Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Implicit knowledge of lexical stress rules: Evidence from the combined use of subjective and objective awareness measures

  • RICKY K. W. CHAN (a1) and JANNY H. C. LEUNG (a2)

Abstract

Despite the growing interest in the phenomenon of learning without intention, the incidental learning of phonological features, especially prosodic features, has received relatively little attention. This paper reports an experiment on incidental learning of lexical stress rules, and investigates whether the resultant knowledge can be unconscious, abstract, and rule based. Participants were incidentally exposed to a lexical stress system where stress location of a word is mainly determined by the final phoneme, syllable type, and syllable weight. Learning was assessed by a pronunciation judgment task. Results indicate that participants were able to transfer their knowledge of stress patterns to novel words whose final phoneme was not previously encountered, suggesting that participants had acquired abstract and potentially rule-based knowledge. The combined use of subjective and objective measures of awareness in the present study provides a strong piece of evidence of the acquisition of implicit knowledge.

Copyright

Corresponding author

ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Ricky K. W. Chan, Department of English, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: rickychan0809@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Altmann, G. T. M., Dienes, Z., & Goode, A. (1995). Modality independence of implicitly learned grammatical knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21, 899912.
Baars, B. J. (2003). How brain reveals mind: Neuoimaging supports the central role of conscious experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 100114.
Bailey, T., Plunkett, K., & Scarpe, E. (1999). A cross-linguistic study in learning prosodic rhythms: Rules, constraints, and similarity. Language and Speech, 42, 138.
Bauer, R. S., & Benedict, P. K. (1997). Modern Cantonese phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bell, A. (1977). Accent placement and perception of prominence in rhythmic structures. In Hyman, L. (Ed.), Studies in stress and accent: Southern California occasional papers in linguistics (Vol. 4, pp. 113). Los Angeles: University of Southern California, Department of Linguistics.
Brooks, L. R., & Vokey, J. R. (1991). Abstract analogies and abstracted grammars: Comments on Reber (1989) and Mathews et al. (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 316323.
Chan, C. (1992). Implicit cognitive processes: Theoretical issues and applications in computer systems design (Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Oxford).
Chan, M. K. (2007). The perception and production of lexical stress by Cantonese speakers of English (Master's thesis, University of Hong Kong).
Chan, R., & Leung, J. (2014). Implicit learning of L2 word stress regularities. Second Language Research, 30, 463483.
Chao, Y. R. (1947). Cantonese primer. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Chao, Y. R. (1980). Chinese tone and English stress. In Waugh, L. R. & Van Schooneveld, C. H. (Eds.), The melody of language (pp. 4144). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Curran, T. (2001). Implicit learning revealed by the method of opposition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5, 503504.
Cutler, A. (1986). Phonological structure in speech recognition. Phonology Yearbook, 3, 161178.
Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. (2001). Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the process dissociation procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 8, 343350.
Dienes, Z. (2004). Assumptions of subjective measures of unconscious mental states: Higher order thoughts and bias. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, 2545.
Dienes, Z. (2008). Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge. Progress in Brain Research, 168, 4964.
Dienes, Z., Altmann, G., Kwan, L., & Goode, A. (1995). Unconscious knowledge of artificial grammars is applied strategically. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 13221338.
Dienes, Z., & Berry, D. C. (1997). Implicit learning: Below the subjective threshold. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 4, 323.
Dienes, Z., & Scott, R. (2005). Measuring unconscious knowledge: Distinguishing structural knowledge and judgment knowledge. Psychological Research, 69, 338351.
Dulany, D. E., Carlson, R. A., & Deway, G. I. (1984). A case of syntactical learning and judgment: How conscious and how abstract. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 541555.
Dunn, J. C., & Kirsner, K. (1989). Implicit memory: Task or process? In Lewandowsky, S., Dunn, J. C., & Kirsner, K. (Eds.), Implicit memory: Theoretical issues (pp. 1731). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dutoit, T., Pagel, N., Pierret, N., Bataille, O., & van der Vrecken, O. (1996). The MBROLA project: Towards a set of high-quality speech synthesizers free of use for non-commercial purposes. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Spoken Language, Philadephia, PA.
Ettlinger, M., Morgan-Short, K., Faretta-Stutenberg, M., & Wong, P. (2016). The relationship between artificial and second language learning. Cognitive Science, 40, 822847.
Face, T. (2005). Syllable weight and the perception of Spanish stress placement by second language learners. Journal of Language and Learning, 3, 90103.
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., & Rebuschat, P. (2014). Incidental exposure and L3 learning of morphosyntax. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 134.
Grey, S., Williams, J. N., & Rebuschat, P. (2015). Individual differences in incidental vocabulary learning: Phonological working memory, learning styles, and personality. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 4453.
Goschke, T., & Bolte, A. (2007). Implicit learning of semantic category sequences: Response-independent acquisition of abstract sequential regularities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33, 394406.
Hammond, M. (1999). The phonology of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hamrick, P., & Rebuschat, P. (2012). How implicit is statistical learning? In Rebuschat, P. & Williams, J. N. (Eds.), Statistical learning and language acquisition (pp. 365382). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hayes, B. (1995). Metrical stress theory: Principles and case studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2002). Towards a unified account of the representation, processing and acquisition of second language knowledge. Second Language Research, 18, 193223.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2005). Theoretical and empirical issues in the study of implicit and explicit second-language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 129140.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2008). Incidental and intentional learning. In Doughty, C. J. & Long, M. H. (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (Vol. 27, p. 349). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory & Language, 30, 513541.
Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P., & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 139154.
Jamieson, R. K., & Hauri, B. (2012). An exemplar model of performance in the artificial grammar task: Holographic representation. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 98105.
Jamieson, R. K., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (2011). Grammaticality is inferred from global similarity: A reply to Kinder (2010). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 209216.
Jiang, S., Zhu, L., Guo, X., Ma, W., Yang, Z., & Dienes, Z. (2012). Unconscious structural knowledge of tonal symmetry: Tang poetry redefines limits of implicit learning. Consciousness & Cognition, 21, 476486.
Johnstone, T., & Shanks, D. R. (2001). Abstractionist and processing accounts of implicit learning. Cognitive Psychology, 42, 61112.
Kinder, A., & Assmann, A. (2000). Learning artificial grammars: No evidence for the acquisition of rules. Memory & Cognition, 28, 13211332.
Knowlton, B. J., & Squire, L. R. (1994). The information acquired during artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20, 7991.
Knowlton, B. J., & Squire, L. R. (1996). Artificial grammar learning depends on implicit acquisition of both abstract and exemplar-specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22, 169181.
Lai, W. W. S., Wang, D., Yan, N., Chan, V., & Zhang, L. (2011). Influence of English donor word stress on tonal assignment in Cantonese loanwords: An acoustic account. Paper presented at the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Hong Kong, International Phonetic Association.
Leow, R. P. (2015). Explicit learning in the L2 classroom: A student-centered approach. London: Routledge.
Leung, J., & Williams, J. (2011). The implicit learning of mappings between forms and contextually-derived meanings. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 3355.
Leung, J., & Williams, J. (2012). Constraints on implicit learning of grammatical form-meaning connections. Language Learning, 62, 634662.
Leung, J., & Williams, J. (2014). Cross-linguistic differences in implicit language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 36, 733755.
Luke, K. K. (2000) Phonological re-interpretation: The assignment of Cantonese tones to English words. Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Singapore.
Morton, J., & Jassen, W. (1965). Acoustic correlates of stress. Language and Speech, 8, 159181.
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19, 132.
Overgaard, M., Timmermans, B., Sandberg, K., & Cleeremans, A. (2010). Optimizing subjective measures of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 682684.
