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Instructions for contributors

The content of the Journal is multi-disciplinary, multi-national and multi-period in approach, as befits an organisation whose worldwide Fellowship is engaged in a very broad range of research based on the study of the material remains of the past – including all aspects of history, archaeology, art and architecture, conservation, heraldry, anthropological, ecclesiastical, documentary, musical, linguistic study and landscape study.

This diversity of coverage is a primary strength of the Journal, and is borne of the conviction that connections and insights often result from reading about research in another field than one's own. For this reason, the Journal seeks a balanced mix of papers in each volume, covering all periods, from prehistory to the present day, and crossing disciplinary boundaries to demonstrate the benefits of bringing different skills and approaches to bear on the chosen topic (for example, studies that deploy evidence based on both historical and archaeological evidence).

In particular, the Society looks for papers that take an overview of a particular period, issue or set of problems, that are based on primary research, that do not simply describe the material remains of the past, but seek to throw light on their significance and meaning by setting them within relevant contexts, and that, in asking and answering questions of importance to the discipline, make a genuine contribution to the advancement of our knowledge in the relevant field of study.

As befits a Society that has been in existence for some 300 years and whose Fellows have helped to shape their evolving disciplines, the Journal is also interested in historicism (the placing of people, ideas and concepts within a historical context) and the development of antiquarian observation and thinking within the wider topic of the history of science and the humanities, as well as the extension of antiquarianism into the fields of public heritage policy, ethics and practice.

The Journal offers a variety of formats for the publication of short contributions of 3,000 words, or longer papers, typically of up to 10,000 words, or 28 printed pages, including illustrations, as well as long and short book reviews that can also be a platform for synthesis or original thought. With the advent of online publishing, we are also able to offer the capacity for publishing appendices and data sets that support research papers but that are too long for publication in the printed Journal.

The primary readership of the Journal is the Society's Fellowship, but through library exchanges and institutional sales the Journal reaches a diverse international readership and its readers range from academics actively involved in primary research to students and amateurs. The readers are, by definition, scholarly and well informed, but contributions need to be presented in such a way as to be accessible to those whose specialities lie in fields other than those of the author. Detailed guidance on the preparation of papers for publication and on house style (including the style for footnotes and bibliographies) can be found on the Society's website.

All papers submitted to the Journal for consideration undergo a peer-review process, and might be referred back to the author for further work, and the editors of the Journal have a specific brief to rework material if necessary to ensure that published papers are lucid, succinct and grammatically and syntactically correct. Authors are asked to check papers once edited to ensure that factual errors have not been introduced through this editorial process, but as some authors object to such an interventionist editorial policy, it is best to discuss any specific concerns before submitting material for publication.

Society of Antiquaries of London

Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0BE

Notes for Contributors to the Antiquaries Journal

Manuscripts to be considered for publication in The Antiquaries Journal should be sent by email to the Editor, Lavinia Porter (

The following notes provide guidance on the minimum standards that we ask contributors to observe in submitting text and illustrations for publication in the Antiquaries Journal. Further information on more detailed aspects of house style may be obtained from the Editor (Lavinia Porter: Authors with queries or concerns should contact the Editors before they prepare the material they intend to submit for publication in order to avoid the need to restyle material that does not meet these standards.

The Antiquaries Journal is published annually in hard copy in September. The submission deadline is 31 December of the calendar year preceding the year of publication. Articles are published online in advance of the hard copy using the Cambridge Journals FirstView system, after being fully refereed and copyedited. Articles receive a digital object identifier (DOI) and are fully citable from the point of FirstView publication. Cambridge Core is a Green Open Access publisher, which means that authors are free to deposit a copy of their published paper with an institutional repository.

The content of the Journal reflects the broad interests of the Society in antiquities and material culture, and is international, multi-period and multi-disciplinary in scope. We are, however, essentially a humanities and social science journal, so we do not publish papers that are primarily concerned with scientific technique, astronomy or mathematics.

The Journal has a scholarly readership but contributions should be presented in such a way as to be accessible to those whose primary speciality might lie in another field. Articles should be written in plain and lucid language. Technical terms may be used where appropriate, but should be explained and should not be used in a manner that obscures the meaning for a wider readership.

Papers for the Journal can consist of short papers of at least 1,000 words, or longer papers up to a maximum of 10,000 words, including captions, footnotes and bibliography. Any paper submitted to the Journal that is appreciably longer than this will be returned to the author without being considered for publication, with a request that its length be reduced to comply with this condition.

Papers should begin with a short title, the names, postal addresses and e-mail addresses of all the authors, and an abstract. The abstract should be around 150 words in length. It will be translated into French and German and may be the only part of the paper that some readers are able to understand, so it must include a brief statement of the main points being communicated in the paper and their significance to the study of the subject.

The paper itself should address matters of interpretation and synthesis, supported by data. Transcriptions and large data sets can either be published as appendices that appear in the in the printed version of the Journal or as supplementary material that is only published in the online version (see below). The choice will be determined by the Editors in consultation with the author, and will depend upon how central the data is to the understanding of the discussion, its length and the nature of the material.

We very much encourage authors to include illustrations in colour or in black and white as these communicate to most people much more quickly and accurately than text. Where the extensive use of colour is likely to add significantly to the cost of publication, we ask authors to seek grant aid to cover the additional costs.

