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Prehistoric Euboea: Contributions Toward a Survey*

  • L. H. Sackett, V. Hankey, R. J. Howell, T. W. Jacobsen and M. R. Popham...


The gaps in our knowledge of Bronze Age Euboea are so serious as to amount in some areas to a total blank. This is equally true of the periods immediately preceding and following the Bronze Age and has been commented on by a number of writers concerned with regional surveys. There remains a marked disparity between the state of our information and both the importance suggested by literary tradition and the archaeological potential of so well-placed and fertile an island.



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2 Theochares, 279, 307; Desborough, 122; Ålin, 128; Desborough, PGP 199.

3 The Homeric catalogue (Iliad ii. 536–45) lists seven cities in Euboea (Chalkis, Eretria, Histiaia, Kerinthos, Dion, Karystos, Styra) which contributed forty ships under the leadership of the Abantian Elephenor; among other traditional names are Amarynthos, Oichalia (cf. Geyer 77–78; RE, s.v. Oichalia; Wallace 140), and Geraistos (Homer, , Od. iii. 177). Later, in the Iron Age, we find the island flourishing to the extent that the Lelantine war involved Greece in a struggle of international proportions (Thuc. i. 15; Hdt. v. 99; Burn, A. R., JHS xlix (1929) 14; Forrest, W. G., Historia vi (1957) 160, with refs.). For a general discussion of literary references see Geyer, passim.

4 For a defence of the importance of the Euripos as a waterway cf. Allen, T. W., The Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Oxford, 1921) 4650, 179–80. For its use as a means of access to Boeotia cf. Burrows, R. M. and Ure, P. N., BSA xiv (19071908) 326–7; Gomme, A. W., BSA xviii (19111912) 189210; Oldfather, W. A., AJA xx (1916) 4041, 346–9.

5 Though the proportion of mountain to plain is about the national average of 4:1 (Jarde, Les céréales dans l'antiquité grecque 65 and n. 1), it has been traditionally noted as a source of grain for Athens (Hdt. v. 31; Thuc. vii. 28, viii. 96; Aristoph. Vesp. 715 with schol.; Plut. Per. 7, 8; Isoc. iv. 107–9), with good pastureland (Thuc. ii. 14; and cf. the name Εὐβοία the ἱπποβόται at Chalkis, and the type of the cow occurring on coins at Histiaia, Eretria, and Karystos), vineyards (Homer, , Iliad ii. 537: πολυστάφυλον Ἱστίαιαν fishing (Ath. Deipn. iv. 132; vii. 284, 330, etc.), and timber (still, with lignite, an important element of Euboean trade, cf. Πολυμερόπουλος, Λ.Π., Ἡ νῆσος Εὐβοία ὐπὸ οὶκονομολολικὶν ἔποψιν, AEM (1936) 230). The question of the island's mineral wealth is discussed below, p. 109.

6 Baumeister, V., Topographische Skizze der Insel Euboia (Lubeck, 1864); Buchon, A., Voyage dans l'Eubée, les îles Ioniennes et les Cyclades en 1841 (Paris, 1911); Bursian, C., ‘Die dryopische Bauweise in Bautrümmern Euboias’, AZ lxxxii (1855) 129; Quaestionum Euboicarum Capita Selecta (Leipzig, 1856); Geographie von Griechenland (Leipzig, 1872); Dondorff, H., ‘Die Ionier auf Euböa’, Jahresbericht über das königl. Joachimsthalsche Gymnasium (Berlin, 1860) 160; Girard, J., Mémoire sur l'île d'Eubée (Paris, 1851) (Greek translation with comment by Φουσαράς, Γ. Ι., AEM xi (1964) 1); Legrand, E., and Doublet, G., ‘Inscriptions d'Eubée’, BCH xv (1891) 405; Pernier, L., and Pace, B., ‘Ricognizioni archeologiche nell'Eubea settentrionale’, Ann. iii (19161920) 273; Rangabé, M., Mémoire sur la partie méridionale de l'île d'Eubée (Paris, 1852); Ulrichs, H. N., Reisen und Forschungen in Griechenland (Bremen, 1863).

7 Geyer, F., Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia (Berlin, 1903) (Greek translation by Ζάμπαλος, A. A., in AEM ix (1962)).

8 Philippson, A., Die griechische Landschaften Band I, Teil II, Das östliche Mittelgriechenland und die Insel Euboea (Berlin, 1951). E. Kirsten added historical notes and references and, at the end of Part III, a useful map (scale 1:500,000) showing all known prehistoric and ancient sites, and some medieval, and including 83 in Euboea. This is a very valuable study of the island's geology and topography, but it should be noted that the dates given for many of the sites can be based on little more than inspired guesswork. No archaeological evidence is published or even described.

9 G. A. Papavasileiou, gymnasiarch at Chalkis, worked on Euboean sites between 1891 and 1912, notably at the Manika and Chalkis cemeteries (see bibliography above); short reports were published by him and by K. Kourouniotes in succeeding numbers of PAE (1897—1904, 1906–12, 1916—17) and AE (1899–1903, 1905–6, 1911). Other field-workers included principally Stavropoulos, D. P. (AE 1895, 125) and Georgiades, A. S. (AE 1913, 214; 1916, 49; 1922, 83; La Topographie d'Érétrie (Athens, 1905) 301; Les ports de la Grèce dans l'antiquité (Athens, 1907)) both working on Eretria and Amarynthos. Other excavation was done by S. Travlos, S. Konstantinou, N. Platon, and S. Threpsiades.

