Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Behavioral characteristics of Chinese adolescents with dyslexia: The use of teachers’ behavior checklist in Hong Kong

  • BOBY HO-HONG CHING (a1), CONNIE SUK-HAN HO (a2), DAVID W. CHAN (a3), KEVIN K. H. CHUNG (a4) and LAP-YAN LO (a5)...

Abstract

We developed the Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist for Junior Secondary School Students (BCL-JS) for teachers to rate the frequency of 52 reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese secondary school students. An item factor analysis based on ratings on 947 students yielded seven distinct dimensions. In a separate sample of 90 students, the seven constructs of the BCL-JS significantly correlated with students’ performances on most literacy and reading-related cognitive measures, and differentiated adolescents with or without dyslexia. Discriminant analysis showed that the BCL-JS had a high rate of correct classification (82.2%). These findings support that the BCL-JS is a reliable screening tool for Chinese junior secondary school students at risk for dyslexia.

Copyright

Corresponding author

ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Connie S.-H. Ho, Department of Psychology, C661, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. E-mail: shhoc@hku.hk

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4–18. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1978). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 12751301.
Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. New York: Queen City Printers.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001a). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001b). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Ayres, R., Cooley, E., & Dunn, C. (1990). Self-concept, attribution, and persistence in learning disabled students. Journal of School Psychology, 28, 153163.
Bear, G. G., Clever, A., & Proctor, W. A. (1991). Self-perceptions of nonhandicapped children and children with learning disabilities in integrated classes. Journal of Special Education, 24, 409426.
Beitchman, J. H., & Young, A. R. (1997). Learning disorders with a special emphasis on reading disorders: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 10201032.
Benasich, A., Curtiss, S., & Tallal, P. (1993). Language, learning and behavioral disturbances in childhood: A longitudinal perspective. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 585594.
Bender, L. (1946). Instructions for the use of the Visual Motor Gestalt Test. New York: American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Bender, W. N. (1987). Behavioral indicators of temperament and personality in the inactive learner. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 301305.
Bender, W. N., & Wall, M. E. (1994). Social–emotional development of students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 17, 323341.
Blyth, D. A., Simmons, R. G., & Bush, D. (1978). The transition into early adolescence: A longitudinal comparison of youth in two educational contexts. Sociology of Education, 51, 149162.
Boetsch, E. A., Green, P. A., & Pennington, B. F. (1996). Psychosocial correlated of dyslexia across the life span. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 539562.
Borkowski, J. G., & Muthukrishna, N. (1992). Moving metacognition into the classroom: “Working models” and effective strategy teaching. In Pressley, M., Harris, R. K., & Guthrie, J. T. (Eds.),Promoting academic competence and literacy in school (pp. 477501). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746747.
Bryan, T., Pearl, R., & Herzog, A. (1989). Learning disabled adolescents’ vulnerability to crime: Attitudes, anxieties, experiences. Learning Disabilities Research, 5, 5160.
Burden, R. (2005). Dyslexia and self-concept: Seeking a dyslexic identity. London: Whurr.
Calhoun, M. L., & Beattie, J. (1987). School competence needs of mildly handicapped adolescents. Adolescence, 22, 555563.
Chan, L. K. S. (1994). Relationship of motivation, strategic learning and reading achievement in grades 5, 7, and 9. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 319340.
Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S.-H., Tsang, S., Lee, S., & Chung, K. K. H. (2003). Reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese children with dyslexia: The use of Teachers’ Behavior Checklist in Hong Kong. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 300323.
Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S.-H., Tsang, S., Lee, S., & Chung, K. K. H. (2004). Screening for Chinese children with dyslexia in Hong Kong: The use of Teachers’ Checklist. Educational Psychology, 24, 811824.
Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S.-H., Tsang, S., Lee, S., & Chung, K. K. H. (2006). Exploring the reading–writing connection in Chinese children with dyslexia in Hong Kong. Reading and Writing, 19, 543561.
Chan, D. W., Ho, C. S.-H., Tsang, S., Lee, S., & Chung, K. K. H. (2010). Teachers’ checklist on reading-related behavioral characteristics of Chinese primary students: A Rasch measurement model analysis. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities, 15, 151170.
Chan, W. S., & Ho, C. S.-H. (2002). The concomitance of dyslexia and emotional/behavioral problems: A study of Hong Kong children. Unpublished manuscript, University of Hong Kong.
Chapman, J. W., & Tummer, W. F. (2003). Reading difficulties, reading-related self-perceptions, and strategies for overcoming negative self-beliefs. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 524.
Chen, X., Anderson, R. C., Li, W. L., Hao, M. L., Wu, X. C., & Shu, H. (2004). Phonological awareness of bilingual and monolingual Chinese children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 142151.
Chow, B. W., McBride-Chang, C., Cheung, H., & Chow, C. S. (2008). Dialogic reading and morphology training in Chinese children: Effects on language and literacy. Developmental Psychology, 44, 233244.
Chung, K. K. H., Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. (2007). The Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing for Junior Secondary School Students— HKT-JS manual. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
Chung, K. K. H., Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W. O., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2011). Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 24, 835859.
Coon, K. B., Waguespack, M. M., & Polk, M. J. (1994). Dyslexia screening instrument. New York: Psychological Corporation.
DeFrancis, J. (1989). Visible speech: The diverse oneness of writing systems. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Fine, E. (1987). Are we preparing adolescents with learning disabilities to cope with social issues? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 413420.
Frith, U. (1997). Brain, mind and behavior in dyslexia. In Hulme, C. & Snowling, M. J. (Eds.), Dyslexia: Biology, cognition and intervention (pp. 119). London: Whurr.
Gibb, B., Alloy, L., & Walshaw, P. (2006). Predictors of attributional style change in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 408422.
Glascoe, F. P., Martin, E. D., & Humphrey, S. (1990). A comparative review of developmental screening tests. Pediatrics, 86, 547554.
Gresham, F. M. (1982). Misguided mainstreaming: The case for social skills training with handicapped children. Exceptional Children, 48, 422433.
Hall, C. W., & Halls, D. (1989). Depressive symptomatology in learning disabled and nonlearning disabled students. Psychology in the Schools, 26, 359364.
Hamada, R. S., & Tomikawa, S. (1986). Discriminant validity of the Windward Rating Scale: Screening for learning disabilities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 10831093.
Hayes, M. K., & Sloat, R. S. (1988). Learning disability and suicide. Academic Therapy, 23, 469475.
Heiervang, E., Stevenson, J., Lund, A., & Hugdahl, K. (2001). Behavior problems in children with dyslexia. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 55, 251256.
Hellendoorn, J., & Ruijssenaars, W. (2000). Personal experiences and adjustment of Dutch adults with dyslexia. Remedial and Special Education, 21, 227239.
Hinshaw, S. P. (1992). Externalizing behavior problems and academic underachievement in childhood and adolescence: Causal relationships and underlying mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 127155.
Ho, C. S.-H. (2010). Understanding reading disability in Chinese: From basic research to intervention. In Bond, M. H. (Ed.), Handbook of Chinese psychology (2nd ed., pp. 109121). New York: Oxford University Press.
Ho, C. S.-H., & Bryant, P. (1997a). Phonological skills are important in learning to read Chinese. Developmental Psychology, 33, 946951.
Ho, C. S.-H., & Bryant, P. (1997b). Learning to read Chinese beyond the logographic phase. Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 276289.
Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W. O., Lee, S. H., Tsang, S. M., & Luan, V. H. (2004). Cognitive profiling and preliminary subtyping in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Cognition, 91, 4375.
Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. (2000a). The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist (for primary school pupils) manual. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. (2000b). The Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD) manual. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. (2002a). The cognitive profile and multiple-deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 38, 543553.
Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S., & Lee, S. (2002b). The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist (for Primary One pupils). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
Ho, C. S.-H., Lo, L.-Y., Chan, D., Chung, K., Tsang, S.-M., & Lee, S.-H. (2009). The Hong Kong Behaviour Checklist of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing for Junior Secondary School Students (BCL-JS). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
Ho, C. S. H., Wong, W. L., & Chan, W. S. (1999). The use of orthographic analogies in learning to read Chinese. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 393403.
Ho, C. S.-H., Wong, Y. K., Yeung, P. S., Chan, D. W. O., Chung, K. K. H., Lo, S. C., et al. (2012). The core components of reading instruction in Chinese. Reading and Writing, 25, 857886.
Houck, C. K., Engelhard, J., & Geller, C. (1989). Self-assessment of learning disabled and nondisabled college students: A comparative study. Learning Disabilities Research, 5, 6167.
Huang, H. S., & Hanley, J. R. (1997). A longitudinal study of phonological awareness, visual skills and Chinese reading acquisition among first-graders in Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 249268.
Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. (1992). Phonological deficits in dyslexia: A “sound” reappraisal of the verbal deficit hypothesis? In Singh, N. N. & Beale, I. L. (Eds.), Progress in learning disabilities (pp. 270301). New York: Springer–Verlag.
Humphrey, N., & Mullins, P. M. (2002). Personal constructs and attribution for academic success and failure in dyslexia. British Journal of Special Education, 29, 196203.
Huntington, D. D., & Bender, W. N. (1993). Adolescents with learning disabilities at risk? Emotional well-being, depression, suicide. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 159166.
Jorm, A. F., Share, D. L., Matthews, R., & McLean, R. (1986). Behavior problems in specific reading-related retarded and general reading backward children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 3343.
Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1996). Social skill deficits and LD: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 226237.
Kuhne, M., & Wiener, J. (2000). Stability of social status of children with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 23, 6475.
LaGreca, A. M., & Stone, W. L. (1990). LD status and achievement: Confounding variable in the study of children's social status, self-esteem, and behavioral functioning. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 483490.
Lamm, O., & Epstein, R. (1996). Specific reading impairment—Are they to be associated with emotional difficulties? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 605615.
Leong, C. K. (1973). Reading in Chinese with reference to reading practices in Hong Kong. In Downing, J. (Ed.), Comparative reading: Cross-national studies of behavior and processes in reading and writing (pp. 383402). New York: Macmillan.
Lichtenstein, R., & Ireton, H. (1984). Preschool screening: Identifying young children with developmental and educational problems. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton.
Liu, I. M., Chuang, C. J., & Wang, S. C. (1975). Frequency count of 40,000 Chinese words. Taipei: Lucky Books.
Lorch, R. F. Jr., & van den Broek, P. (1997). Understanding reading comprehension: Current and future contributions of cognitive science. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 213246.
Maag, J. W., & Behrens, J. T. (1989). Depression and cognitive self-statements of learning disabled and seriously emotionally disturbed adolescents. Journal of Special Education, 23, 1727.
Margalit, M. (1998). Loneliness and coherence among preschool children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 173181.
Margolis, H., Sheridan, R., & Lemanowicz, J. (1981). The efficiency of Myklebust's Pupil Rating Scale for detecting reading and arithmetic difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 267268, 302.
Mash, E. J., & Terdal, I. G. (Eds.). (1997). Assessment of childhood disorders (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (2002). Abnormal child psychology (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Mattingly, I. G. (1972). Reading, the linguistic process and linguistic awareness. In Kavanagh, J. & Mattingly, I. (Eds.), Language by ear and by eye (pp. 133147). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Maughan, B., Pickles, A., Hagell, A., Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1996). Reading problems and antisocial behaviour: Developmental trends in comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 405418.
McBride-Chang, C., Chow, B. W.-Y., Zhong, Y.-P., Burgess, S., & Hayward, W. (2005). Chinese character acquisition and visual skills in two Chinese scripts. Reading and Writing, 18, 99128.
McBride-Chang, C., Shu, H., Zhou, A. B., Wat, C. P., & Wagner, R. K. (2003). Morphological awareness uniquely predicts young children's Chinese character recognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 743751.
McBride-Chang, C., Wagner, R. K., Muse, A., Chow, B. W.-Y., & Shu, H. (2005). The role of morphological awareness in children's vocabulary acquisition in English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 415435.
McConaughty, S. H. (1986). Social competence and behavioral problems of learning disabled boys aged 12–16. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19, 101106.
McConaughy, S. H., & Ritter, D. R. (1985). Social competence and behavioral problems of learning disabled boys aged 6–11. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 18, 547553.
McCulloch, A., Wiggins, R. D., Joshi, H. E., & Sachdev, D. (2000). Internalizing and externalizing children's behavior problems in Britain and the U.S.: Relationships to family resources. Children & Society, 14, 368383.
McKinney, J. D. (1989). Longitudinal research on the behavior characteristics of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 141150.
McKinney, J. D., & Feagans, L. (1984). Academic and behavioral characteristics of learning disabled children and average achievers: Longitudinal studies. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 251264.
Mishna, F. (1996). Finding their voice: Group therapy for adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 11, 249258.
Mulcahy, R. (1990). Perceived competence, self-concept, and locus of control for high ability students, as compared to average and learning disabled students. Canadian Journal of Special Education, 6, 4249.
Ochoa, S. H., & Olivarez, A. (1995). A meta-analysis of peer rating sociometric studies of pupils with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 29, 120.
Oldfather, P. (2002). Learning from students about overcoming motivation problems in literacy learning: A cross-study analysis and synthesis. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 343353.
Olson, R. K., Rack, J. P., & Forsberg, H. (1990, September). Profiles of abilities in dyslexics and reading-level-matched controls. Poster session presented at the meeting of the Rodin Remediation Academy, Boulder, CO.
Palladino, P., Poli, P., Masi, G., & Marcheschi, M. (2000). The relation between metacognition and depressive symptoms in preadolescents with learning disabilities: Data in support of Borkowski's model. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 142149.
Pearl, R., & Bryan, T. (1992). Students’ expectations about peer pressure to engage in misconduct. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 582585, 597.
Pearl, R., Bryan, T., & Herzog, A. (1990). Resisting or acquiescing to peer pressure to engage in misconduct: Adolescents’ expectations of probable consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 19, 4355.
Perlmutter, B. F. (1987). Delinquency and learning disabilities: Evidence for compensatory behavior and adaptation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 8995.
Psychological Corporation. (1981). Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children manual. New York: Author.
Qian, Y., Lee, T., & Soong, F. K. (2004). Use of tone information in continuous Cantonese speech recognition. Paper presented at Speech Prosody 2004 International Conference, March, Nara, Japan.
Raviv, D., & Stone, C. A. (1991). Individual differences in the self-image of adolescents with learning disabilities: The roles of severity, time of diagnosis, and parental perceptions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 602611, 629.
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992). BASC: Behavioral Assessment System for Children manual. Circle Press, MN: American Guidance Services.
Richman, N., Stevenson, J., & Graham, P. (1982). Preschool to school: A behavioral study. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ritter, D. R. (1989). Social competence and problem behavior of adolescent girls with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 460461.
Roberts, C., & Zubrick, S. (1993). Factors influencing the social status of children with mild academic disabilities in regular classrooms. Exceptional Children, 59, 192202.
Rourke, B. P., Young, G. C., & Leenaars, A. A. (1989). A childhood learning disability that predisposes those afflicted to adolescent and adult depression and suicide risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 169175.
Sabornie, E. J. (1985). Social mainstreaming of handicapped students: Facing an unpleasant reality. Remedial and Special Education, 6, 1216.