Neither the Society nor Cambridge Core have facilities for graphic editing, so figures must be supplied in the form in which they are to be published, and cropped and labelled accordingly. We accept tiff, jpg or eps files, at a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi at final size for line drawings, 300 dpi at final size for halftones and colour and 600 dpi on a figure that combines line and halftone. Illustrations scanned at these resolutions will be too large to send by e-mail, so you should supply a compressed low-resolution version when you first submit a paper for peer review, and supply the high-resolution files on disk once the paper has been accepted. Alternatively, a file transfer system such as WeTransfer, Dropbox or YouSendIt may be used.

Open Access Policies

Please visit Open Access Publishing here for information on our open access policies, compliance with major finding bodies, and guidelines on depositing your manuscript in an institutional repository.

Submitting a paper to the Society

We very much welcome offers of papers for publication in the Journal and if you would like us to provide an indication of whether your paper is likely to be accepted before work begins, you should send an e-mail to one of the Editors with an abstract or summary and an idea of the likely extent and delivery date for the final paper.

The most common reason for rejecting papers at this stage is that the subject and conclusions are not considered to be of sufficient significance, or that the subject lies outside the scope of the Journal.

Once the paper has been completed you should e-mail a digital copy of the complete text (including footnotes, bibliography and appendices) plus illustrations (in compressed or low-resolution format if these are large) to the Society.

The paper will then be sent to at least two referees, who will comment on its suitability for publication. Referees are normally, but not exclusively, Fellows of the Society, chosen because of their acknowledged expertise in the subject covered in the paper. We

do not reveal the names of reviewers unless they agree to this; we find that anonymity encourages reviewers to provide us with a more honest and objective assessment.

The decision of the referees will then be fed back to the author. Papers may be rejected at this stage if they are not considered to be sufficiently original or significant, if the conclusions are not supported by the evidence, if they are considered to be too speculative or if they are judged to contain major errors or omissions that invalidate the conclusions. Most commonly, papers are accepted on condition that the reviewers’ comments are addressed, and these comments can range from major restructuring of the paper to a few minor bibliographical corrections.

Once a paper is accepted for publication in principle, we ask authors to supply a final version, taking the comments of referees on board, and prepared according to the Society’s house-style rules, in digital form and accompanied by high-resolution versions of the illustrations on disk, along with copies of letters showing that permission has been obtained to reproduce any copyright material, and the form of acknowledgement required. The Editors have standing instructions from the Society’s Publications Committee not to begin editing papers until all of these elements have been supplied.

The text will then be edited for clarity of expression, syntax and consistency and the edited version sent back to the author for approval, with a copyright assignment form.

Returning the signed copyright form to the Society acts as the point of formal acceptance, and the point at which no further substantive changes can be made. The paper and its illustrations will then be passed to Cambridge University Press for copy editing and encoding for publication as an online document. CUP’s copy editor may well raise further queries at this stage: typically these may concern missing or incomplete bibliographical references.

Once the queries have been answered, the copy-edited text is sent to the typesetter for laying-out with the illustrations. You will receive page proofs in the form of a PDF file and will be asked to make any comments within a fortnight. The main purpose of the proofs is to ensure that the figures have been correctly placed and sized and that the text has been laid out correctly. CUP does not permit changes to the text or figures at this stage unless the errors are clearly those of the typesetter.

Once the paper is published, you will receive a final PDF file on disk free of charge to use in lieu of an offprint; you will also receive a copy of the printed volume in due course.

Submission of articles accepted for publication

The paper should be submitted in Rich Text Format (rtf), preferably using 12-point Times New Roman with 1.5 lines spacing, justified left. Text should be styled in bold and italic as appropriate.

The following order of contents should be observed: title; name(s) of author(s) and current postal and e-mail addresses; abstract, text, acknowledgements, appendices (if any), footnotes, abbreviations (if any), bibliography (primary sources followed by secondary sources), tables and illustration captions.

The abstract should be around 150 words in length and set in italic.

Footnotes are to be used for abbreviated references, with note indicators in the text; please use automated notes, which automatically renumber the notes if any are added or removed. Full references should be given in a separate bibliography (see below).

Headings and subheadings should be delineated in a logical hierarchy. No more than four levels of heading should be used.

The first paragraph following a new heading should not be indented; all subsequent paragraphs should be indented by a single tab key; do not insert line spaces between paragraphs.

Please do not:

incorporate tables or illustrations in the text;

insert line spaces between paragraphs;

insert double spaces between sentences;

insert spaces before and after obliques or punctuation marks;

insert live hotlinks into the text;

use ‘track changes’, automatic hyphenation facilities, automatic page numbering and headers and footers, rules, boxes or tints;

use underline as a substitute for italic: only use underline if you intend that the text be underlined when typeset if, for example, this is how it appears in a source document.

House style


The Society employs minimal punctuation and capitalisation. Thus:

pp 168–9

col pls


D M Palliser

But note:

‘no./nos’ is used for ‘number/numbers’

‘in.’ for ‘inches’

‘acc. no.’ (for ‘accession number’)

‘cat. no.’ (for catalogue number

‘sig. 4v’ (for signature number)

Spelling conventions used in the Journal generally follow The Oxford Style Manual (see below).

Use -ise/-isation rather than -ize/-ization (eg, civilise, organise).

Note: artefact not artifact; medieval not mediaeval.

For a fuller list of spellings, see the Appendix.