Work by the foreign schools has been restricted to the American excavations at Eretria (AJA 1891, 233; 1895, 326); German research at Artemision (AM viii (1883) 7), and at Dystos, (AM xxiv (1899) 458); the recent excavations of the British at Lefkandi, (Arch. Reports 19641965, 16; ILN 5 June 1965); and of the Swiss-Greek team at Eretria (Arch. Reports 1964–5, 18; BCH lxxxix (1965) 847 Antike Kunst 7, 102–5).

10 See bibliography above.

11 AA 1962, 175, 199, 216, 291. Note, however, that there is no evidence so far of Neolithic at Xeropolis (Lefkandi) ibid. 175; Paliokastro (ibid. 216) is the same site as Palao-chori (ibid. 216) near Amarynthos (Vathia), and is referred to in this survey as Palaiokhoria.

12 Hankey began work on a survey in 1939, with the encouragement of Professor A. J. B. Wace, as part of a wider scheme of surveying prehistoric Greece; she was unable to complete the work in the succeeding years, but travelled extensively, gathering new material in 1962–4. Sackett made numerous journeys with Popham, Howell, and other members of the British School in 1961–5, and wishes to acknowledge help from M. S. F. Hood, J. Board-man, and P. O. A. Sherrard. Jacobsen travelled widely in 1962–3 with other members of the American School and wishes to acknowledge a particular debt to Professors W. A. McDonald, S. S. Weinberg, W. P. Wallace, E. Vanderpool, and R. S. Young for encouragement and help in travel and research in Greece. All the sites have been visited (some often) by one or more of the writers, but we would in addition like to thank the following, who contributed some of the sherd material now published: J. H. Betts, J. Boardman, J. Carpenter, N. Coldstream, D. H. French, D. A. Hardy, J. W. Hayes, M. S. F. Hood, R. Hope Simpson, J. E. Jones, W. A. McDonald, A. H. S. Megaw, A. C. Renfrew, C. M. Robertson, and P. M. Warren.

We are grateful to A. Blackman, C. Fremantle, and C. Skinner for drawings of some of the sherds.

Finally, thanks are especially due to members of the Greek Archaeological Service, who gave their help and encouragement and granted access to the store-rooms of the Chalkis Museum: in particular to S. Threpsiades, N. Platon, B. G. Kallipolitis, N. M. Verdelis, and V. Petrakos.

13 These sherds are at present in the collection of the British School at Athens; others are in the American School, where sites better represented include nos. 24, 31, 35. The site catalogue number of the British School Sherd Collection is appended to the summary list of sites, p. 111. In addition, later material has been collected from over twenty sites, which are not represented here since no evidence for prehistoric occupation was found. It is intended to treat these separately at a later date.

14 It is hoped to continue work in the less well explored regions, and many further sites will undoubtedly be found. We are also conscious of the pressing need for penetration in depth, and the current excavations at Lefkandi should be a valuable contribution to the knowledge of the whole sequence of Euboean prehistory.

15 Simpson, R. Hope, ‘Identifying a Mycenaean Site’, BSA lii (1958) 231; McDonald, W. A. and Simpson, R. Hope, ‘Prehistoric Habitation in Southwestern Peloponnese’, AJA lxv (1961) 221, and ‘Further Exploration in Southwestern Péloponnèse 1962–3’, AJA lxviii (1964) 229.

16 Two of the listed 92 sites (nos. 81 and 83) are not accepted as prehistoric, by reason of a total lack of evidence, and they might more logically have been omitted; they are listed for completeness. Both were originally published as prehistoric sites.

17 Πληθυσμὸς τῆς Ἑλλάδος κατὰ τὴν ἀπογραφὴν τῆς 19ης Μαρτίου 1961 Published by the Ἐθνικὴ Στατιστικὴ Ὑπηρεσία τῆς Ἑλλάδος Athens, 1962.

18 Between 1938 and April 1940 V. Hankey travelled in Euboea with bases at Chalkis, Oreoi, Aidhepsos, Limni, Eretria, Aliveri, Styra, Karystos, and explored the coast from Karystos to Kyme, and from Oreoi to Chalkis in a small boat.

She was unable to return to Euboea until 1962, when she spent a few weeks at Chalkis, Achmetaga, Oreoi, Aidhepsos, and Limni. In 1964 a stay of nearly three months based on Limni made it possible to explore the northern part of the island, including the north-east corner, which had been closed to foreigners in 1938. She also visited Chalkis, Styra, and Karystos. In 1964 she was helped by H. A. A. Hankey, who made some of the drawings in the section on northern Euboea, C. C. A. Hankey, who photographed the Panayia group of pottery, M. P. A. Hankey, P. J. A. Hankey, V. V. A. Hankey, and E. Sappé.