Safran, S. P., & Safran, J. S. (1987). Behavioral contagion and manageability: Learning disability and regular education teachers’ perspectives. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 209, 439440, 447.
Salter, R., & Smythe, I. (1997). The international nook of dyslexia. London: World Dyslexia Network Foundation and European Dyslexia Association.
Sanson, A. (2006). Reading disabilities with and without behavior problems at 7–8 years: Prediction from longitudinal data from infancy to 6 years. Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 529541.
Sater, G. M., & French, D. C. (1989). A comparison of the social competences of learning disabled and low achieving elementary-aged children. Journal of Special Education, 23, 2942.
Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler.
Schneider, M., & Yoshida, R. K. (1988). Interpersonal problem-solving skills and classroom behavioral adjustment in learning-disabled adolescents and comparison peers. Journal of School Psychology, 26, 2434.
Shankweiler, D., Liberman, I. Y., Mark, L. S., Fowler, C. A., & Fischer, F. W. (1979). The speech code and learning to read. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 5, 531545.
Shelton, T. L., & Barkley, R. A. (1994). Critical issues in the assessment of attention deficit disorders in children. Topics in Language Disorders, 14, 2641.
Shondrick, D. D., Serafica, F. C., Clark, P., & Miller, K. G. (1992). Interpersonal problem solving and creativity in boys with and boys without learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 95102.
Shu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Wu, S., & Liu, H. Y. (2006). Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 122133.
Simmons, R. G., Blyth, D. A., Van Cleave, E. F., & Bush, D. M. (1979). Entry into adolescence: The impact of school culture, puberty, and early dating on self-esteem. American Sociological Review, 44, 948967.
Siok, W. T., & Fletcher, P. (2001). The role of phonological awareness and visual–orthographic skills in Chinese reading acquisition. Developmental Psychology, 37, 886899.
Stone, W. L., & LaGreca, A. M. (1990). The social status of children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 3237.
Swanson, H. L., & Malone, S. (1992). Social skills and LD: A meta-analysis. School Psychology Review, 21, 427443.
Taft, M., & Chung, K. (1999). Using radicals in teaching Chinese characters to second language learners. Psychologia, 42, 243251.
Toro, P. A., Weissberg, R. P., Guare, J., & Lievenstein, N. L. (1990). A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem-solving skill, school, behavior, and family background. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 115120.
Tur-Kaspa, H., & Bryan, T. (1993). Social attributions of students with learning disabilities. Exceptionality, 4, 229243.
Undheim, A. M. (2003). Dyslexia and psychosocial factors: A follow-up study of young Norwegian adults with a history of dyslexia in childhood. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 221226.
van Kraayenoord, C. E., & Schneider, W. E. (1999). Reading achievement, metacognition, reading self-concept and interest: A study of German students in grades 3 and 4. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 54, 305324.
Wagner, W. G. (2003). Counseling, psychology, and children: A multidimensional approach to intervention. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Wang, M., Liu, Y., & Perfetti, C. A. (2004). The implicit and explicit learning of orthographic structure and function of a new writing system. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 357379.
Wiener, J., Harris, P. J., & Shirer, C. (1990). Achievement and social–behavioral correlates of peer status in LD children. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13, 114127.
Wigfield, A. (1997). Children's motivations for reading and reading engagement. In Guthrie, J. T. & Wigfield, A. (Eds.), Reading engagement: Motivating readers through integrated instruction (pp. 1433). Newark, NJ: International Reading Association.
Wright-Strawderman, C., & Watson, B. L. (1992). The prevalence of depression symptoms in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 258264.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Behavioral characteristics of Chinese adolescents with dyslexia: The use of teachers’ behavior checklist in Hong Kong

  • BOBY HO-HONG CHING (a1), CONNIE SUK-HAN HO (a2), DAVID W. CHAN (a3), KEVIN K. H. CHUNG (a4) and LAP-YAN LO (a5)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.