The familiar English form is be used for most European place names (eg Basle, rather than Basel, Berne, not Bern, Munich, not München, Bruges, not Brugge), though exceptions are made when an archaic name (Leghorn for Livorno) is relevant to the discussion.


Do not use apostrophes in dates or plural abbreviations: 1960s, UFOs.

Use hyphens adjectivally and to prevent ambiguity: eg, ‘full-scale work’, and ‘north-west corner’ (but ‘the north west’); adverbial phrases do not need hyphens: ‘heavily spotted page’, not ‘heavily-spotted page’.

Use spaces between initials in names, not full stops: eg, D G Biggs.

Note indicators should fall outside any punctuation: eg, gold rings,1 not gold rings1.

Use single quotation marks, and double quotation marks for quotations within quotations.

No comma before the final ‘and’ in a list, unless the sentence would be ambiguous without one.

There are no full points at the end of headings, captions or entries in the bibliography.

In headings, initial capitals should be used for the first word and proper nouns; all other text should be in lower case.

For the possessive, use s’ for ancient/classical names (Hercules’ club), but s’s for historic/modern names (Charles’s club) but note Antiquaries’ (ie single ‘s’).

Closing commas are to be used after the name of a town/country, etc: ‘the villa at Frampton, Dorset, displays ...’; Henry, Prince of Wales, decreed ...’.

Small caps

Use for National Grid References (ST 606980), monarchs/popes (George III), vol nos (VII), plate nos when given in roman (pl XXVIIa), for AD/BC, cal BP/cal BC, etc, but not vol or monarch’s names in titles of works of art or of publications (eg, An Inventory of the County of Dorset. Vol I: West, with the volume number as an italic cap).

En rules

Use en rules for:

page/figure spans (1939–45)

orientation (east–west)

parenthetical rules (the boy – whose job was to scare the crows – had fallen asleep)

Quotations/quotation marks

Quotations of more than forty words are to be displayed, like this, without quote marks at the start and end of the quotation:

The Society’s 2,900 Fellows include many distinguished archaeologists and art and architectural historians holding positions of responsibility across the cultural heritage. The Fellowship is international in its reach and its interests are inclusive of all aspects of the material past.

The first line of a new paragraph following a displayed quotation should not be indented.

The closing quotation mark should be placed after the final punctuation mark when the quotation either forms a complete sentence or is longer than one sentence.

Foreign language words and phrases are to be styled in italic, without quotation marks; English translations should be set in Roman type, within quotation marks:

Anno Victoriae Cvllodonianae 1746 (‘The year of the Culloden victory, 1746’)

The titles of articles in newspapers or magazines and to chapters or to individual papers in journals or books should be in Roman type, within single quotation marks, as should the titles of poems, songs or TV programmes, and any title that represents part of the work rather than a complete work.


Abbreviations should be explained in full when they are first used, with the appropriate abbreviation cited in brackets; for example: ‘Material first published in the Victoria County History (VCH) has since been revised’.

Abbreviations do not need a full point if the final letter is the same as the final letter of the full word, hence: St, Dr, Mr, Mrs, Revd (not Rev or Rev’d), Ltd, fols, pls, chs, and so on.

In addition, we avoid full points in the interests of minimal punctuation, unless the meaning would be ambiguous, hence we do not punctuate fol, fig, pl, ch, esp, cf, ie, eg, 2nd ser, rev edn, 2nd edn, but we do punctuate no. (numero / number) and n. (note).

Measurements are abbreviated and follow the number without a space and without full points: 26mm, 5km.

Counties and centuries may only be abbreviated in footnotes, not in the main text.

In the text, ‘per cent’ should be in full. The abbreviation ‘%’ may be used in tables.

Follow The Oxford Style Manual (see below) for abbrev of US states: use full abbreviations, not postal codes (eg, ‘Calif’, not ‘CA’).

Give days of the week/months of the year in full in text; abbreviate in footnotes:

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat

Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July

Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Give county names in full in text; abbreviate county names in footnotes.

Place names

Place names should follow the usage of the latest edition (twelfth) of The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World, available online at


Use the minimum form: ie, the shortest way you would speak the numbers (13–14, 23–4, 115–16, 200–1) but spans of catalogue, inventory and figure numbers should be given in full: ‘figs 23–29’, ‘fols 216–250’.

Spell out the numbers below 100 in text unless statistical or scientific (eg, 50 per cent) or in compound adjectives (eg, 62-year-old man); use numbers in footnotes.

Spelled-out numbers are hyphenated (eg, sixty-two).

Always spell out a number if it forms the first word in a sentence (or rearrange the sentence).

Use commas in numbers with four or more digits (eg, 6,987). Include a zero before decimal numbers of less than one (eg, 0.5, not .5).


Century numbers should be spelled out in the text: eg, fourteenth century (hyphenated if used adjectivally); numbers should be used in the footnotes (14th century).

BC follows and AD precedes a date (except where descriptive: eg, ‘in the first century AD’).

Use BCE (Before Common Era) and ACE (After Common era) only to denote non-Christian contexts.

Use AH for after Muslim era (ie, after the hegira, Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina, which took place on 16 July AD 622).

Dates should take the form ‘22 July 1963’.

Spell out the months of the year in full (but abbreviate in footnotes).

Note the use of italic and space (and lack of punctuation) in ‘c 1346’. Avoid use of ‘c AD 324’ (ie, use of circa before AD/BC in small caps) by rephrasing sentence.


