Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

An eye-tracking study of learned attention in second language acquisition

  • NICK C. ELLIS (a1), KAUSAR HAFEEZ (a1), KATHERINE I. MARTIN (a1), LILLIAN CHEN (a1), JULIE BOLAND (a1) and NURIA SAGARRA (a2)...
Abstract

This paper investigates the limited attainment of adult compared to child language acquisition in terms of learned attention to morphological cues. It replicates Ellis and Sagarra in demonstrating short-term learned attention in the acquisition of temporal reference in Latin, and it extends the investigation using eye-tracking indicators to determine the extent to which these biases are overt or covert. English native speakers learned adverbial and morphological cues to temporal reference in a small set of Latin phrases under experimental conditions. Comprehension and production data demonstrated that early experience with adverbial cues enhanced subsequent use of this cue dimension and blocked the acquisition of verbal tense morphology. Effects of early experience of verbal morphology were less pronounced. Eye-tracking measures showed that early experience of particular cue dimensions affected what participants overtly focused upon during subsequent language processing and how this overt study resulted in turn in covert attentional biases in comprehension and in productive knowledge.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An eye-tracking study of learned attention in second language acquisition
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An eye-tracking study of learned attention in second language acquisition
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An eye-tracking study of learned attention in second language acquisition
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Nick C. Ellis, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043. E-mail: ncellis@umich.edu
References
Hide All
Arbuckle, J. L. (2006). AMOS, Version 7.0 [Computer software]. Chicago: SPSS.
Baddeley, A. D. (1976). The psychology of memory. New York: Harper & Row.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (1992). The use of adverbials and natural order in the development of temporal expression. International Journal of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 30, 299320.
Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2000). Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning, and use. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bates, E., & Goodman, J. C. (1997). On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon: Evidence from acquisition, aphasia and real-time processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12, 507586.
Bowles, M. (2010). The think-aloud controversy in second language research. New York: Routledge.
Cheng, P. W., & Holyoak, K. J. (1995). Adaptive systems as intuitive statisticians: causality, contingency, and prediction. In Meyer, J.-A. & Roitblat, H. (Eds.), Comparative approaches to cognition (pp. 271302). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Clahsen, H., & Felser, C. (2006). Grammatical processing in language learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 342.
Corder, S. P. (1967). The significance of learners’ errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 161169.
Cowan, N. (1997). Attention and memory: An integrated framework. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, A. L. (1984). An introduction to linear regression and correlation (2nd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
Ellis, N. C. (2002a). Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 143188.
Ellis, N. C. (2002b). Reflections on frequency effects in language processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 297339.
Ellis, N. C. (2005). At the interface: Dynamic interactions of explicit and implicit language knowledge. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 305352.
Ellis, N. C. (2006a). Cognitive perspectives on SLA: The associative cognitive CREED. AILA Review, 19, 100121.
Ellis, N. C. (2006b). Selective attention and transfer phenomena in SLA: Contingency, cue competition, salience, interference, overshadowing, blocking, and perceptual learning. Applied Linguistics, 27, 131.
Ellis, N. C. (2006c). The associative–cognitive CREED. In VanPatten, B. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 7796). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ellis, N. C. (2008). Usage-based and form-focused language acquisition: The associative learning of constructions, learned-attention, and the limited L2 endstate. In Robinson, P. & Ellis, N. C. (Eds.), Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition (pp. 372405). London: Routledge.
Ellis, N. C. (Ed.). (1994). Implicit and explicit learning of languages. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2010a). Learned attention effects in L2 temporal reference: The first hour and the next eight semesters. Language Learning, 60, 85108.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2010b). The bounds of adult language acquisition: Blocking and learned attention. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 128.
Ellis, N. C., & Sagarra, N. (2011). Learned attention in adult language acquisition: A replication and generalization study and meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 136.
Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141172.
Gass, S., & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Godfroid, A. (2012). Eye tracking. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Routledge encyclopedia of second language acquisition (pp. 234236). New York: Routledge.
