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Religious Liberty in Indonesia and the Rights of “Deviant” Sects

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2015

Alfitri
Affiliation:
Samarinda State Institute for Islamic Studies
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Abstract

Although Indonesia has acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and freedom of religion is a mandate of the 1945 Constitution, there is a significant difference between the promise and the practice of religious liberty, especially regarding the rights of sects in Indonesia. The article explores this theme in the context of the Congregation of Ahmadiyah Indonesia, a minority Islamic sect which is not considered as an agama, or official religion, as a case study. This designation has had various discriminatory effects on its adherents, which waters down significantly the guarantee of religious freedom in Indonesia.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore 2008

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References

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2 UDHR, Art 18, adopted and proclaimed by GA Res 217A (III), UN GAOR, 3d Sess, Supp No 13, UN Doc A/810 (1948).

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4 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 22 May 1969, 1155 UNTS 331, art 26-27, (entered into force on 27 January 1980), online: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/textsinstruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf (last visited 14 November 2007).

5 The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, art 18(1)-(2) (entered into force 23 March 1976), online: <http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm> (last visited 19 December 2005).

6 See Office of the United Nations High Commisioner for Human Rights, supra note 3.

7 1945 Constitution, chapter XI Art 29(2), available in Profil Menteri-Menteri Kabinet Indonesia Bersatu, 1st ed (2004) at 46. Translated by the writer.

8 Ibid, chapter XA Art 28E(1)(2) second amendment assented to on 18 August 2000. Translated by Juwana, Hikmahanto in “Assessing Indonesia’s Human Rights Practice in the Post-Soeharto Era: 1998-2003” (2003) 7 Sing JICL 659 [Juwana]Google Scholar.

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10 Ibid, Art 8.

11 Gvosdev, supra note 1 at 83. As a matter of fact, Art 29(2) of the 1945 Constitution only guarantees freedom of worship to its citizens, not the freedom to act on their beliefs.

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13 See “Mengkaji Ulang Ajaran Ahmadiyah”, online: <http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/artikel/INDEX.HTM> (last visited 8 November 2005).

14 See about the criteria of apostasy in Islam and the analysis of their fluidity, in Saeed, supra note 3 at 43-50.

15 See Pusat Data dan Analisa Tempo, Data dan Analisa: Jalan Dialog untuk Aliran Ahmadiyah, online: <http://www.pdat.co.id/hg/political_pdat/2005/07/29/pol,20050729-01,id.html> (last visited 8 November 2005) [Pusat Data dan Analisa Tempo].

16 Ibid.

17 “Ahmadiyah Members Consider Seeking Asylum in Australia” The Jakarta Post (26 July 2006), online: <http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060725.@03&irec=2> (last visited 26 July 2006).

18 On the fatawa (plural form of fatwa) excommunicating all Ahmadiyah adherents, see “Fatwas of Muslim Scholars and Organisations Regarding the Qadiani (Ahmadiyyah Cult)”, online: http://www.central-mosque.com/aqeedah/fatwas.htm (last visited 17 December 2005).

19 See “The Decision of the 2nd National Conference of the Council of Indonesian Ulama No 05/Kep/Munas II/MUI/1980”, online: http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/fatwa/MUI.HTM (last visited 8 November 2005); and “The Decision of Fatwa of the Council of Indonesian Ulama No 11/MUNAS VII/MUI/15/2005 Concerning Ahmadiyah Sect”, online: http://www.majelisulama.com/mui_in/fatwa.php?id=131&PHPSESSID=49cb684872 (last visited 8 August 2005).

20 See Juwana, supra note 8 at 644.

21 Adnan, supra note 12 at 441.

22 Hefner, Robert W, Civil Islam: Muslim and Democratization in Indonesia, 1st ed (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2000) at 41 Google Scholar. See also Husein, Fatimah, Muslim-Christian Relations in the New Order Indonesia: The Exclusivist and Inclusivist Muslims’ Perspectives (Bandung, Indonesia: Mizan. 2005) at 73 [Husein]Google Scholar.

23 Hefner, supra note 22 at 41.

24 Ibid; see also Husein, supra note 22 at 73.

25 Johns, Anthony H, “Indonesia: Islam and Cultural Pluralism” in Esposito, John L, ed, Islam in Asia; Religion, Politic and Society (New York: Oxford University Press. 1987) at 210 [Johns]Google Scholar.

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27 Drijarkara Pantja, supra note 26 at 39; Drijarkara Kumpulan, supra note 26 at 161.

28 Drijarkara Pantja, supra note 26 at 37; Drijarkara Kumpulan, supra note 26 at 159.

29 See Hefner, supra note 22 at 42; Husein, supra note 22 at 73-77.

30 Johns, supra note 25 at 211.

31 Noer, Deliar, Administration of Islam in Indonesia (Singapore/New York: Oxford University Press. 1978) at 8 [Noer]Google Scholar.

32 Ibid; see the 1945 Indonesian Constitution, chapter XI, Art 2(1)-(2).

33 About the functions of the Ministry of Religion from its early establishment until recently, see Noer, supra note 31 at 18-23; van Nieuwenhuijze, C A O, Aspect of Islam in Post-Colonial Indonesia (The Hague: W van Woeve. 1958) at 226230 [Nieuwenhuijze]Google Scholar; Naim, Sahibi, Kerukunan antar Umat Beragama (Jakarta: Gunung Agung. 1983) at 2021 [Naim]Google Scholar; Presidential Decree No 165/2000 Concerning the Organisation of Ministries, online: http://www.depag.go.id/tugfung.php (last visited 22 December 2005).

34 Cf Drijarkara Pantja, supra note 26 at 39; Drijarkara Kumpulan, supra note 26 at 161.

35 Cf Paul Stange as quoted by Zifirdaus Adnan, supra note 12 at 449.

36 Lindsey, Tim, “Indonesia: Devaluing Asian Values, Rewriting Rule of Law” in Peerenbom, Randall, ed, Asian Discourses of Rule of Law (London/New York: RoutledgeCurzon. 2004) at 287288 Google Scholar.

37 Ibid at 286, 290.

38 Ibid at 286.

39 Lev, Daniel S, “Between State and Society: Professional Lawyers and Reform in Indonesia” in Lindsey, Tim, ed, Indonesia: Law and Society (Leichardt, NSW: Federation Press. 1999) at 227246 [Lev]Google Scholar. See also Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290.

40 Lev, supra note 39 at 227-246. See also Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290.

41 Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290; see also Denny Indrayana, “Indonesian Constitutional Reform 1999-2002: Nationalism v Islamic State”, Paper presentation at Asian Law Centre Brown Bag Seminar Series & Centre for the Study of Contemporary Islam Seminar Series, Faculty of Law, the University of Melbourne (9 February 2004) p 4, online: http://www.law.unimelb.edu.au/alc/assets/Indrayana_Brownbag.ppt (last visited 14 December 2005) [Indrayana].

42 See Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290; Indrayana, supra note 41 at 4.

43 Lindsey, supra note 36 at 291.

44 Lubis, Todung Mulya, “The Rechtsstaat and Human Rights” in Lindsey, Tim, ed, Indonesia: Law and Society (London/New York: Oxford University Press. 1999) at 173 [Lubis]Google Scholar.

45 Lindsey, supra note 36 at 293.

46 Lubis, supra note 44 at 176.

47 Ibid.

48 Ibid. For the definition of “thin” rule of law, see Jensen, Erik G, “The Rule of Law and Judicial Reform: The Political Economy of Diverse Institutional Patterns and Reformers’ Responses” in Jensen, Erik G & Heller, Thomas C, Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press. 2003) at 338340 Google Scholar.

49 Zakaria, Fareed, The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad (New York: W W Norton & Co. 2003.) at 17 [Zakaria]Google Scholar.

50 Ibid at 13, 17-19.

51 Ibid at 17.

52 See Hefner, supra note 22 at 42; Husein, supra note 22 at 73. Cf Niuwenhuijze, supra note 33 at 208-217.

53 See Husein, supra note 22 at 73; Johns, supra note 25 at 210.

54 See Husein, supra note 22 at 73-74; Johns, supra note 25 at 210; Hefner, supra note 22 at 42. The additional seven words untranslated read “dengan kewajiban menjalankan Syari’at Islam bagi permeluk-pemelukny”.

55 English translation of this part by Johns, supra note 25 at 210. See also translation by Boland, BJ, The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia (The Hague: Nijhoff. 1982) at 26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

56 See Husein, supra note 22 at 75, translation by Husein; see also Indrayana, supra note 41 at 15.

57 Hefner, supra note 22 at 42; Denny Indrayana, supra note 41 at 15.

58 This is the translation of the First Principle, “Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa”, by Hefner which is perhaps closer to the aforementioned First Principle in Indonesian. However, Indonesians prefer using the translation of the First Principle by Wahid, Abdurrahman, “Indonesia’s Mild Secularism” (2003) SAIS Review vol 21(2), pp 2528 CrossRefGoogle Scholar: “belief in Almighty God” as this is capable of encompassing other theological doctrines of God in Indonesia.

59 See Hefner, supra note 22 at 42; Johns, supra note 25 at 211; Adnan, supra note 12 at 452.

60 Indrayana, supra note 41 at 15.

61 See Husein, supra note 22 at 74.

62 Ibid at 76.

63 See dar al-Islam in Johns, supra note 25 at 211-212; Husein, supra note 22 at 78-82; Niuwenhuijze, supra note 33 at 161-179.

64 Hefner, supra note 22 at 42.

65 Lev, supra note 39 at 227-246. See also Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290.

66 Lindsey, supra note 36 at 290.

67 SARA stands for Suku (ethnicity), Agama (religion), Ras (race), and Antar Golongan (intergroup relations). See Husein, supra note 22 at 93.

68 Ibid.

69 See Heryanto, Ariel, “Ethnic Identities and Erasure: Chinese Indonesians in Public Culture” in Kahn, Joel S, ed, Southeast Asian Identities: Culture and the Politics of Representation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand (New York: St Martins Press. 1998) at 97 Google Scholar.

70 See Thaba, Abdul Aziz, Islam dan Negara dalam Politik Orde Baru (Jakarta: Gema Insani Press. 1996) at 239 Google Scholar.

71 See Hefner, supra note 22 at 16, 121-122.

72 See “ch. 6 Islam Out in the Cold” in Bourchier, David & Hadiz, Vedi R, eds, Indonesian Politics and Society: A Reader (New York: Routledge. 2003) at 140 Google Scholar. A letter from Sjafruddin Prawiranegara is an example of this resentment: ibid, 144-147.

73 Boyle, Kevin & Sheen, Juliet, eds, Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report, 1st ed (London/New York: Routledge. 1997) at 206 [Boyle]CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Husein, supra note 22 at 95-96.

74 Decision of Minister of Internal Affairs (Keputusan Menteri Dalam Negeri) No 221a/1975 upholding the Decision of People’s Consultative Assembly (Ketetapan MPR) No IV/MPR/1978.

75 Abdul Moqsith Ghazali, “Ketika Negara Mengintervensi Agama”, online: http://islamlib.com/id/index.php?page=article&id=509 (last visited 17 November 2005) [Ghazali]; Boyle, supra note 73 at 206.

76 Boyle, supra note 73 at 201.

77 Ibid at 205. See also Ghazali, supra note 75. The ban on the Baha’i faith was subsequently lifted in the reformation era of Indonesia pursuant to Presidential Decree No 69/2000 Concerning Revocation of Presidential Decree No 264/1962 about the Ban Imposed on the Organisation of Democracy League, Rotary Club, Divine Life Society, Vrijmet Selaren-Loge (Loge Agung Indonesia), Moral Rearmament Movement, Ancient Mystical Organisation of Rosi Crucians (AMORC), and the Baha’i Faith, online: http://203.130.230.4/components/com_perundangan/docviewer.php?id=846&filename=Nomor%2069.doc (last visited 16 August 2007); see also the International Religious Freedom Report 2002 on Indonesia, Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, the US Government on 7 October 2002, online: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2002/13873.htm (last visited August 7 2007).

78 The four Directors-General are: 1) Direktur Jenderal Agama Islam for Islam; 2) Direktur Jenderal Agama Kristen for Catholicism and Protestantism; 3) Direktur Jenderal Agama Hindu for Hinduism; and 4) Direktur Jenderal Agama Budha for Buddhism.

79 See Ghazali, supra note 75; Boyle, supra note 73 at 201, 204-206; Kipp, supra note 12; Ridwan, Nur Khalik, “Dalih Agama untuk Kekerasan” in Saleh, Abdul Qadir, Agama Kekerasan (Joyjakarta: Prismasophie. 2003) at 19 Google Scholar.

80 Kipp, supra note 12 at 23.

81 Indrayana, supra note 41 at 13.

82 See the 1945 Indonesian Constitution, supra note 7.

83 Juwana, supra note 8 at 644.

84 See ibid at 645-657.

85 Cf ibid.

86 Effendy, Bahtiar, Islam and the State in Indonesia (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003) at 200 Google Scholar.

87 See eg Abdul Mukti Ro’uf, “Eksperimen demokrasi dan kebebasan Beragama” (21 September 2005), online http://islamlib.com/id/index.php?page=article&id=891 (last visited 12 December 2005).

88 See Peter Burns, “The Decline of Freedom for Religion in Indonesia” (Townsville, Qld: James Cook University of North Queensland. 1985) at 1 (Occasional Paper of the Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, James Cook University of North Queensland).

89 Ibid; Kipp, supra note 12 at 20-21.

90 Ghazali, supra note 75; Boyle, supra note 73 at 206.

91 Presidential Decree No 6/2000 Concerning Revocation of Presidential Instruction No 14/1967 about Chinese Religion, Belief, and Tradition; see point 1-3, online: http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/isi/keppres2000/no.1sd10-2000/no6-2000.htm (last visited 14 December 2005). Note also the lifting of the ban on Jehovah’s Witnesses: the Decree of Indonesia Attorney General 1 June 2001 amending the Decree of Indonesia Attorney General 1976 Concerning the Ban on Jehovah’s Witnesses. See note 77 for a similar development for the Baha’i faith. See generally the International Religious Freedom Report 2002 on Indonesia, released by the United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, on 7 October 2002, online: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2002/13873.htm (last visited 7 August 2007) and the country reports on Human Rights Practices 2001 in Indonesia, released by the US Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor on 4 March 2002, online: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2001/eap/8314.htm (last visited 7 August 2007).

92 Ibid.

93 See Joseph A Weinstock, “Kaharingan: Life and Death in Southern Borneo” in Kipp, supra note 12 at 71-97 [Weinstock].

94 See Boyle, supra note 73 at 205-206.

95 About the role of Ministry of Education with regard to mystical movements, see Adnan, supra note 12 at 448.

96 See Boyle, supra note 73 at 206. See also the uneasiness between the concept of official religions and Kaharingan in Weinstock, supra note 93 at 73-75.

97 See Ibid.

98 Himawan, Charles, “Indonesia” in Tan, Poh-Ling, ed, Asian Legal System (Sydney: Butterworths. 1997) at 213 Google Scholar.

99 Cf Abdurrahman Wahid, “Indonesia’s Mild Secularism”, supra note 58 at 26.

100 Himawan, supra note 98 at 214.

101 Noer, Deliar, Modernist Movement in Indonesia 1900-1942 (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1973)Google Scholar.

102 Himawan, supra note 98 at 214.

103 Ibid; see also Boyle, supra note 73 at 204.

104 Cf Boyle, supra note 73 at 204; Naim, supra note 33 at 10.

105 See Hefner, supra note 22 at 81.

106 See Naim, supra note 33 at 10-11.

107 Adnan, supra note 12 at 448. See also the Official Speech of Soeharto on 16 August 1978 in Naim, supra note 33 at 11.

108 See Circular from the Minister of Religion on 18 October 1978, No BVI/11215, Naim, supra note 33 at 11-12; see also Adnan, supra note 12 at 448.

109 See Boyle, supra note 73 at 204.

110 Ibid, at 205.

111 See Boyle, supra note 73 at 205.

112 “Markas Sekte Kiamat Diserang Massa” (14 November 2003), online: http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/nusa/jawamadura/2003/11/14/brk,20031114-34,id.html (last visited 29 October 2005); “Kasus Jamaah LDII”, online: http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/stokfoto/2004/12/29/stf,20041229-23,id.html (last visited 29 October 2005).

113 Hammann, Louis J, Ahmadiyyat: An Introduction (Washington DC: The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam Inc. 1985), online: http://www.alislam.org/introduction/intro-louis-hammann.html Google Scholar (last visited 12 December 2005) [Hammann]; see also Lavan, Spencer, The Ahmadiyah Movement: Past and Present, 1st ed (Amritsar: Department of History, Guru Nanak Dev University. 1976) at 3 [Lavan]Google Scholar.

114 See Smart, Ninian, Religions of Asia (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1993) at 156 [Smart]Google Scholar; Abdal-Haqq, Irshad, “The Legal Definition of Islam: An Examination of Judicial, Legislative Mainstream and Non Traditional Interpretations” (1996) 1 The Journal of Islamic Law 142 [Abdal-Haqq]Google Scholar.

115 Chaudhry, Aziz Ahmad, The Promised Messiah and Mahdi (Tilford, Surrey: Islam International Publication Limited. 1996) at 34, online: <http://www.alislam.org/library/books/promisedmessiah/index.htm>(last visited 12 December 2005)Google Scholar; Smart, supra note 114 at 156.

116 See Hammann, supra note 113; Lavan, supra note 113 at 29-33; Smart, supra note 114 at 156.

117 See Zirvi, Karimullah, Welcome to Ahmadiyyat: the True Islam (1995), online book available at http://www.alislam.org/books/ahmadiyyat/index.htm (last visited 17 December 2005) at 309310 Google Scholar; Smart, supra note 114 at 156-157; Lavan, supra note 113 at 22-25, Hammann, supra note 113.

118 Smart, supra note 114 at 156.

119 See Hammann, supra note 113; Smart, supra note 114 at 156.

120 See “The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: An Overview”, online: Al Islam The Official Website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, http://www.alislam.org/introduction/index.html (last visited 12 December 2005).

121 “Tentang Kasus Ahmadiyah, Polisi Tidak Boleh Mendiamkan Kasus ini”, Interview of Abdul Musawir (The Chief of Young Ahmadiyah Movement) and Ifdhal Kasim (The Executive Director of ELSAM), The Liberal Islam Network (25 July 2005), online: http://islamlib.com/id/index.php?page=article&id=852 (last visited 12 December 2005) [Tentang Kasus Ahmadiyah].

122 See the Circular of the Ministry of Religion No D/BA.01/3099/84 dated 20 September 1984, point 2 section 2.1-2.3, online: <http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/fatwa/DEPAG1.HTM>,(last visited 8 November 2005).

123 Tentang Kasus Ahmadiyah, supra note 121. It was registered in the Ministry of Justice with legal status registration No JA5/23/137, dated 13 March 1953.

124 Rustam Ibrahim, Abdi Suryaningati & Tom Malik, “Indonesia” (Paper presented at Asia Pacific Philanthropy Consortium (APPC) Conference 2003, 5-7 September 2003) at 138

125 Ibid.

126 Pusat Data dan Analisa Tempo, supra note 15.

127 Abdal-Haqq, supra note 114 at 137-138,

128 The Holy Qur’an, 33: 40, text, translation and commentary by Abdullah Yusuf Ali.

129 See Abdal-Haqq, Irshad, “Islamic Law: An Overview of Its Origin and Elements” (1996) 1 The Journal of Islamic Law 1 Google Scholar

130 Hadith from the collection of al-Bukhari (Sahih al-Bukhari) and Muslim (Sahih Muslim), Abdal-Haqq, supra note 114 at 138. Translated by Irshad Abdal-Haqq.

131 Hadith from the Sahih al-Bukhari, Abdal-Haqq, supra note 114 at 138. Translated by Irshad Abdal-Haqq.

132 Abdal-Haqq, supra note 114 at 139.

133 Smart, supra note 114 at 156.

134 See 1974 Declaration by World Muslim League (Rabita al-Alam al-Islami), online: http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/fatwa/RAI_MWL.HTM (last visited 8 November 2005). The text is no longer available online but a copy is in the possession of the writer.

135 Ibid, point 1 and 4.

136 See eg “Fatwas of Muslim Scholars and Organisations Regarding the Qadiani (Ahmadiyyah Cult)”, supra note 18.

137 The Decision of the 2nd National Conference of the Council of Indonesian Ulama No 05/Kep/Munas II/MUI/1980, consideration section, supra note 19.

138 Ibid, emphasis and translation by the writer.

139 The Circular of the Ministry of Religion, supra note 122, point 1 section 1 sub-sections (a)-(b).

140 General Comment No 22 [ICCPR Art 18] Human Rights Committee, 48th Sess, 20 July 1993.

141 ICCPR, supra note 5, art 18(3). See also UDHR, supra note 2, art 29(2),.

142 See Saeed, supra note 3 at 11-12.

143 Indonesian Criminal Code, Art 156a(a), online: http://www.asiamaya.com/undangundang/kuhp/asiamaya_kuhp_penal_code_kejahatan.htm (last visited 14 December 2005).

144 Ibid, Art 156a(b).

145 See Law No 1/PNPS/1965, Art 1 as quoted by “Undang-Undang Penodaan Agama akan dibawa ke MK” (29 July 2005), online: <http://www.hukumonline.com/detail.asp?id=13283&cl=Berita>(last visited 14 December 2005).

146 See ibid.

147 Law No 16/2004 Concerning the Public Persecution Service of the Republic of Indonesia, Art 30 s (3d) , online: <http://www.hukumonline.com>(last visited 5 January 2006); see also The Prosecution Service of the Republic Indonesia, http://www.kejaksaan.go.id/english.php (last visited 17 December 2005).

148 See “Pembubaran Ahmadiyah, Kejaksaan Tunggu Presiden” (28 August 2005), online: http://www.hukumonline.com/detail.asp?id=13272&cl=Berita (last visited 14 December 2005).

149 See ibid.

150 Supra note 145.

151 Supra note 148.

152 See Surat Keputusan Bersama Kabupaten Kuningan, point 1-2 (3 November 2002), online: http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/fatwa/kuningan2.htm (last visited 8 November 2005).

153 See the Decision of the High Public Prosecution Office’s Attorney of West Sumatra Province No KEP-07/0.2/Dsb.1/02/1994 Concerning the Prohibition of Activities of Ahmadiyah Qadian in West Sumatera Province, online: http://ahmadiyah.20m.com/fatwa/MEDAN.HTM (last visited 8 November 2005).

154 See Law No 32/2004 Concerning Local Governance, Art 10(3f, 4-5), Art 13(1c), Art 14(1c), online: http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/produk2004/uu2004/uu32'04.htm (last visited 5 January 2006).

155 See eg supra notes 152 and 153.

156 See the Declaration of Initiation and Full Particulars of Ahmadiyah Qadian, online: <http://www.alislam.org> (last visited 12 December 2005).

157 On apostasy and blasphemy including the analysis of their criteria, see Saeed, supra note 3 at 35-39, 43-50.

158 For why Ahmadiyah Qadian tend to isolate themselves, see Ahmad, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud, Apakah Ahmadiyah Itu? (1948) at 3152, online book: http://www.alislam.org (last visited 12 December 2005)Google Scholar.

159 See Bahtiar Effendy, supra note 86 at 209-210, 217-218. See also Husein, supra note 22 at 143-157.

160 Cf Husein, supra note 22 at 29-30.

161 See motto of Islamic Defender Front in Husein, supra note 22 at 152.

162 “Pengikut Ahmadiyah Diminta Sadar Diri” (Liputan6, Laporan Daerah, 12 February 2006), online: <http://www.liputan6.com/view/7,117505,1,0,1144358122.html< (last visited 7 April 2006).

163 See “Kejagung Sejak Lama Keluarkan Rekomendasi Pelarangan Ahmadiyah” (23 August 2005), online: http://www.kejaksaan.go.id/detail_news.php?ID=20050823083847 (last visited 5 January 2006).

164 Zakaria, supra note 49 at 16.

165 Ibid.

166 The Indonesian Criminal Code, supra note 143, Art 170 (s 1-3).

167 “Sect Leader Lia Jailed for Blasphemy” The Jakarta Post (1 July 2006), online: http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060630.@02&irec=1 (last visited 1 July 2006).

168 But cf Bell, Gary F, “Minority Rights and Regionalism in Indonesia – Will Constitutional Recognition lead to Disintegration and Discrimination?” (2001) 5 Sing JICL 786 Google Scholar.

169 See “Undang-Undang Penodaan Agama akan dibawa ke MK”, supra note 145.

170 See “Religious Organization Figures Condemn Attack on Achmadiyah Followers” (LKBN ANTARA Indonesia, 16 July 2005), available from Factiva database. See also “Sect Leader Lia Jailed for Blasphemy”, supra note 167.

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Religious Liberty in Indonesia and the Rights of “Deviant” Sects
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