Sums of money should be written as follows:

£4,000 (for amounts in whole pounds).

75p, not £0.75 (for amounts expressed in decimal pence).

£6.65, not £6.65p (for mixed amounts of pounds and pence).

Always include two figures after the decimal point: £36.87 and £16.09.

Amounts expressed in pre-decimal currency should appear as £3 6s 9d. In quotations only, this may be given as ‘66/9d’. In quotations, retain the style in which amounts appear.


Metric measurements should be used unless the context requires otherwise. There is normally no need to insert imperial equivalents, but this is a matter of judgement, depending on the context and the nature of the material whose dimensions are being described. In quotations when only imperial measurements are given, insert metric equivalents in square brackets.

15m by 10mm; range in length from 0.2m to 0.5m

0.5m (not 0.50m), 25km (not 25 km)

‘ha’, not ‘hectare(s)’: 25ha

45 degrees (no symbol)

15 per cent

£35 (not £35.00)

Units of measurement have neither a full stop nor a final ‘s’.

Always use figures with measurements, without a space: eg, 25mm.

Use mm, not cm: eg, 55mm, not 5.5cm.


All references should be given as footnotes in the Harvard style, punctuated and spaced thus:

Smith 1984 (if the whole book or paper is being cited, rather than a specific point)

Smith 1984a (if more than one work by this author published in 1984 is cited)

Smith 1984, 67 (if a specific page in the work is being cited)

Smith 1984, fig 4 on p 67 (this means figure 4 on page 67)

Smith 1984, 67 and pl 4 (this means page 67 and plate 4)

Jones 1991, 26–7 (note that the page range is indicated by an en rule, not a hyphen)

Hoey 2001, 196, 197, 203 n. 30 (this means pages 196, 197 and note 30 on page 203; use ‘nn’ when more than one note is being referenced; note that in this case, 196 and 197 are two separate references, not one reference that continues over two pages; and that we do not use ‘and’ between the penultimate and last item in a reference list: 96, 98, 101, not 96, 98 and 101).

If more than one work by an author is cited sequentially in a footnote, cite the works in chronological order, using the following form: Folkes 1736, 1745 and 1763.

Bibliographical references in footnotes should be separated by semi-colons.

If there is more than one work published by an author in the same year, add a, b, etc: (Smith 1990a; 1990b).

Give page references as:

p 3

pp 3–4 (a reference that continues on to a second page)

pp 3, 4 (separate references on two pages)

Avoid using ‘f’/’ff’ to denote the following page: the full page span that is being referred to should be given (as styled above).

Only the specific page number(s) of a reference being cited should be given in a footnote; in the case of articles or chapters in periodicals or edited works, the complete page span should always appear in the bibliography (see below).

Use the following forms for references to publications where no author is identified:

Britannia, 1992, 23, 286

VCH Northants 1902, I, 189, fig 16

Gent’s Mag, 1778, 58/2, 1149–51

Do not use passim and loc cit.

Use the abbreviations fol/fols for manuscript pages/folios, and always cite the shelf mark where available. Recto pages are indicated by a number; verso pages require a ‘v’: fol 28; fol 28v.

A multiple-author work can be referenced in footnotes using the name of the lead author followed by ‘et al’ (eg, Churchill et al 2001). Use the same formula in the bibliography if there are more than three authors; in the case of three or fewer, the names of all the authors should be given.

Internal cross-references (eg, ‘see p 00’) must be avoided (the Journal will not be finally paginated until it is ready for printing, when the pagination used in FirstView articles will be superseded). Instead, refer the reader to the section heading or use the phrases ‘above’ and ‘below’ wherever possible.

Books or papers that are not yet published (ie, are ‘forthcoming’) should not be included in the bibliography – work of this nature should be cited as ‘pers comm’, with the name

of the person making the communication and the date: John Smith, pers comm, 28 June 2013.

Abbreviations and bibliography

Frequently used abbreviations (eg, EH, RCHME, TNA, VCH) should appear together with their expansions, at the beginning of the bibliography.

Next, the bibliography should list all the primary sources or manuscripts cited in the text.

Finally, the bibliography should list the secondary sources cited in the text. This is not intended to be a general reading list, and should only include those sources cited in the text or footnotes.

All references should appear in alphabetical order by surname and by date.

Authors’ names are styled: surname, initials and date: Brown, G B 1915; Brown, C B, Charles, E D and Kemmis, G 2013.

Book titles are styled in italic; the words in the first part of a book title have initial capitals; secondary titles, after the colon, are lower case except for proper nouns: The Road to Rome: pilgrimage in the Middle Ages.

Article titles should be in single quotes with an initial capital, then lower case except for proper nouns: ‘Counting the crows in Stoneacre Field’.

If you cite more than one paper from the same edited volume, the book itself should appear as a separate entry in the bibliography and cross-references made to it (see examples below).

Journal titles are styled in italic and should be abbreviated according to the principles laid down in British Standard 4148 (1985): for example, Proc Hampshire Fld Club Archaeol Soc. The forms of bibliographical abbreviations to be used are based on the CBA’s standard list published in Signposts for Archaeological Publication (see below).

Part numbers of journals are not necessary if the pagination is continuous. Otherwise, give as ‘pt 1’.

