Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-jlrq2 Total loading time: 0.176 Render date: 2022-11-27T12:34:07.706Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Sociodemographic Factors, Cycle Threshold Values, and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2021

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Background: The gold standard for diagnosis of COVID-19 has been SARS-CoV-2 detection by reverse-transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), which provides a semiquantitative indicator of viral load (cycle threshold, Ct). Our research group previously described how African American race and poverty were associated with an increased likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19. We sought to characterize the relationship between Ct values and clinical outcomes while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of SARS-CoV-2–positive patients admitted to Froedtert Health between March 16 and June 1, 2020. Ct values were obtained by direct interrogation of either cobas SARS-CoV-2 or Cepheid Xpert Xpress platforms. Patient demographics, comorbidities, symptoms at admission, health insurance, and hospital course were collected using electronic medical records. A proxy for socioeconomic disadvantage, area-deprivation index (ADI), was assigned using ZIP codes. Multivariate models were performed to assess associations between Ct values and clinical outcomes while controlling for ADI, race, and type of insurance. Results: Overall, 302 patients were included. The mean age was 60.89 years (SD, 18.2); 161 (53%) were men, 177 (58%) were African Americans; and 156 (51%) had Medicaid or were uninsured. Of the 302 inpatients, 158 (52%) required admission to the ICU, 199 (65.9%) were discharged to home, 49 (16.2%) were discharged to a nursing home, and 54 (17.9%) died. Lower Ct values (higher viral load) were associated with Medicaid or lack of insurance (coefficient, −2.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], −4.96 to −0.79, P = .007) and age >60 years old (coefficient, −2.98, 95% CI −4.87 to −1.08, P = .002). Contrary to what was expected, higher CT values (lower viral load) were associated with higher ADI scores (coefficient, 2.62, 95% CI, 0.52–4.85; P = .017). However, when patients were stratified into low, medium, and high ADI, those with Medicaid or no insurance had the lowest mean Ct values (23.3, 25.9, and 27.6, respectively) compared to Medicare or other insurance (Figure 1). Body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07; P = .001) and male sex (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.28–3.60; P = .004) were independently associated with ICU admission. Every increase of a CT point (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85–0.95; p <0.001) and age >60 years old (OR 2.62, 95% CI; 1.14-6.04; p=0.023) was associated with death. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study of adults tested for COVID-19 in a large midwestern academic health system, lower Ct values were independently associated with poverty and age >60 years old.

Funding: No

Disclosures: None

Figure 1.

Type
COVID-19
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
You have Access Open access

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Sociodemographic Factors, Cycle Threshold Values, and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Sociodemographic Factors, Cycle Threshold Values, and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Sociodemographic Factors, Cycle Threshold Values, and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *