Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Cognitive Rehabilitation with Older Adults

  • Nancy A. Pachana (a1), Bernice A. Marcopulos (a2) and Janet Leatham (a1)

Abstract

The proportion of older adults seeking rehabilitation services are certain to rise as the population ages. Cognitive rehabilitation techniques can be successfully adapted and used with older adults with a range of clinical diagnoses. An understanding of cognitive changes which could be expected as a result of “normal” (non-disease-related) aging is essential for both assessment and treatment planning for this group. Age-related changes in attention, memory and executive functioning are briefly noted. Common cognitive sequelae of head-injury, depression and dementia are discussed, and useful assessment and rehabilitation strategies described. Case illustrations are used to illustrate major points.

Copyright

Corresponding author

School of Psychology, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

References

Hide All
Albert, M. S., Duffy, F. H., & Naeser, M. A. (1987). Nonlinear changes in cognition and their neurophysiologic correlates. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 41, 141157.
Alexopoulos, G. S., Abrams, R. C., Young, R. C., & Shamoian, C. A. (1988). Cornell scale for depression in dementia. Biological Psychiatry, 23, 271284.
Alexopoulas, G., Young, R. C., Meyers, B. S., Abrams, R. C., & Shamoian, G. A. (1988). Lateonset depression. Psychiatric Ciinics of North America, 11, 101115.
Altarriba, J. (1993). Cognition and culture: A cross-cultural approach to cognitive psychology. Advances in Psychology (Vol. 103). Amsterdam: North-Holland/Elsevier.
Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I. M; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe. (1998). The attentional demands of encoding and retrieval in younger and older adults: I. Evidence from divided attention costs. Psychology & Aging, 13, 405423.
Anschultz, L., Camp, C. J., Markley, R. P., & Kramer, J. J. (1987). Remembering mnemonics: A 3-year follow-up on the effects of mnemonics training in elderly adults. Experimental Aging Research, 13, 141143.
Backman, L., & Forsell, Y. (1994). Episodic memory functioning in a community-based sample of old adults with major depression: Utilization of cognitive support. Journal of Abnormal Psychobgy, 103, 361370.
Birren, J. E., & Schaie, K. W. (Eds.) (1990). Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.
Boone, K.B., Lesser, I.M., Miller, B.L., Wohl, M., Berman, N., Lee, A. & Palmer, B. (1994). Cognitive functioning in a mildly to moderately depressed geriatric sample: Relationship to chronological age. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Ciinical Neuroscience, 6, 267272.
Borrini, G., Dall'Ora, P., della Sala, S., Marinelli, L.et al. (1989). Autobiographical memory: Sensitivity to age and education of a standardized enquiry. Psychological Medicine, 19, 215224.
Butters, N., Albert, M.S., Sax, D.S., Miliotis, P.Nagode, J. & Sterste, A. (1983). The effect of verbal mediation on the pictorial memory of brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 21, 307323.
Campbell, A.J., McCosh, L.M., Reinken, J. & Allan, B.C. (1983). Dementia in old age and the need for services. Age and aging, 12, 1116.
Carlson, M. C., Hasher, L., Connelly, S. L., & Zacks, R. T. (1995). Aging, distraction, and the benefits of predictable location. Psychology and Aging, 10, 427436.
Cavanaugh, J. C. (1989). The importance of awareness in memory aging. In Poon, L. W., Rubin, D. C., & Wilson, B. A. (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life (pp. 416436). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Corgiat, Mark D; Templer, Donald I; Newell, Terry C. (1989). The effects of presentation modality, task demand, and content structure on age-related memory differences for prose. International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 29, 5365.
Cornelius, S. W., & Caspi, A. (1987). Everyday problem-solving in adulthood and old age. Psychology and Aging, 2, 144153.
Craik, F. I. M., Byrd, M., & Swanson, J. M. (1987). Patterns of memory loss in three elderly samples. Psychology and Aging, 2, 7986.
Cummings, J. L. & Benson, D. F. (1992). Dementia: A clinical approach (2nd ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Davis, P.E. & Mumford, S.J. (1984). Cued recall and the nature of the memory disorder in dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 383386.
DesRosiers, G., Hodges, J. R., & Berrios, G. (1995). The neuropsychological differentiation of patients with very mild Alzheimer's disease and/or major depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43, 12561263.
Filley, C.M & Cullum, C.M. (1994). Attention and vigilance functions in normal aging. Applied Neuropsychology, 1, 2932.
Fogel, B.S, & Duffy, J. (1994). Elderly patients. In Silver, J.M. & Yudofsky, S.C. (Eds.), Neuropsychiatry of traumatic brain injury. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 413441.