Check consistent use of roman/arabic numbers in volume numbers:

  • journals, however old, should have their volume numbers translated into arabic (eg: Archaeologia, 6, 1782)
  • books that use a roman numbering sequence for their volumes should retain that roman numbering (on the grounds that this is what you will find in the BL and other library catalogues)
  • hybrid monograph series (such as the British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions) provide an exception to this rule and retain their roman numbering sequence (because that is what the Association itself does)

Small caps should always be used for roman volume numbers if non-lining numerals are used by the typesetter.

For all non-periodical titles published, include both the name of the publisher and the place of publication: Brill, Leiden. In the case of American publishers, except in the case of well-known cities (New York, Boston, Chicago, etc), it is usual to give the abbreviated name of the state as well as the place of publication: Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Additional information such as ‘internal report published by the National Trust’ is allowed if it helps the reader to source the publication (particularly in the case of ‘grey’ literature, internal reports, etc).

Examples of bibliographical references

When citing any work, it is important to give the specific edition that you used and that you have cited in the text: this is especially true when citing modern editions of classic texts: do not simply say ‘Bede: Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum’: instead, cite the specific edition that you consulted, giving the editor’s name, as this will help the reader locate the work in a library:

Shirley-Price, L 1990. Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Penguin, Harmondsworth

Single-volume books

Brown, G B 1915. The Arts in England, Macmillan, London

Worsaae, J J A 1849. The Primeval Antiquities of Denmark (trans and enlarged by W J Thoms), J H Parker, London

Multi-volume books

Down, A 1981. Chichester Excavations, V, Phillimore, Chichester

Hoare, R C 1819. The Ancient History of Wiltshire, 2 vols, Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor and Jones, London

Tweddle, D, Biddle, M and Kjølbye-Biddle, B 1995. Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Stone Sculpture. Vol IV: South-east England, Oxford University Press, Oxford

Citing a specific edition

Adams, J 1994. The History of Needlepoint, 2nd edn, Oxbow, Oxford

Articles in a journal or newspaper

Fletcher, J and Crook, J 1984. ‘The date of the Pilgrims’ Hall, Winchester’, Proc Hampshire Fld Club Archaeol Soc, 40 (2), 130–3 (note the volume number is in bold; the part number, if there is one, is in brackets and is not emboldened; if the publisher’s numbering system is by parts, rather than by volumes, the style is as follows: Part 2: 3)

The Times, 21 Apr 1846, ‘Society of Antiquaries’, 8

Dumville, D N 1977. ‘Sub-Roman Britain: history and legend’, History, new ser, 62, 173–92

Franks, A W 1867. ‘Additions made to the collections of British Antiquities in the British Museum during the year 1866’, Proc Soc Antiq, 2nd ser, 2, 435–45

Morgan, P 1971. ‘Elis Grufudd of Gronant: Tudor chronicler extraordinary’, Flintshire Hist Soc J, 25 (1971–2), 9–20 [where publication is for more than one year]

Article in an edited work

Pearce, S 2002. ‘Bodies in exile: Egyptian mummies in the early nineteenth century and their cultural implications’, in S Oudit (ed), Displaced Persons: conditions of exile in European culture, 54–71, Ashgate, Aldershot

Stead, I M 1971. ‘Yorkshire before the Romans: some recent discoveries’, in R M Butler (ed), Soldier and Civilian in Roman Yorkshire, 21–43, Leicester University Press, Leicester

If the same edited work is cited more than once, the parent work should be abbreviated as follows:

Stead, I M 1971. ‘Yorkshire before the Romans: some recent discoveries’, in Butler 1971, 21–43

Butler 1971 should then be given its own full bibliographical entry as

Butler, R M (ed) 1971. Soldier and Civilian in Roman Yorkshire, Leicester University Press, Leicester

Unpublished theses, dissertations and reports

Mortimer, C 1990. ‘Some aspects of early medieval copper alloy technology, as illustrated by a study of the Anglican cruciform brooch’, unpublished DPhil thesis, University of Oxford

Cleal, R M J, Allen, M J and Newman, C 1994. ‘An archaeological and environmental study of the Neolithic and later prehistoric landscape of the Avon valley between Durrington Walls and Earl’s Farm Down’, unpublished report, Wessex Archaeology, Salisbury

Inventorial works

Works published by such bodies as the Victoria County History, the Survey of London or the Buildings of England often have named authors or editors, and it is always preferable to cite the work by using their names to enable library catalogues to be searched. For example:

Ditchfield, P H and Page, W 1924. The Victoria History of the County of Berkshire, IV, St Catherine Press, London

Where a work is genuinely anonymous or has too many authors to be cited, the name of the inventorial body is used, as in:

RCHME 1939. City of Oxford, Roy Comm Hist Monuments Engl Inventories, HMSO, London

In the case of RCHME inventories, the volume number should be treated as part of the title and thus appear in italic (eg: An Inventory of the County of Dorset. Vol I: West).

British Archaeological Conference Transactions

Stalley, R A 1971. ‘Three Irish buildings with West Country origins’, in N Coldstream and P Draper (eds), Medieval Art and Architecture at Wells and Glastonbury, Brit Archaeol Ass Conference Trans IV, 62–80, Leeds

Monograph series

Unlike journals, there is no comma before the volume number, which is not in bold, and the place of publication and name of publisher should be given.

Barrett, J C, Freeman, P W M and Woodward, A 2000. Cadbury Castle, Somerset: the later prehistoric and early historic archaeology, Engl Heritage Archaeol Rep 20, London: English Heritage

Bates, E H 1900. The Particular Description of the County of Somerset. Drawn up by Thomas Gerard of Trent, Somerset Rec Soc 15, London

Davey, J E 2005. The Roman to Medieval Transition in the Region of South Cadbury Castle, Somerset, BAR Brit Ser 399, Oxford

Modern editions of older works

Use the name of the editor of the edition being cited, not the name of the original author, whose name should appear in the title.

Fowles, J 19802. Monumenta Britannica: or, A Miscellany of British Antiquities by John Aubrey, 2 vols, Dorset Pub Co, Sherborne

Robinson, F N 1966. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford

References to primary sources

The name and location of the holding institution should come first, followed by that institution’s inventory or shelf number for the manuscript being cited, followed by the folio number(s), dates and so on. Institutional names can be abbreviated so long as the full expanded version is given in the abbreviations section of the Bibliography, hence: BL in a footnote would be expanded to ‘British Library, London’ in the abbreviations section. It is best to keep the institutions’ own style for inventory or shelf numbers as this is what their online catalogue systems will recognise during searches. In the case of The National Archives, manuscripts that were formerly in the Public Record Office retain PRO as part of their name, so TNA, PRO E 315/61 is correct, and PRO should not be deleted as having been superseded by TNA. Equally references to HMC (Historical Manuscripts Commission) should be styled: TNA, HMC.

Some examples:

British Library, London, Harleian 1411

British Library, London, Stowe 676

Bodleian Library, Oxford, Rawl B. 323, fol 3

College of Arms, London, Hare’s Ordinary R 33/81

College of Arms, London, 2C15/13b, Visitation of Suffolk

Suffolk Record Office, Ipswich, FL 506/11/8

In abbreviated form, these would be

BL, Harley MS 1411 (distinguish between MSS, charters, etc)

BL, Stowe 676

Bodleian, Rawl B. 323, fol 3

CoA, Hare’s Ordinary R 33/81

CoA, 2C15/13b, Visitation of Suffolk

SRO, FL 506/11/8

References to SAL minute books, etc

SAL, Minutes, XIV, 325 (15 Feb 1776)

SAL, Council Minutes, I, page no. if applicable or np if unpaginated (3 Mar 1771)

SAL, Council Minutes, III (np) (20 Feb 1786)

Vetusta Monumenta, II, 1789, pl XLII

Antiquaries Correspondence (MS collection in SAL library), 20 Nov 1829

SAL, MS 447/1

SAL, Antiquaries Papers: report of John Gage, 19 Apr 1831

SAL, Archives, Accounts Ledger 1782–1814


Hope, W H St John 1904 (not Hope, W H, St John); Hope 1904 in footnotes (not St John Hope 1904)

In the case of names that include van, van der, von, ap, de, etc, denoting ‘of’, the entry should begin with the substantive part of the surname: Gogh, V van, not Van Gogh, V; Noort, R van der, not Van der Noort, R.

We do not normally include titles and honorifics in bibliographical entries, except where this has become established convention (eg Lord Byron, Sir Thomas Mallory).

Citation of electronic publications and website addresses

To cite files available on the internet, give the author’s last name and initials (if known) and the date of publication; the full title of the work, in quotation marks, capitalising only the first word and any proper nouns; the title of the complete work or site (if applicable), in italics, again capitalising only the first word and any proper nouns; any version or file numbers; the protocol (eg, ‘http’) and address (ie, the URL) set within chevrons; and the date (enclosed in parentheses) when you accessed the cited work for the purposes of writing your paper.

Burka, L P 1993. ‘A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions’, MUD History, < lpb/muddex/essay> (2 Aug 1996)

Speight, S 2004. ‘British castle studies in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries’, History Compass, 2 (1), (16 June 2007)

Citing the Dictionary of National Biography:

Thomas, D L 2004– . ‘Traherne, John Montgomery (1788–1860)’, in H C G Matthews and B Harrison (eds), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: online edition, (15 Apr 2008)

Captions and cross-references

Use the following:

‘Fig 1.’ in captions (ie, upper-case ‘F’, followed by the number and a full point), when at the beginning of a caption; use lower-case ‘f’ within the text of a caption

‘Figure 1 shows … (ie, spelled out in full, with upper-case ‘F’) in running text when it occurs at the beginning of a sentence; ‘figure 1’ within a sentence

‘fig/figs’ (ie, abbreviated, with lower-case ‘f’) in non-narrative text (ie, when used in parentheses, tables, footnotes, etc) to refer to illustrations in the current article

For references to illustrations in other publications, use ‘fig’ (ie, abbreviated and lower case ‘f’) or ‘pl’, whether in running text or parentheses.

Evans 1956, pl III, facing p 124

Style for captions (note no full point at the end of captions):

Fig 1. Plate of Pittmead mosaics and finds, Vetusta Monumenta, II, pl XLIII. Photograph: Society of Antiquaries of London

Table 1. A numerical analysis of church dedications and their possible origins

Where illustrations have ‘a’, ‘b’, etc, use the following style (ie, no colon after letters; initial cap after ‘(a)’ but not subsequently; each letter section to be divided by a semi-colon; when there is a key to a diagram, use same style).

Fig 3. (a) Plan and unfinished perspective view of a conduit house. Drawing: after Summers 1966, pl 74, drawing T 159; (b) reconstructed plan of the ‘cruciform trench’. Drawing: after Alcock 1995, 158, illus 13.1


Put a dash (ideally an en rule) or zero in blank cells.


The type area of the Journal is 199mm by 134mm; when printed, illustrations must fall within these limits, including an allowance for captions.

Please ensure that your illustrations are saved at final publication size and are in our recommended file formats. Following these guidelines will result in high-quality images being reproduced in both the print and the online versions of the journal.

Line artwork

Format: tiff, jpg or eps

Colour mode: black and white (also known as 1-bit)

Resolution: 1200 dpi

Combination artwork (line/tone)

Format: tiff, jpg or eps

Colour mode: grayscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 800 dpi

Black and white halftone artwork

Format: tiff, jpg or eps

Colour mode: grayscale (also known as 8-bit)

Resolution: 300 dpi

Colour halftone artwork

Format: tiff, jpg or eps

Colour mode: CMYK colour

Resolution: 300 dpi

Please ensure that eps files include all associated fonts and embedded or linked images.

Please name your files in sequence: for example ‘Lewis fig 01’, ‘Lewis fig 02’, etc.

In the text, figures should be cited in the order in which they appear in the article, and they will be placed as close as possible to the first reference to them in the text. If you must refer to a figure out of sequence, use the formula ‘see fig 20’ rather than ‘fig 20’.

Scales and N points should be included as appropriate. Metric scales are required for line drawings and maps, etc.

A separate list of figure legends must be provided at the end of the manuscript. Legends should start ‘Fig 1’.

Supplementary material

Common types of supplementary material include audio and video files and large datasets or tables. Datasets, tables and other textual materials are commonly submitted as PDF, Excel or Word files.

The author should ensure that each supplementary file is cited in the text, and that a footnote appears with the citation to say that the material is only available in the online version. Supplementary material should be included at the end of the Bibliography under the heading ‘Supplementary material’ and will be assigned a URL by Cambridge Journals at the copyediting stage.

Supplementary material files themselves will not be circulated with the page proofs, nor will the Society or Cambridge University Press carry out any editing work on them. The material will appear online exactly as it is submitted by the author (it will not be typeset) so it is entirely down to the author to check that the supplementary material is correct, complete and in house style, does not contain spelling or syntactical errors and that all references, cross-references and so on are included in full and have been checked for their accuracy. If the supplementary material has notes, it must have its own separate and discrete bibliography, even if this means repeating entries from the bibliography attached to the main paper.


All supplementary material is subject to the same copyright requirements as primary material; this is clearly specified in the copyright form that will be sent to the author with first proofs.

File naming

Files should be named in such a way that it is clear to which article they belong and what they contain, e.g.


Audio files

Preferred formats: mp3 or mp4

Accepted formats: aac, aiff or wav

Maximum file size 15Mb

Video files

Video files should be submitted according to the following specifications.

Preferred formats: mpg/mpeg, mp4 or mov

Acceptable formats: wmv or avi

Maximum file size: 15Mb

Minimum dimensions: 320 pixels wide by 240 pixels deep

Verify that the videos are viewable in QuickTime or Windows Media Player

For each video, provide a citation in the appropriate place in the manuscript text and include a title and pertinent copy, preferably limited to 20 words.

This citation will appear in print as a boxed text and also specify the video file format. In the case of multiple video files, number them in the order in which they should be viewed.

If associated with a figure, please include a citation at the end of the figure caption explaining the video’s function, its file format, and that it is accessible at Cambridge Core’s site:

The video will be posted at the site of the appropriate journal title, volume, issue number, and article. At the article’s title, the video can be accessed via a link that states ‘Supplemental materials’, or a more specific label such as ‘Movies’.

Please be advised that neither Cambridge University Press nor the Society will edit your video file. It will be posted online exactly as supplied. If deemed unacceptable, the author will be responsible for rectifying the problem and supplying an acceptable file.

Other acceptable file formats

Accepted formats: pdf, doc/docx, xls/xlsx, ppt/pptx, jpeg, tiff, png, and zip

Permissions and copyright

Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to use all illustrations and prose or poetry extracts, and for paying any reproduction or copyright fees. Permission should be sought to reproduce illustrations and text in electronic form as well as in conventional print.

Copyright in the UK extends over the life of the author and seventy years from the end of the year in which the author dies. Different rules apply in other countries.

Copyright is to be cleared for any prose extract longer than 400 words; a series totalling more than 800 words; a series of which any one is more than 300 words; an extract or series of extracts compromising quarter of the work or more.

For poetry, copyright is to be cleared for an extract of a quarter of a complete poem or a series of extracts comprising a quarter or more of a complete poem.

If you are asked for the Journal’s print run, it is approx 3,000 copies, and it is a peer-reviewed academic journal.

Useful sources

Advice and guidance on all matters of spelling, punctuation and so on, can be found in the following publications:

Ritter, R M 2012. The Oxford Style Manual, 2nd edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press (this incorporates The New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors and the New Hart’s Rules)

Signposts for Archaeological Publication, 3rd edn, 1991, London: Council for British Archaeology (CBA). This includes the CBA ‘list of standard abbreviations’ as Appendix A. It is available online at:

MHRA Style Guide, 3rd edn, 2013, London: Modern Humanities Research Association. Available online at:

January 2014

Appendix: spelling list

30 degrees

5-metre intervals

a quarter-century ago

Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres




angle bracket

angle buttress

animal head

animal-head terminal

Anniversary Meeting



antiquity of man

antler work

archaic period


area excavation



art historian




Barons’ War





beast head

belt hook

better-preserved (adj)


Biblical history

bone work









c 1820 (no full point)





Cathedral – Gloucester Cathedral, Worcester and Gloucester cathedrals

central Europe

centre line




chip carving

chip-carved decoration


chisel mark

civitas capital








colour-coated (adj)


Continent, Continental (referring to mainland Europe)



copper plate

copy book


craft guild

cross reference


cross section



cup marks


d 1154 (ie, died 1154) (not italic) but c 1154

dark grey


date range

de rigueur



deer park

dining room



drawing room

drop handle


Earl Roger

earl/earldom of …

Early Christian

Early Iron Age

Early/Middle/Late Iron Age, Bronze Age, Neolithic, Mesolithic, Palaeolithic

Early Neolithic

early modern

early modern England (no hyphens, no caps), late medieval Britain






eight-lozenge stars



et al (no full point)




feast day





fine-tooth comb OR fine-toothed comb





First World War


fish pond




fol, fols (no full points)








French départements in brackets (if follow a place name)





glass-maker, glass-blower

God’s intention for His people

gold work


grave cut

grave diggers


grave fill, BUT grave-fill assemblages

grave furnishing

grave goods

grave lining

grave mound

grave packing

grave pit

grave plan

grave shaft





greenish-grey tesserae (but: the tesserae were greenish grey)

guidelines (= advice/general rules)

guide lines (= lines on eg jewellery)








hard-stone (adj)








heath land

Herculean (not Heraclean)


hill fort


His redeeming blood (ie, Christ’s)


Honorary Fellows

hood mould

hood stop



hunting lodge

hut groups


ie (no full points, no following comma)

Imperial (cap)

in situ (never hyphenated, even when attributive)

in so far



initials – no full points after – A B Smith







Iron Age

Iron Age, Early/Middle/Late Iron Age


ish: yellowish-white



labour dues




land use

Late Bronze Age

Late Iron Age

Late Minoan IA then LM IA (number and letter closed up)

late ninth century

late ninth-century date






life-size figure




line engraving


long term, long-term plan

loom weight

make-up (noun)

make up (verb)

manor house


March (the southern March)


master carver

master mason

meeting ground/point

meeting place







mid-fourth century (hyphen)

mid-1860s (hyphen)

Middle Ages

Middle Bronze Age

Middle Saxon

mid-fourth-century pottery



millefiori (not ital)


Molino river, River Molino



mould-decorated (adj)








multi-part mould




‘the Muses’ when referring to the Nine Muses but ‘the muses’ when referring to muses in general



Nene Valley

neo-classical (with hyphen)



NGRs: generally should be eight-, not six-, figure references

Noah’s ark

nonconformist chapel

none the less

north(ern) Europe

north-eastern, north-east (attributive – the north-eastern corner)

the north east (eg, the north east of the country)


Official Engraver


Old World

on to


one-man band





Ordinary Meeting



owing to (rather than ‘due to’)





Early Upper Palaeolithic

pale grey

Pennant stone

pers comm (no full points)

pine cone

place names

plant scroll

plaster cast



plumb bob


porticus (sing and pl)




power centre

prayer desk





Presidential/Anniversary Address



radiocarbon dating

radiocarbon-dated to …





re-created (as in made again)

re-creation/re-create (as in make again)




re-form (as in form again)















RIB II.5, 2482

ring ditch

ring fort


River Thames



rock type

roll moulding

roll call

roll-moulded frame

Roman conquest

Roman Empire





safe keeping




samian ware


Scottish Wars


seal stone

Second World War

see above/see also/see










sill beam

site type

size range

sleeper wall

small-handed (adj)


south Gaul

south Wales

south-east Britain

spindle whorl

spot dates


spot dating

St Paul’s Cathedral

St Peter’s Church/the church of St Peter’s

stained-glass (adj)


starting point

still life, still lifes


straight-sided (adj)


strap handle


street grid

string course














subject matter












Tafel (no full point)



terminus post quem

the [British] Empire

the Anarchy

the Antiquaries [ie members of]

the Christian Scriptures

The Church (ie institution)/the Roman Catholic Church

the Continent

the Council [of the Antiquaries]

the Earl of Essex

the Fellowship

the future Archbishop of Canterbury

the last half-century

the late Elizabethan period

the presidency

the President/Vice-President/Treasurer/Secretary/Director [of the Antiquaries]

the Renaissance

the Revd

the Society [of Antiquaries]

the Society’s tercentenary

the South West (ie, specific region)

the twelfth Duke of Norfolk

the Virgin

Thomas, Duke of Norfolk

three-age system




through the mass (ie religious rite; not the Mass)

tie beam

time span







title page

tomb shaft


tool mark



town hall

town house

tree ring

tree-ring dating


tribal names








Upper Palaeolithic

Valley (Thames Valley)

VCH Northants (ie, county name in roman)

vice versa

Viking-Age (adj)


wall passage

wall plaster


wall painting

water cult

water table




Welsh Wars


West Country

west(ern) Europe

western Empire




William, Bishop of Exeter

wire netting







world view




(Revised 04/10/2016)