Gullberg, M., & Indefrey, P. (Eds.). (2011). The earliest stages of language learning. Malden, MA: Wiley.
Han, Z.-H., Park, E. S., & Combs, C. (2008). Textual enhancement of input: Issues and possibilities. Applied Linguistics, 29, 597618.
James, C. (1980). Contrastive analysis. London: Longman.
Kamin, L. J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In Campbell, B. A. & Church, R. M. (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 276296). New York: Appleton–Century–Crofts.
Klein, W. (1998). The contribution of second language acquisition research. Language Learning, 48, 527550.
Kruschke, J. K. (2006). Learned attention. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Development and Learning, Indiana University.
Kruschke, J. K., & Blair, N. J. (2000). Blocking and backward blocking involve learned inattention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 636645.
Kruschke, J. K., Kappenman, E. S., & Hetrick, W. P. (2005). Eye gaze and individual differences consistent with learned attention in associative blocking and highlighting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31, 830845.
LaBerge, D. (1995). Attentional processing: The brain's art of mindfulness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures: Applied linguistics for language teachers. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Lee, J. F. (1999). On levels of processing and levels of comprehension. In Gutiérrez-Rexach, J. & Martínez–Gil, F. (Eds.), Advances in Hispanic linguistics (pp. 4259). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Lee, J. F., Cadierno, T., Glass, W. R., & VanPatten, B. (1997). The effects of lexical and grammatical cues on processing past temporal reference in second language input. Applied Language Learning, 8, 123.
Lee, S.-K., & Huang, H.-T. (2008). Visual input enhancement and grammar learning: A meta-analytic review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 307331.
Mackintosh, N. J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276298.
MacWhinney, B. (1987). The competition model. In MacWhinney, B. (Ed.), Mechanisms of language acquisition (pp. 249308). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
MacWhinney, B. (2001). The competition model: The input, the context, and the brain. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 6990). New York: Cambridge University Press.
MacWhinney, B., & Bates, E. (1989). The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MacWhinney, B., Bates, E., & Kliegl, R. (1984). Cue validity and sentence interpretation in English, German, and Italian. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 127150.
Marchant, H. G. III, & Moore, J. W. (1973). Blocking of the rabbit's conditioned nictitating membrane response in Kamin's two-stage paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 101, 155158.
Matessa, M., & Anderson, J. R. (2000). Modeling focused learning in role assignment. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15, 263292.
McDonald, J. L. (1986). The development of sentence comprehension strategies in English and Dutch. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 317335.
Meisel, J. (1987). Reference to past events and actions in the development of natural second language acquisition. In Pfaff, C. (Ed.), First and second language acquisition (pp. 206224). New York: Newbury House.
Moore, J. W., & Schmajuk, N. A. (2008). Kamin blocking. Scholarpedia, 3, 3542.
Musumeci, D. (1989). The ability of second language learners to assign tense at the sentence level: A cross-linguistic study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Noyau, C., Klein, W., & Dietrich, R. (1995). Acquisition of temporality in a second language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer. New York: Cambridge University Press.
R Development Core Team. (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F. (Eds.), Classical conditioning: Vol. 2. Current theory and research (pp. 6499). New York: Appleton–Century–Crofts.
Schmidt, R. (1984). The strengths and limitations of acquisition: A case study of an untutored language learner. Language, Learning, and Communication, 3, 116.
Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In Robinson, P. (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 332). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shanks, D. R. (1995). The psychology of associative learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shanks, D. R. (2010). Learning: From association to cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 273301.
Simon, H. A. (1957). Models of man: Social and rational. New York: Wiley.
Terrell, T. (1991). The role of grammar instruction in a communicative approach. Modern Language Journal, 75, 5263.
vanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction in second language acquisition. New York: Ablex.
vanPatten, B. (2002). Processing instruction: An update. Language Learning, 52, 755804.
vanPatten, B. (2006). Input processing. In VanPatten, B. & Williams, J. (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 115136). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wills, A. J. (2005). New directions in human associative learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Wills, A. J. (2009). Prediction errors and attention in the presence and absence of feedback. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 95100.
Wong, W. (2005). Input enhancement: From theory and research to the classroom. Boston: McGraw–Hill.
Wright, R. D., & Ward, L. M. (2008). Orienting of attention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed