope and self-esteem and motivation. On the basis of the reviewed literature, practice guidelines are proposed which support the psychological processes identified as pivotal to vocational success for people diagnosed with psychotic illness.