Fox, L.S., Olin, J.T., Erblich, J., Ippen, C.G & Schneider, L.S. (1998). Severity of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease affects list learning using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 544549.
Giambra, L.M. (1997). Sustained attention and aging: Overcoming the decrement? Experimental Aging Research, 23, 145161.
Gilinsky, A. S., Ehrlich, M-F., & Craik, F. I. M. (1993). Aging and cognitive function: Crosscultural studies. In Izawa, C. (Ed.), Cognitive psychology applied (pp. 225237). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gilleard, C., Mitchell, R. G., & Riordan, J. (1981). Ward orientation training with psychogeriatric patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 6, 9698.
Grigsby, J., Kaye, K., Baxter, J., Shetterly, S.M & Hamman, R.F. (1998). Executive cognitive abilities and functional status among community-dwelling older persons in the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46, 590596.
Grigsby, J., Kaye, K. & Robbins, L.J. (1995). Behavioral disturbance and impairment of executive functions among the elderly. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 21, 167177.
Hanley, I. G. (1981). The use of signposts and active training to modify ward disorientation in elderly patients. Journal of Behavoir Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 12, 241247.
Hart, R.P., Wade, J.B., Calabrese, V.P. & Colenda, C.C. (1998). Vigilance performance in Parkinson's disease and depression. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 111117.
Hartlage, S., Alloy, L. B., Vazquez, C., & Dykmen, B. (1993). Automatic and effortful processing in depression. Psychological Bulletin, 13, 247278.
Johnson, J.R. (1997). Effectiveness of memory notebooks upon problematic behavior of residents with Alzheimer's disease. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 15, 1532.
Jorm, A.F., Korten, A.E., & Henderson, A.S. (1987). The prevalence of dementia: A quantitative integration of the literature. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 76, 465479.
Kesslak, J.P., Nackoul, K., & Sandman, C.A. (1997). Memory training for individuals with Alzheimer's disease improves name recall. Behavioural Neurology, 10, 137142.
Kibby, M.Y., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. & Long, C.J. (1998). Ecological validity of neuropsychological tests: Focus on the California Verbal Learning Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 13, 523534.
King, N.S. (1996). Emotional, neuropsychological, and organic factors: Their use in the prediction of persisting postconcussion symptoms after moderate and mild head injuries. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 61, 7581
King, D.A., Cox, C., Lyness, J.M, Conwell, Y. & Caine, E.D. (1998). Quantitative and qualitative differences in the verbal learning performance of elderly depressives and healthy controls. Journal of the international Neuropsychological Society, 4, 115126.
Kliegl, R., Smith, J., & Baltes, P. B. (1989). Testing the limits and the study of adult age differences in cognitive plasticity of a mnemonic skill. Developmental Psychology, 25, 247256.
Kotler-Cope, S. & Camp, C. J. (1990). Memory interventions. In Lovelace, E. A. (Ed.), Aging and cognition: Mental processes, sel/-au/areness and interventions. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Kraus, J.F & Sorenson, S.B. (1994). Epidemiology. In Silver, J.M., Yudofsky, S.C. (Eds.), Neuropsychiatry of traumatic brain injury, (pp.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 341.
Langley, L.K., Overmier, J.B., Knopman, D.S., & Prod'Homme, M.M. (1998). Inhibition and habituation: Preserved mechanisms of attentional selection in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 12, 353366.
Larrabee, G. J., Youngjohn, J. R., Sudilovsky, A., & Crook, T. H. (1993). Accelerated forgetting in Alzheimer-type dementia. journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychohgy, 15, 713–712.
Levin, H.S., Benston, A.L., & Grossman, R.C. (1982). Neurobehavioral consequences of closed head injury. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lyness, J. M., Cox, C., Curry, J., Conwell, Y., King, D. A., & Caine, E. D. (1995). Older age and the underreporting of depressive symptoms. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 43, 216221.
MacKay, D.G. & Abrams, L. (1996). Language, memory, and aging: Distributed deficits and the structure of new-versus-old connections. In Birren, J. E. & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (4th ed.). San Diego: Academic Press, 251265.
Marcopulos, B. A., & Graves, R. E. (1990). Antidepressant effect on memory in depressed older persons. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 12, 655663.
McDougall, Graham J. (1995). Metamemory and depression in cognitively impaired elders. Nursing Research, 44, 306311.
Miller, E. & Morris, R. (1993). The psychology of dementia. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Miller, J.D. & Pentland, B. (1989). The factors of age, alcohol, and multiple injury in patients with mild and moderate head injury. In Hoff, J.T, Anderson, TE., & Cole, T.M. (Eds.), Mild to moderate head injury. Boston: Blackwell Scientific.
Murphy, M. D., Sanders, R. E., Gabriesheski, O. O., & Schmitt, F. A. (1981). Metamemory in the aged. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 185193.
Pachana, N. A., Gallagher, D., & Thompson, L. W. (1992). Assessment of depression. In Lawton, M. P. & Teresi, J. A. (Vol. Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics: Vol. 14. Focus on assessment techniques (pp. 234256). New York: Springer.
Palmer, B.W., Boone, K.B., Lesser, I.M., Wohl, M.A., Berman, N. & Miller, B. (1996). Neuropsychologicl deficits among older depressed patients with predominantly psychological or vegetative symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 41, 1724.
Parkin, A. J., & Lawrence, A. (1994). A dissociation in the relation between memory tasks and frontal lobe tests in the normal elderly. Neuropsychologia, 32, 15323–1532.
Pearlson, G. D., Rabins, P. V., Kim, V. S., Speedie, L. J., Moberg, P. J., Burns, A., & Bascom, M. J. (1989). Structural brain CT changes and cognitive deficits in elderly depressives with and without reversible dementia (?pseudodementia?). Psychological Medicine, 19, 573584.
Poon, L. W. (1985). Differences in human memory and aging: Nature of causes and clinical implications. In Birren, J. E. & Schaie, K. W. (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (2nd ed.) (pp. 427462). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Poon, L. W. (1992). Toward an understanding of cognitive functioning in geriatric depression. International Psychogeriatrics, 4 (Suppl. 2), 4166.
Rubin, D.C.; Rahhal, T.A & Poon, L.W. (1998). Things learned in early adulthood are remembered best. Memory & Cognition, 26, 319.
Salthouse, Timothy A. (1990). Working memory as a processing resource in cognitive aging. Developmental Review, 10, 101124.
Salthouse, T. A., Mitchell, D. R. D., Skovronek, E., & Babcock, R. L. (1989). Effects of adult age and working memory on reasoning and spatial abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory and Cognition, 15, 507516.
Scogin, F., & Bienias, J. L. (1988). A three-year follow-up of older adult participants in a memory-skills training program. Psychology and Aging, 3, 334337.
Schaie, K.W., & Willis, S. L. (1986). Can decline in adult intellectual functioning be reversed? Developmental Psychology, 22, 223232.
Simone, P.M. & Baylis, G.C. (1997). The role of attention in a spatial memory task in Alzheimer disease patients. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 11, 140152
Stankov, L. (1988). Aging, attention, and intelligence. Psychology and Aging, 3, 5974.
Statistics New Zealand. (1995). New Zealand Now: 65 Plus. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.
Troyer, A.K, Graves, R.E, & Cullum, C.M. ( 1994). Executive functioning as a mediator of the relationship between age and episodic memory in healthy aging. Aging Neuropsychohgy & Cognition 1, 4553.
Vanderploeg, R.D., Schinka, J.A. & Retzlaff, P. (1994). Relationships between measures of auditory verbal learning and executive functioning. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 243–25.
Verhaeghen, P., Vandenbroucke, A., & Dierckx, V. (1998). Growing slower and less accurate: Adult age differences in time-accuracy functions for recall and recognition from episodic memory. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 319.
Weingartner, H., Cohen, R. M., & Bunney, W. E. (1982). Memory-learning impairments in progressive dementia and depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 135136.
West, R. L. (1988). Prospective memory and aging. In Gruneberg, M.M., Morris, P.E., & Sykes, R.N. (Eds.), Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues (Vol. 2, pp. 119125). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
West, R. L. (1989). Planning practical memory training for the aged. In Poon, L. W., Rubin, D. C., & Wilson, B. A. (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life (pp. 573597). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willis, S. L. (1989). Cognitive training: Which old dogs leam what nicks?. In Poon, L. W., Rubin, D. C., & Wilson, B. A. (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life (pp. 545569). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willis, S. L. & Schaie, K. W. (1988). Gender differences in spatial ability in old age: Longitudinal and intervention findings. Sex Roles, 18, 189203.
Woodruff-Pak, D. S. (1997). The neuropsychology of aging. Maiden, MA: Blackwell.
Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., & Rose, T. L. (1983). Development and validation of a geriatric depression scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Residents, 17, 3749.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counselling
  • ISSN: 1323-8922
  • EISSN: 1838-6059
  • URL: /core/journals/australian-journal-of-rehabilitation-counselling
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed