FARER, Tom, Confronting Global Terrorism and American Neo-Conservatism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) at 176–177.
4. OWENS, Heather and ARNEIL, Barbara, “The Human Security Paradigm Shift: A New Lens on Canadian Foreign Policy? Report of the University of British Columbia Symposium on Human Security” in Majid TEHRANIAN, ed., Words Apart: Human Security and Global Governance (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999).
5. The governments of Canada, Norway, Austria, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Jordan, Mali, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Thailand have established the Human Security Network, comprising states and non-governmental organizations. See “Chairman’s Summary” (First Ministerial Meeting of the Human Security Network, Bergen and Lysøen in Norway, 19–20 May 1999), online: Human Security Network <http://www.humansecuritynetwork.org/docs/Chairman_summaryMay99-e.php>.
6. STOETT, Peter, Human and Global Security: An Exploration of Terms (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999).
7. RICHMOND, Oliver, “Emancipatory Forms of Human Security and Liberal Peacebuilding’ (2007) International Journal 459–477; see also
PARIS, Roland, “Human Security Paradigm Shift or Hot Air?” (2001) 26 International Security 87; Kanti BAJPAI, “Human Security: Concept and Measurement”, Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame, Occasional Paper, 19 August 2000;
OBERLEITNER, Gerd, “Human Security A Challenge to International Law?” (2005) 11 Global Governance 185.
8. Bajpai, supra note 7; see also
HEINBECKER, Paul, “On Human Security: Protecting People” (lecture to the Masters Programme in International Public Policy (MIPP), Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, 14 January 2009);
OBUCHI, Keizo, “Toward the Creation of a Bright Future for Asia” (speech delivered at the lecture programme hosted by the Institute for International Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam, 16 December 1998).
9. For instance, Japan and Canada.
10. Japan has contributed more than US$227 million to the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security; see
SAUL, Ben, “The Dangers of the United Nation’s ‘New Security Agenda’: ‘Human Security’ in the Asia-Pacific Region” (The University of Sydney, Sydney Law School, Legal Study Research Paper No. 08/114), online: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=1277582>.
11. Charter of the United Nations, art. 2(4).
12. DONNELLY, Jack, Realism and International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) at 146; see also
MORGENTHAU, Hans, Politics among Nations (New York: Knopf, 1960).
13. Saul, , supra note 10 at 10.
15. MOSLEY, Paul, HARRIGAN, Jane, and TOYE, John, Aid and Power: The World Bank and Policy-Based Lending (New York: Routledge, 1991).
16. HARRISS, John, Depoliticizing Development: The World Bank and Social Capital (London: Anthem Press, 2002).
17. SEN, Amartya, “Equality of What: The Tanner Lecture on Human Rights Values” (delivered at Stanford University, 22 May 1979); see also
SEN, Amartya, Development as Freedom (New York: Knopf, 1999).
18. NYE, Joseph, Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (New York: Basic Books, 1991); see also
NYE, Joseph, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004).
19. Farer, supra note 1 at 2.
20. Japan’s economic development aid policies, manifested in the development assistance, which it has extended to Asia countries since the 1950s, traditionally incorporated aspects of human security promotion. Japan also set up the Commission on Human Security in May 2003, with a mandate to “develop the concept of Human Security as an operational tool for policy formulation and implementation”; Sharon ONG, “Securing Human Security in an Insecure World: The ‘Asian Way’ ” (paper presented at the Second Biennial General Conference of the Asian Society of International Law, Tokyo, Japan, 1–2 August 2009); see also Diplomatic Bluebook 1999, Chapter II, Section 3 (A), online: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (MOFA) <http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/1999/>; “The Trust Fund for Human Security—For the “Human-centered” 21st Century”, online: MOFA <http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/index.html>.
21. Paris, supra note 7. See also
KHONG, Yuen Foong, “Human Security: A Shotgun Approach to Alleviating Misery?” (2001) 7 Global Governance 231.
22. TOMUSCHAT, Christian, Human Rights: Between Idealism and Realism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003) at 56. (Tomuschat is a former member of the UN Human Rights Committee and the UN's International Law Commission.)
23. Paris, supra note 7. See also
Owens, and Arneil, , supra note 4 at 2.
24. Bajpai, supra note 7.
29. HAQ, Mahbub ul, “New Imperatives of Human Security: Barbara Ward Lecture 1972” (1994) 2 Development 40; see also Bajpai, supra note 7.
32. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, World Conference on Human Rights, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/23 (1993), chapter I(5).
33. CARLETON, David and STOHL, Michael, “The Foreign Policy of Human Rights: Rhetoric and Reality from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan” (1985) 7 Human Rights Quarterly 205.
34. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19 December 1966, 999 U.N.T.S. 71, 6 I.L.M. 368 (entered into force 23 March 1976) [ICCPR], art. 1(1).
35. GOLDSMITH, Jack, “Should International Human Rights Law Trump US Domestic Law?” (2000) 1 Chicago Journal of International Law 327; see also
IGNATIEFF, Michael, ed., American Exceptionalism and Human Rights (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).
36. FARER, Tom, Confronting Global Terrorism and American Neo-Conservatism: The Framework of a Liberal Grand Strategy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
38. Charter of the United Nations, Chapter 7.
39. FARER, Tom, “Un-Just War Against Terrorism and the Struggle to Appropriate Human Rights” (2008) 30 Human Rights Quarterly 356; see also
WALZER, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars (New York: Viking, 1978).
40. I have joined the generality of commentators in finding that the invasion violated the Charter norms and that those norms enjoy sufficient support among states and other influential actors to be deemed positive law. See
Farer, , supra note 36 at 43–78.
41. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, Report of the Secretary-General’s High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, UN Doc. A/59/565 (2004), at 52–5, see especially paras. 186 and 196.
42. Donnelly, supra note 12; See also
MEARSHEIMER, John, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (New York: Norton, 2001).
43. ACHARYA, Arabinda and ACHARYA, Amitav, “Human Security in Asia: Conceptual Ambiguity and Common Understandings” (2001) Centre for Peace and Development Studies, online: York University, Toronto 〈http://www.yorku.ca/robarts/archives/chandigarth/〉; see also
ACHARYA, Amitav, “Human Security: East versus West” (2001) 3 International Journal 442 at 459.
44. Farer, supra note 1 at 2.
45. DEWITT, David, “Common, Comprehensive, and Cooperative Security” (1994) 7 The Pacific Review 1.
47. PERKIN, Harold, Individualism versus Collectivism in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A False Antithesis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).
48. FRIEDMAN, Thomas, Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—And How it Can Renew America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008); see also online: 〈http://www.thomaslfriedman.com/〉.
49. BERGER, Peter and HUNTINGTON, Samuel P., Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
50. Ong, supra note 20 at 2.
51. EVANS, Paul, “Asian Perspective on Human Security: A Responsibility to Protect?”(paper prepared for the “Human Security in East Asia” conference organized by UNESCO, The Korean National Commission for UNESCO and Korea University’s Ilmin International Relations Institute, Seoul, 16–17 June 2003).
52. Ong, supra note 20 at 3.
PARISH, Randall and PECENY, Mark, “Kantian Liberalism and the Collective Defense of Democracy in Latin America” (2002) 39 Journal of Peace Research 229.
55. Goldsmith, supra note 35; and Ignatieff, supra note 35.
56. Farer, , supra note 36 at 29–42.