19 Information on the trees of northern Euboea was kindly given by D. F. Davidson of the Development Divi sion of the British Embassy, Beirut.

20 Strabo 446.

21 Iliad ii. 537.

21a Sherd material and buildings noted here in June 1966 appear to be all medieval or later. The islands are formed of a broken lava flow (cf. τῆς, ΠρακτικὰἈκαδηυἰας Ἀθηνῶν 1938, 86), and are a good source of the porous stone commonly used for ancient handmills (cf. Moritz, L. A., Grain Mills and Flour in Antiquity 49 and pl. 3).

22 Pottery. For north Euboea N. sherds have been classified by Hankey in accordance with Weinberg, and E.H. according to Zygouries types. E.H. at Likhas includes polished monochrome like Zygouries Class AI, All (Plate 9b, top left), BII including red sauceboat fragment and coarse ware; a stamped sherd (Plate 9b, second row), with micaceous yellow-brown to grey fabric, suggests connexions with the islands. For a possible parallel from Khalandriani, cf. Zervos, l'art des Cyclades, fig. 101. MH. Monochrome wares (Fig. 22); Grey Minyan (Plate 9b, third row); Yellow Minyan; Red Minyan, one possible sherd; Aigina ware, one body sherd; matt-painted ware, one bichrome sherd; coarse ware, one rim. PG. One sherd with compass-drawn circles (Plate 9b); also G., C. (fifth-century Bg. lamp base, Plate 9b), R., and M. sherds.

23 Iliad. ii 538; Strabo 446. 5.

24 Pottery. The sherds include: N. ‘Red Monochrome Ware’ Class IIA (Fig. 18, nos. 37–38), ‘Neolithic Urfirnis’ Class IIB (Fig. 18, no. 14); E.H. polished monochrome AI, All; painted BI (including sauceboat fragments, Plate 9e, top row), BII, and CII (cup fragment with start of handle, white on black, Plate 9e, top right; Fig. 19, no. 24), pithos base (D 0·45 m.) ? Class BII, with incised potter's mark (cf. Zygories 107, fig. 92), one stamped and one incised pithos fragment (Plate 9d, top). MH. Monochrome wares. Grey Minyan (Plate 9e, left); coarse ware; matt-painted ware (Plate 9e, top); Yellow Minyan, one sherd; Red Minyan, one sherd with yellow matt-painted pattern; Aigina ware, one sherd with matt brown paint. L.H. L.H. I cup stem; L.H. II bowl fragment; L.H. Ill fragments of cups; kylikes and three-handled jars (Plate 9e). PG. (Plate 9e). G. (Plate 9e) conical bowl-base and pithos fragment with stamped cable pattern (Plate 9d, below). C. (Plate 9e). Also H. (Plate 9e). R. and M. sherds.

25 There is much later material in the Aidhepsos area. Slightly to the east of Koumbi a later deposit has been revealed by a cutting made for the road from Aidhepsos Loutra to Aidhepsos. About 3 m. depth of R. tile graves and remains of buildings are visible in places. Near the church at Aidhepsos are remains of Roman baths, a vaulted building below present ground level, blocks of marble with inscriptions (IG xii. 9, 1234, 1235, and four lines of 1240), and an Ionic capital. These and other objects found at Aidhepsos are now in the Aidhepsos school. The prosperity of Aidhepsos in Roman times was due to its hot springs, which today gush out at a high temperature above modern Aidhepsos Loutra. See AE 1904, 31; 1907, 1–10 for Roman finds from Aidhepsos in Chalkis; IG xii. 9, 1232–41, Philippson, I (2) 571 and refs. there. Strabo (445) mentions Aidhepsos without reference to its hot springs and places the hot baths visited by Sulla in the Lelantine plain. Demetrios of Kallatis, a late fourth-century geographer, quoted by Strabo (60), says that the tidal wave of 427 B.C. stopped the flow of the hot springs here and at Thermopylae for three days and submerged the Likhades islands. Ancient remains near the monastery Ayios Yioryios at Ilia are referred to by Bursian (II. 412, 2) and Kirsten (Philippson I (2) 572 n. 1). These are locally associated with the tradition of a temple of Apollo Selinountios, which Strabo (445) places at Orobiai or Rovies, no. 19 below.

26 Finds included a polished monochrome E.H. Zygouries All base. M.H. Grey Minyan (Plate 10b, top left) and coarse ware (Theochares reported also Argive Minyan, Red Minyan, and matt-painted). An L.H. Ill bowl-rim fragment with reserved band inside the lip (Plate 10b, top centre); and G., C, H., R., and M. sherds (Plate 10b, second row, C. Bg.; third row, two Megarian bowl fragments; lower right, H. tear-bottle and three fragments of R. red glaze, one with rouletting).

27 BCH lx (1956) 298.

28 Livy xxviii. 7; xxxi. 45.

29 Oreoi: Objects seen in 1939: Many finds from tombs at Aspro Khoma and unspecified find-spots were collected together at Histiaia school or in private houses. The objects in the school have been listed and arranged (BCH lxxx (1956) 298). In the school were: (1) A Grey Minyan sherd and the rim of a L.H. III deep bowl. (2) The rim of a PG. jug with trefoil lip. (3) A marble block of the herm-type, with the back curved at the top, dowel holes on the sides, an iron clamp and nail on the front, and a vertical inscription in an archaic script. It is not in IG and was said to have come from the temple of Apollo at Oreoi. It is planned to publish this separately at a later date. (4) Part of a marble stele said to come from Oreoi, a duplicate of IG xii. 9. 1189 in Athens, ‘de Artemisio’. (5) A fourth-century stele representing an old man saying goodbye to two standing men, IG xii. 9. 1200. (6) A limestone tombstone with a relief of a man and a boy, and an inscription IG xii, Supp. 686. (7) A mutilated relief of a Venetian lion, similar to lions in Chalkis Museum, from Aidhepsos. (8) The top of an altar, with IG xii. 9. 1233, from Nisiotissa. (9) Hellenistic and Roman pottery from tombs from Vistritsa. (10) Classical loom-weights, a Black-figure lekythos showing two women harvesting olives, and Roman pottery. From Yialtra. (11) A late fifth-century marble stele of a boy and a dog. The boy is holding a strigil and an oil flask. (12) A small torso of Artemis.

Among objects seen in private houses, mostly small finds from late tombs, were: (1) A Mycenaean spearhead, bronze, L. 0·10 m.; D. of socket 0·019 m. (Fig. 2a). This is of the same type as Khalkis 410, from Vromousa tomb V, but without a socket ring. See BSA xlvii (1952) 93, fig. 9. (2) A biconical steatite button (Fig. 2b). (3) A Mycenaean lentoid sealstone, material not recorded (Fig. 2C), engraved on one face with a galloping animal almost identical with Khalkis 509. See BSA xlvii (1952) 88, fig. 8a. There were also silver and bronze ear-rings, silver coins of Thasos, Stymphalos, Histiaia, Chalkidian League (none earlier than about 390 B.C.), a few gold coins of Alexander, and some portrait gems. See AE 1905, 22 for Chalkis Museum 237, a late Roman inscribed stele, IG xii. 9. 1222, built into the wall of the Kentrikon Hotel at Oreoi.

30 Grundy, , Thucydides and the History of his Age 2 (1948) i. 79, 178 on ii 95, says that there is evidence to show that the corn was landed at Oreoi and transported overland ‘down the great valley which runs down the centre of the island' to Chalkis or Eretria and then shipped to Oropos. Oreoi-Histiaia was made an Athenian cleruchy in 447 B.C., and between 447 and 410 B.C. 3,000 or 4,000 cleruchs were sent to Euboea, presumably to protect the corn route. These may be the builders and inhabitants of fortified sites at Oreoi, Elliniko, Ayios Vasileios, Prokopion, Dhafni stefaniou, and Kerinthos. Any route south to Chalkis from Oreoi has to go through several passes, as there is no ‘great valley’, and the most difficult would be the Klisoura, half-way from Prokopion to Chalkis. So far no trace has been found of a Classical site under the remains of a Turkish fort at the top of the pass, 580 m. above sea level. This seems a lengthy and expensive route compared with the apparently easy sea-route from Oreoi to Chalkis along the west coast of the island.

31 Strabo (60) quoting Demetrios of Kallatis says that the tidal wave which affected Aidhepsos destroyed 700 houses and part of the wall facing the sea at Oreoi.

32 His references are to a different site near Kyme (no. 81 below) and suggest some confusion between these sites.

33 These include E.H. Zygouries Class BII, ?M.H. a few monochrome fragments, one L.H. bowl base, C. and R. sherds and tiles.

34 N. coarse sherds with white grits, mica, and traces of burnishing; one possible matt-painted; E.H. Zygouries Class BII; ?L.H. Ill kylix handle; G. Bg. sherds and tiles, pyramidal loom-weight.

35 Strabo 449.

36 Iliad ii. 538. Kerinthos Is also named by Theognis (891) and Strabo (445).

37 Finds include: M.H. Grey Minyan scraps. PG. sherds from jugs with trefoil lip and flat handles; rims from bowls, with compass-drawn concentric circles, hatched triangles and ? panel designs (Plate 10d, top left); one small fragment linear Protocorinthian. G. hatched meanders in dark red-brown paint on cream slip; lid fr. with concentric circles in brown on cream slip (Plate 10d, top right). A. lip cup fragments (Plate 10d, second row, right). C. many Bg. sherds from cups, skyphoi, kantharoi, kraters, lekythoi (Plate 10d, rows 2–3, and bottom right). Fine Attic glazed ware including Rf. fragments, one with part of draped figure and basket, probably Attic import of the third quarter of the fifth century (Plate 10d, third row, left). Also lamp and casserole fragments, tiles, and pyramidal loom-weights. H. tear bottles and broad dish fragments (Plate 10d, bottom).

38 The long rubble wall here referred to by Wiegand, (AM xxiv (1899) 460) may not be ancient. Powell (op. cit. 40) reported that it was built by M. Nikolaieff c. A.D. 1845.

39 Mrs. Francis Noel-Baker kindly informed us of fifth-century lamps like the Bg. examples from the Agora (Athenian Agora iv, Greek Lamps, pl. 37, type 24A), and the acroceraunus.

40 One stone, still remaining at the roadside, has the inscription ΕΠΙΔΟΣΙΣ

41 PG. (?) large fragment of flanged bowl (D. c 0·38), plain inside, dark brown paint outside on grey-brown slip, linear decoration with two wavy bands below flange. G. pithos fragment with part of a raised band of parallel incised wavy lines. Fragments decorated with parallel bands and hatched meander (?). C. includes Bg. cup fragment with everted lip, and plain ware (Plate II d).

42 The offset rim of an E.H. (?) bowl, hand-made in grey micaceous clay, and the rim of a PG. (?) cup with line inside rim.

43 Strabo 445.

44 Sherds include: E.H. Zygouries Class BII; M.H. Grey and Yellow Minyan, including high strap-handles; matt-painted fragments; indeterminate L.H. and G.; also M. (green glaze).

45 Pottery: M.H. Grey Minyan handle fragment (Plate 11b, top left); ?L.H. scraps; PG. fr. with compass-drawn circles; G. rim fragment of bowl with linear pattern, dark brown on light brown slip, monochrome inside (Plate II b, top right), small fragment with cross-hatched design; A. rim fragments of kraters with Bf. ivy-leaf pattern on rim (one illustrated Plate II b, bottom left); C. good Bg. fragments of skyphoi, boisais, cups, pyxis (base fragment with trace of Rf.), jugs, lekanis, krater, amphorae, etc.; three pyramidal loom-weights, one flattened and of white fabric with two string-holes and compass-drawn incised circle; R. combed ware.

46 Thuc. iii. 89.

47 Pottery: N. coarse brown gritty fragments burnished inside and out, two raised bases of bowls, one lug-handle with firing hole. E.H. Zygouries All monochrome grey with cream shiny slip, raised conical bases, offset bowl rims (including ? askos); some fragments completely coated (Zygouries BII?) shallow bowl bases, one a disk base; clay conical whorl (H. 0·29, D. 0·035). M.H. Grey and Yellow Minyan (one sherd), monochrome wares, and coarse ware. L.H. spout of hole-mouthed jar, with loops below closed spout. ?L.H. I, cf. FS 100; L.H. III cups with ring handle (FS 213), kylikes with hollow stem, broken wavy-line pattern (FM 53, 7). Also G., C, R.-M. sherds.

48 Pottery: N. monochrome IIA (black burnished), Urfirnis IIB jug fragments (Fig. 18, nos. 6, 8, 9, 15), bowl fragments with incurving rim, fragments of thick shallow bowls and straight-sided jars with raised band below neck. E.H. Zygouries Class AI bowl fragments, BH bowl fragments, flat handles and bases; Class E rope pithos fragment (Fig. 19, no. 26; cf. ZySouries 120 fig. 113), jar base with impressed stick or mat marks (Fig. 19, no. 27, cf. Zygouries 117, fig. 109), vertically pierced ledge lug (?) from shallow dish; cf. Heurtley, Prehistoric Macedonia 181, fig. 55c); also flints, obsidian, and R.-M. sherds.

49 Iliad viii. 203; xiii. 21; Odyssey v. 381; Strabo 405.

50 The Museum of the Marine Biochemical Laboratory at Ayios Yioryios, Katounia, contains Roman pottery from wrecks at this point, where, in the winter 1963–4, two fishing boats were sunk during storms. Finds at or near the convent show that it is on a Classical site. A Doric and an Ionic capital in the church are locally said to have come from the temple of Poseidon. In 1939 a monolith column of porous limestone was seen. It measured 1·88 m. in length with fourteen flutes and tapered from 1·14 to 0·82 m. in diameter. At the point where the road from Limni leaves the shore to climb to the convent we found many blackglaze Classical sherds and a few more were found at the convent. Above the beach is a sharp pinnacle of rock about 80 m. high which can be seen from a good distance. On the col behind the rock are traces of a rectangular building and more sherds. In 1895 a hoard of silver coins of Euboic mints was found above the convent. At Ayios Yioryios, 2 km. nearer Limni, part of a floral lekanis (Plate II d) was found on the headland south of the church, where there are traces of steps cut in the rock. The lekanis is very similar to BSA lv (1960) pl. 52, 4 and 55, 3.

51 Limni, in the Mayor's Office. (I) Eight pots from a L.H. IIIA tomb at the Panayia. See p. 108. (2) One Geometric jug, Plate 21e. H. 0·15 m., D. 0·12 m., D. of base 0·09 m. Orange clay, pink slip, no decoration, whole except for a modern break at the neck. Narrow neck with pinched spout, squat truncated globular body, strap handle springing from below the rim to below the shoulder, thumb marks on handle, string marks on base. Find-place unknown.

In the office of the Society for Euboean Studies. (I) One L.H. IIIA kylix from the Panayia group. See p. 108. (2) One fifth-century black-glaze lamp, H. 0·027 m., D. 0·06 m. (3) One small black-glaze bowl. A label says that these two pots were found in 1924 in an ancient corridor of a magnesite mine at Mavrismata.

52 Pottery: N. ‘Variegated ware’ IA, two bases (Fig. 18, no. 32; cf. Weinberg 495, fig. 5a, b). E.H. Zygouries Class All polished monochrome, mostly handles; BII rim and base fragments. M.H. Grey Minyan, Yellow Minyan (one sherd), monochrome, and coarse ware. L.H. cup rim and handle fragments with brown paint and cream slip (L.H. III?), grey fragments decorated with black lines (? sub-Myc). G. fragments with groups of vertical stripes. C. glazed tiles and sherds similar to those from Prokopion Kastri. Also loom-weights, R. and M. sherds.

53 Pottery: N. ‘Variegated ware’ IA, two bases (Fig. 18, nos. 33–34; cf. Theochares 319, fig. 37, 5), ‘Monochrome coarse ware’ Class ID pithos fragment with thumb-marked incised pattern (Fig. 18, no. 2), ‘Red monochrome ware’ II A, burnished pattern inside and out in cross-hatched design (Fig. 18, no. 27), Urfirnis IIB, two sherds with grey clay and buff slip with red lines, one a bowl rim fragment, one ajar neck fragment (cf. Weinberg 504, fig. 18B). Also C. (Bg. and tiles), R., and M.

54 Professor J. D. Evans kindly examined the flints and offered this as his opinion.

55 There are sites at Makrikapa, Katheni, and Theologos. Cultivation continues to be possible high up on the very shoulder of the cone of Dhirfys; fields here, now abandoned, were evidently last used for potato growing during the Second World War.

56 There is evidence for some later occupation: at Vlakhia Kastri (C. sherds and building), Pigadhia (C. ? votive deposit), Limnionas(H., R., M.) (H., R., M.), and Lamari Kastri(A., C.) (A., C.), cf. ADelt xvi (1960) 152, pl. 134a, BCH (1961) 754. We are indebted to Mr. Francis Noel-Baker for generous help in transportation in this region.

57 Pottery: N. A handful of well-burnished sherds (Plate 12a, top left); their lustrous surfaces vary in colour from grey to brown to black, often noticeable on the same sherd. One of these pieces has evidence of light vertical rippling on its exterior, while another (more weathered) example has traces of rectilinear decoration in a rather fugitive white paint on the black ground. Professor J. D. Evans kindly examined these sherds and informs us that there is a striking similarity with Knossos Neolithic, particularly the ripple-burnished sherd which is almost identical with Middle N. pieces at Knossos. The E.H. sherds are of a very coarse character; most are undecorated, gritty, and slightly micaceous. Burnishing and light scoring are rare. Two or three pieces of a finer fabric do have traces of a reddish glaze of Urfirnis type. M.H. (?) One matt-painted sherd (Plate 12a, second row left). L.H. III kylix stems (Plate 12a, right). G. Bg. scraps. R. Red-glaze base with reserved lines (Plate 12a, bottom).

58 Such funeral monuments may account for the name of the cape, and are perhaps associated with the Classical settlement near Politika (no. 27).

59 Philippson (op. cit. 590, n. 1, 701) states that Herodes Atticus had a villa and hot baths here, but this does not seem well supported by the epigraphic evidence adduced (see refs. above).

60 The E.H. sherds are coarse and undecorated. M.H. includes Grey Minyan, Yellow Minyan, monochrome wares, and Aigina ware (Plate 12b, left). L.H. III kylix fragments (Plate 12b, right), one Protocorinthian fragment (Plate 12b, centre). G. Bg. scraps and several Byz. glazed and incised sherds (Plate 12b, bottom row).

61 These may perhaps be connected with the Ionic temple reported by Bursian (Philippson I (2) 600 and n. 1).

62 Pottery: M.H. Some Grey Minyan (Plate 13b, top left), monochrome wares, Aigina ware, and Yellow Minyan. The L.H. III (Plate 13b) is discussed below, p. 104. Some possible G. sherds, C. Bg. fragments.

63 Pottery: N.?, several pieces, including fragments of coarse spongy ware and possibly monochrome red ware. E.H. Urfirnis body sherd, plain and coarse wares. M.H. A great deal of Grey Minyan (Plate 13a, centre row and at left), monochrome wares (Plate 13a), coarse wares, Red Minyan, Yellow Minyan, and matt-painted (one sherd). C. Bg. scraps. M. glazed fragments with incised and painted decoration (Plate 13a, lower right).

64 The land has sunk to the extent that a considerable area of the E.H. settlement on the Manika peninsula lies beneath the sea today. It is worth noting that the north-east coast opposite shows signs in some places of having risen several feet. The high-water marks on the cliffs south of Pilion towards Limnionas are considerably above the present sea level. This suggests a general tilt at least in central Euboea, possibly due to earthquakes.

65 Sherds included a Bf. fragment from a sixth-century lekythos (Fig. 9; Plate 12c), cf. CVA Italy xxxvi, Rome, Capitoline Alus, I, pl. 19 (2) dated 540–530: a close parallel. For the tombs, L.H., cf. ADelt xix (1964) 213.

