This study was part of the work of the Cambridge-Bradford expedition to Boeotia. It gathers information on wild vegetation as part of the environment of, and resources available to, human activities. It is concerned with vegetation, with the structure, maintenance, and history of plant communities, rather than with flora, with individual plant species as such. The survey extends beyond the area of the archaeological survey (Mavromati), a highly cultivated area; in order to search for plant communities of a more nearly natural kind, this botanical study includes a much wider area covering almost the whole of the modern Boeotia (and beyond) from Mt. Parnassos to Chalkis. The land, geology, and soils are described as the essential context for the vegetation. Factors affecting modern vegetation are analysed, and the historical and archaeological evidence is discussed. It is concluded that, contrary to the general assumption, prehistoric Boeotia was a semi-arid land, both in classical and late Turkish times. The main features were very much as they are now, but this was not necessarily constant.