Perruchet, P. (1994). Learning from complex rule-governed environments: On the proper functions of non-conscious and conscious processes. In Umilta, C. & Moscovitch, M. (Eds.), Attention and performance: Vol. 15. Conscious and non-conscious information processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Perruchet, P., & Pacteau, C. (1990). Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 119, 264275.
Pothos, E. M. (2007). Theories of artificial grammar learning. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 227244.
Pothos, E. M., & Bailey, T. M. (2000). The role of similarity in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 26, 847862.
Reber, A. S. (1967). Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 6, 855863.
Reber, A. S. (1989). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 219235.
Rebuschat, P. (2008). Implicit learning of natural language syntax (PhD thesis, University of Cambridge).
Rebuschat, P. (2013). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge in second language research. Language Learning, 63, 595626.
Rebuschat, P., Hamrick, P., Sachs, R., Riestenberg, K., & Ziegler, N. (2013). Implicit and explicit knowledge of form-meaning connections: Evidence from subjective measures of awareness In Bergsleithner, J., Frota, S., & Yoshioka, J. K. (Eds.), Noticing and second language acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt. Manoa, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Rebuschat, P., & Williams, J. N. (2012). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 829856.
Rohde, D. L. T., & Plaut, D. C. (1999). Language acquisition in the absence of explicit negative evidence: How important is starting small? Cognition, 72, 67109.
Rohrmeier, M., Fu, Q., & Dienes, Z. (2012). Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars. PLOS ONE, 7, e45885.
Rohrmeier, M., Rebuschat, P., & Cross, I. (2011). Incidental and online learning of melodic structure. Consciousness & Cognition, 20, 214222.
Rogers, J., Revesz, A., & Rebuschat, P. (2016). Implicit and explicit knowledge of inflectional second language morphology. Applied Psycholinguistics. Advance online publication.
Rosenthal, D. M. (2005). Consciousness and mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 11, 129158.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schmidt, R. (2010). Attention, awareness, and individual differences in language learning. In Chan, W. M., Chi, S., Cin, K. N., Istanto, J., Nagami, M., Sew, J. W., . . . Walker, I. (Eds.), Proceedings of CLaSIC 2010 (pp. 721737). Singapore: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies.
Scott, D. R. (1982). Duration as a cue to the perception of a phrase boundary. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 9961007.
Scott, R., & Dienes, Z. (2010). Knowledge applied to new domain: The unconscious succeeds where the conscious fails. Consciousness and Cognition, 19, 391398.
Servan-Schreiber, E., & Anderson, J. R. (1990). Learning artificial grammars with competitive chunking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 592608.
Seth, A. K. (2008). Theories and measures of consciousness develop together. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 986988.
Shanks, D. R., & (1994). Characteristics of dissociable human learning system. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 367447.
Tong, X., Lee, S. M. K., Lee, M. M. L., & Burnham, D. (2015). A tale of two features: Perception of Cantonese lexical tone and English lexical stress in Cantonese-English bilinguals. PLOS ONE, 10, e0142896.
Trubetzkoy, N. S. (1969). Principles of phonology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Tunney, R. J. (2005). Sources of confidence judgments in implicit cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12, 367373.
Tunney, R. J., & Altmann, G. T. M. (2001). Two modes of transfer in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 35, 195202.
Tunney, R. J., & Shanks, D. R. (2003). Does opposition logic provide evidence for conscious and unconscious processes in artificial grammar learning? Consciousness and Cognition, 12, 201218.
Turk-Browne, N. B., & Scholl, B. J. (2009). Flexible visual statistical learning: Transfer across space and time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35, 195202.
Williams, J. N. (2005). Learning without awareness. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 269304.
Williams, J. N. (2009). Implict learning in second language acquisition. In Williams, C. R. & Bhatia, T. K. (Eds.), The new handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 319355). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.
Williams, J. N., & Kuribara, C. (2008). Comparing a nativist and emergentist approach to the initial stage of SLA: An investigation of Japanese scrambling. Lingua, 118, 522553.
Zellers, M., Post, B., & Williams, J. N. (2011). Implicit learning of lexical stress patterns. Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Hong Kong: International Phonetic Association.
Ziori, E., & Dienes, Z. (2006). Subjective measures of unconscious knowledge of concepts. Mind and Society, 5, 105122.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed