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Constitutionalism, Religion, and Inequality: Perspectives from Asia

  • Melissa CROUCH (a1)

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Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales.

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1. See Perry, Nick, ‘Dan S Lev, Scholar, Friend of IndonesiaThe Seattle Times (Seattle, 1 August 2006) <http://old.seattletimes.com/html/obituaries/2003166510_levobit01m.html> accessed 5 February 2018; Sebastian Pompe ‘In Memoriam, Daniel S. Lev (1933-2006)’ (2012) 93 Indonesia 197;

2. Schonthal, Ben and Ginsburg, Tom, ‘Setting an Agenda for the Socio-legal Study of Contemporary Buddhism’ (2016) 3 (1) Asian Journal of Law and Society 1 ; Schonthal, Ben, ‘Formations of Buddhist Constitutionalism in South and Southeast Asia’ (2017) 15(3) International Journal of Constitutional Law 705733 ; on Buddhism and law in Myanmar, the key scholar is the late Professor Andrew Huxley, see Crouch, Melissa, ‘Remembering the work of Professor Andrew Huxley’ (New Mandala, 8 December 2014) <www.newmandala.org/remembering-the-work-of-the-late-professor-andrew-huxley/> accessed 24 March 2018.

3. Two recent notable contributions include Feener, R Michael, Sharia as Social Engineering: The Implementation of Islamic Law in Contemporary Aceh, Indonesia (OUP 2013); Erie, Matthew, China and Islam: The Prophet, the Party, and the Law (CUP 2016).

4. A key collection of his works is found in Lev, Daniel S, Legal Evolution and Political Authority in Indonesia: Selected Essays (Kluwer Law International 2000).

5. ibid 3.

6. Lev, Daniel, Islamic Courts in Indonesia: A Study in the Political Bases of Legal Institutions (University of California Press 1972).

7. Lev, Daniel SSocial Movements, Constitutionalism, and Human Rights: Comments from the Malaysian and Indonesian Experiences’ in Douglas Greenberg et al (eds), Constitutionalism, Democracy, and the Transformation of the Modern World (OUP 1993) 140 [reprinted in Lev, Daniel S, Legal Evolution and Political Authority in Indonesia: Selected Essays (Kluwer Law International 2000)].

8. Lev, Daniel SSocial Movements, Constitutionalism, and Human Rights: Comments from the Malaysian and Indonesian Experiences’ in Douglas Greenberg et al (eds), Constitutionalism, Democracy, and the Transformation of the Modern World (OUP 1993) 321 .

9. ibid.

10. ibid.

11. Lev, Daniel S, ‘Judicial Institutions and Legal Culture in Indonesia’ in Claire Holt (ed), Culture and Politics in Indonesia (Equinox Publishing 2007) 246 .

12. Lev, Daniel S, ‘Conceptual Filters and Obfuscation in the Study of Indonesian Politics’ (2005) 29(4) Asian Studies Review 345 .

13. Lev, ‘Social Movements, Constitutionalism, and Human Rights’ (n 7) 141.

14. Lev, Islamic Courts in Indonesia (n 6) 1.

15. Lev, ‘Social Movements, Constitutionalism, and Human Rights’ (n 7) 141.

16. ibid 152.

17. ibid 150.

18. Alfitri, ‘Religion and Constitutional Practices in Indonesia: How Far Should the State Intervene in the Administration of Islam?’, this Special Issue.

19. Lev, Daniel S, ‘Comments on the Course of Legal Reform in Modern Indonesia’ in Tim Lindsey (ed) Indonesia: Bankruptcy, Law Reform, and the Commercial Court (Desert Pea Press 2000).

20. Ayesha Wijayalath, ‘Constitutional Management of Religion in Sri Lanka’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017); see also Schonthal, Ben, Buddhism, Politics and the Limits of Law (CUP 2016); Shah, Dian A H, Constitutions, Religion and Politics in Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka (CUP 2017).

21. Rehan Abeyratne, ‘Privileging the Powerful: Religion and Constitutional Law in India’, this Special Issue.

22. For one example in the context of Indonesia, see Hosen, Nadirsyah, ‘The Constitutional Court and Islamic Judges in Indonesia’ (2016) 16(2) Australian Journal of Asian Law 1 .

23. Matthew Nelson, ‘Indian Basic Structure Jurisprudence in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: Reconfiguring the Constitutional Politics of Religion’, this Special Issue.

24. Gehan Gunatilleke, ‘The Constitutional Practice of Ethno-Religious Violence in Sri Lanka’, this Special Issue.

25. Chua, Lynette and Crouch, Melissa, ‘Socio-legal Scholarship on Southeast Asia: Themes and Directions’ (2014) 9(1) Asian Journal of Comparative Law 1 .

26. This is exemplified by his work such as Legal Pluralism: An Introduction to Colonial and New-colonial Laws (OUP 1976), and Islamic Law in Southeast Asia (OUP 1984). See also Bell, Gary (ed), Pluralism, Transnationalism and Culture in Asia: A Book in Honour of M B Hooker (ISEAS 2017).

27. Alfitri (n 18).

28. A recent contribution on the history of the hajj for Southeast Asia is Tagliacozzo, Eric, The Longest Journey: Southeast Asians and the Pilgrimage to Mecca (OUP 2013).

29. Crouch, Melissa, Law and Religion in Indonesia: Conflict and the Courts in West Java (Routledge 2014).

30. The most extensive explanation of the implementation of shariah in Aceh is Feener, R Michael, Shari’a and Social Engineering: The Implementation of Islamic Law in Contemporary Aceh, Indonesia (OUP 2014).

31. Salim, Arskal and Azra, Azyumardi, ‘Introduction: The State and Shari’a in the Perspective of Indonesian Legal Politics’ in Arskal Salim and Azyumardi Azra (eds), Shari’a and Politics in Modern Indonesia (ISEAS 2003) 13 .

32. See Crouch, Melissa, ‘Constitutionalism, Islam and the Practise of Religious Deference: The Case of the Indonesian Constitutional Court’ (2016) 16(2) Australian Journal of Asian Law 1 ; Crouch, Melissa, ‘Negotiating Legal Pluralism in Court: Fatwa and the Crime of Blasphemy in Indonesia’ in Gary Bell (ed), Pluralism, Transnationalism and Culture in Asia: A Book in Honour of M B Hooker (ISEAS 2017) 231 .

33. See the review of literature in Hamayotsu, Kikue, ‘Beyond Doctrine and Dogma: Religion and Politics in Southeast Asia’ in Erik Martinez Kuhonta, Dan Slater and Tuong Vu (eds), Southeast Asia in Political Science: Theory, Region and Qualitative Analysis (Stanford University Press 2008) 171 , although her focus does not include law specifically.

34. For a review of the literature, see Crouch, Melissa, ‘Islamic Law and Society in Southeast Asia’ in Anver M Emon and Rumee Ahmed (eds), The Oxford Handbook on Islamic Law (OUP 2018) 1 .

35. Eugénie Mérieau, ‘Buddhist Constitutionalism in Thailand: When Rājadhammā Supersedes the Constitution’, this Special Issue.

36. Nyi Nyi Kyaw, ‘Religion of the State or Religion of the Nation? Religion and Textual and Contextual Constitutionalism in Buddhist Myanmar’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017). See also Crouch, Melissa (ed), Islam and the State in Myanmar (OUP 2016).

37. Dian AH Shah, ‘Religion, Child Conversions and Custody Battles in Malaysia’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017). See also, Shah, Dian AH, ‘Religion, conversions, and custody: battles in the Malaysian appellate courts’ in Andrew Harding and Dian AH Shah (eds), Law and Society in Malaysia: Pluralism, Religion, and Ethnicity (Routledge 2018) 145 .

38. Cheesman, Nick, Opposing the Rule of Law: How’s Myanmar’s Courts Make Law and Order (CUP 2015).

39. The paternalistic language of care and protection is evident from Jacyln Neo and Arif Jamal, ‘Constitutional Politics and the Legal-Political Conceptualization of Religion as Control in Singapore’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017).

40. See for eg, Lawrence, Bruce, Shattering the Myth: Islam Beyond Violence (Princeton University Press 2000); Cavanaugh, William, The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict (OUP 2009).

41. Melissa Crouch, ‘Constitutionalism, Islam and the Practise of Religious Deference: The Case of the Indonesian Constitutional Court’ (2016) 16(2) Australian Journal of Asian Law 1.

42. Shah (n 20).

43. Schonthal (n 20).

44. Nelson, Matthew, In the Shadow of Shari’ah: Islam, Islamic Law, and Democracy in Pakistan (Columbia University Press 2011).

45. Shamshad Pasarlay, ‘Constitutional Incrementalism in a Religiously Divided Society: The Case of Afghanistan’, this Special Issue.

46. Nyi Nyi Kyaw (n 36).

47. Pham Thi Thanh Huyen, ‘Bani (Bàni) in Religious Policies of the Vietnam Government: Perspectives and Reality’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017).

48. Raphael Pangalangan, ‘Relative Impermeability of the Wall of Separation: An Uphill Battle for Marriage Equality in the Philippines’, this Special Issue.

49. Shamsul Falaah, ‘Islamic Constitutionalism in the Maldives’ (Religion and Constitutional Practices in Asia Conference, Colombo, 9-10 November 2017).

* Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of New South Wales.

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Constitutionalism, Religion, and Inequality: Perspectives from Asia

  • Melissa CROUCH (a1)

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