66 Theochares reported the chance discovery of additional tombs (in the Second World War?). The finds included two fine marble pyxides of Cycladic type, one on a high raised base (Theochares, 304–6 and fig. 28). For the shape, cf. clay examples from Despotiko (Zervos, L'Art des Cyclades 19, fig. 80), and from Syros (ibid. 175, figs. 229–30, 178, fig. 233).

A bone ‘bird pin’ of a type common in the Aegean in the Early Bronze Age (Chalk. Mus. no. 587) was also found in this cemetery (Theochares, 306, and Frontispiece fig., p. 279; but cf. W. Lamb, Excavations at Thermi in Lesbos 166, where it is said to have been found at Eretria.

67 Plate 13d illustrates a selection of our surface sherds: E.H. Fragments of sauceboat, pithos with parallel plastic rope bands, frying pan with incised decoration (E.C.), high-necked jar with winged handle of Trojan type (Plate 13d, right centre). M.H. Grey Minyan and monochrome wares; other M.H. sherds are of matt-painted wares, Aigina ware, coarse ware, Yellow Minyan 4, and Red Minyan. L.H. Two L.H. I-II fragments (Plate 13d, bottom centre). Later G. activity at the site is confirmed by three vases in the Chalkis Museum from ‘near Manika’, and originating from tombs: Inv. 1368–9 (C. pyxides, plain and with lids) and 1370 (small R. oinochoe).

68 Papavasileiou, Tombs, pl. xv, 2. This is a cast. Papavasileiou never saw the original.

69 A small alabaster vase in Athens (NM. Inv. 13645) of Egyptian manufacture and assigned to the XVIIIth Dynasty may be from this cemetery (J. D. S. Pendlebury, Aegyptiaca 99–100).

70 One may be represented by a rectangular rock-cut cist (c. 1·0 × 2·25 m.) which can still be seen near the centre of the headland.

71 Few traces of ancient walling remain on the surface, though the lines where the brownish rock is not yet fully weathered to grey may be seen (at least in evening sunlight) from the opposite hillside on the mainland. They also appear on air photographs (BSA lii (1957) 1), with a series of towers showing as hillocks. Some interesting rock cuttings are still to be seen. See also n. 97 below.

72 A. Ἀνδρειωμένου, ‘Πρωτογεωμετρικὰ Ἀγγεἴα ἐκ Χαλκίδος’ (in Χαριστήριον εἰς A.K Ὀρλάνδον 1965).

73 Pottery: G. includes a bowl rim fragment with a horse in brown paint on a white slip (Plate 14c, top row). A.-C. Fragments, of Bf. fish-plate, bowls or cups with floral design (Plate 14c, centre, and 14d, top), Rf. kraters (Plate 14c, at right), Bg. skyphoi of fifth-century Attic and ‘Corinthian’ type, also later ones with degenerate palmette impressions and rouletting (Plate 14d), and stemmed cups. H. Fragments of tear bottles, broad-rimmed plates with floral decoration in applied white, and Megarian bowls (Plate 14c and d).

74 The sherds are Grey Minyan and one M.H. monochrome, L.H. linear, some Bg. fragments, and glazed Byz. fragments with painted and incised decoration. Three mounds in the valley running towards Ayios Eleousa are kiln sites, probably M. or more recent, though one Bg. sherd was found here.

75 In fact the finds from Papavasileiou's shrine at Pei (no. 36 above), Chalkis Mus. Inv. 378–80, are labelled Dhokos.

76 Neolithic was reported by Schachermeyr, (AA 1962, 175–6) following Theochares (283) following Wallace, (AE 19451947, Chron. 9) who, however, only suggested the possibility of pre-Bronze Age material. None has been found, so far, on the surface or in excavation.

77 Pottery: E.H. I bowl fragment (Fig. 19, 9); E.H. III, one sherd perhaps transitional E.H.—M.H. (Plate 15a, top left). M.H. Grey Minyan (Plate 15a); Yellow Minyan (Plate 15a, top centre); monochrome wares, matt-painted ware (Plate 15a). L.H. Fragments of amphorae or hydriae, cups, bowls, kraters (Plate 15a), and kylikes. PG. cup fragments with pendent and standing semicircles (Plate 15c). G. Fragments decorated with hatching, cross-hatching, and zigzags (Plate 15d); two with running design of blobs or darts.

78 The persistent report that Kourouniotes found Mycenaean sherds in 1916–17 (Theochares 312, n. 44; Ålin 126, derived from AA 1922, 316) seems to be based on a mistaken reading of the original reports (PAE 1916, 30; 1917, 17: AE 1917, 238), where they are noted as absent, cf. Boardman, , BSA lii (1957) 23. No L.H. material is reported from the current Swiss—Greek excavations, cf. M. Paraskevaïdhes, Kathimerini, 21/8/66. See, however, Simpson, R. Hope, Gazetteer of Mycenaean Sites, 167.

79 R. L. Scranton, Greek Walls 38, 85, and s.v. Eretria.

80 The E.H. pieces are coarse and undecorated, but well fired. A fragmentary tubular lug-handle with two holes above it is paralleled by similar handles on a small E.H. cup with incised decoration on its base found in Eretria by Kourouniotes, (PAE 1952, 160–1 and fig. 5; AE 1903, 10 fig. 5, and 12), and by others from Kosmas, Ayios and Kokkinia, Palaia (PAE 1952, 161).

81 The same kind of proportion holds true for material from the cemeteries of Eretria: Kourouniotes AE 1903 ff., Boardman, , BSA xlvii (1952) 47.

82 This formed a natural mole for the ancient harbour (Georgiades, AE 1913, 214–15; Les ports de la Grèce dans pantiquité, 6; Lehmann-Hartleben, , Klio Beiheft 14 (1923) 5152, 99–100).

The island was newly planted with trees but uninhabited in 1962, and accessible on foot only at low tide. It is now permanently connected by a concrete causeway.

83 IG xii. 9. 326, 369, 441, 622, 671, 722, 876.

84 By Howell, Popham, and Sackett; a number of later visits were also made. The site lies on the main road to Aliveri and the south.

85 To prevent further erosion the owner has built a substantial sea wall at the east side; a continuation of this would cover the exposed section completely.

86 Pottery: N. (a) Vertical lug-handle pierced horizontally and topped by a plastic knob (Plate 19d, top left). The shape of the lug itself is not usual in Neolithic pottery but the ‘knob’ has few, if any, parallels on the mainland. The rather coarse fabric has been burnished on the exterior (the colour varies from black to brown), while the interior is of a uniformly deep black hue. (b) Another ‘knobbed’ handle, this time taking the form of double vertical loops, though it is completely unpierced (Plate 19b, top row). The core and the interior are again of a deep black colour and rather coarse, while the exterior has traces of burnishing. The handle itself was coated (presumably after firing) with a crusty slip of orange-pink colour, not unlike that noticed at Katheni. (c) Rather broad loop-handle springing from the rim of a small cup. Coarse, gritty fabric with traces again of the crusty pinkish slip on the exterior just below the handle. Interior polished but not slipped, (d) Large fragment of a jug with straight back and flaring shoulder (Fig. 18, no. 28). The handle has broken away at the point where it joined the neck. The colour of the whole exterior is uniformly black and burnished, while that of the interior is orange and only the neck has been burnished, (e) Several pieces of grey-black burnished ware. E.H. Sherd material is abundant for early and, especially, the middle phases of the period. Examples occur of red-slipped and burnished, mottled, white-slipped, and Urfirnis classes, as well as much coarse and plain ware. Examples of more complete (though restored) shapes of the middle of the period are: (a) Fragmentary askos (Plate 19c). H. (from base to handle) c 0·135. Exterior surface coated with lustrous black glaze. Incised linear sign on interior of base; cf. G. E. Mylonas, Aghios Kosmas, fig. 130 (no. 3a) for a similar askos with an ‘x’ incised just below the handle, (b) Plain-ware saucer with flat base (Plate 19d). H. c 0·035. D. c. 0·14. Light-brown fabric, slightly gritty. Surface smoothed and lightly burnished. (c) Deep cup or bowl with pedestalled base of plain ware (Plate 19e). H. c. 0·075, D. c. 0·11. Orange-to-buff fabric with surface smoothed and lightly burnished. (d) Fragmentary deep cup or bowl with pedestalled base of coarse ware. H. c. 0·07, D. (est.) c. 0·12. Gritty and unevenly fired orange-to-brown fabric with smoothed surface, (e) Large fragment of fine thin-walled sauceboat, with excellent glossy red Urfirnis paint. (f) Numerous examples of coarse and plain undecorated ware (Fig. 19, nos. 29–30). The finds from this site also include a bone awl of E.H. type (Plate 13f). L. C. 0·105, W. (max.) c. 0·02. No patterned ware. M.H. Grey Minyan (Plate 19b); coarse ware; monochrome wares and matt-painted. L.H. Ill fragments of bowls and kylikes (Plate 19b, at right). Later sherds include a few scraps of C Bg. and ?R. combed ware.

87 So in all the early publications. Cf. also Philippson, I (2) 608, referring the Temple of Artemis Amarousia at Amarynthos to Kato Vatheia, and I (2) 610, 673, (erroneously) identifying ancient Amarynthos with Ano Vatheia, several kilometres inland. The only antiquities found here have been reused building materials.

88 Confusion has arisen from the use of two names. Theochares refers to it as Palaiokastro (309, 311, 313) but incorrectly places it between Eretria and Amarynthos; Schachermeyr includes it twice under E.H. and M.H. as Paliokastro and Palaiochori (or Palaiochora). His ‘Vaphia’ is a misprint.

89 The submerged lines of a former harbour mole, perhaps of ancient construction, can be seen on the air photographs of Amarynthos.

90 This may have been at the cliff edge close to the church of Ayia Panayia, where there are signs of past excavation (depression and overgrown spoil heaps).

91 Reported by Boardman, , BSA lii (1957) 24, who, how ever, seems to place the site in the Eretria—Magoula vicinity, by Theochares (309, 311, 313), and by Schachermeyr, (AA 1962, 175–6), and in conversations with Sackett concerning possible future excavation at the site. Papadimitriou expressed the conviction that this was an important Bronze Age settlement, and very probably the site of the temple of Artemis Amarousia.

92 Pottery: N. Several pieces point to occupation in the later phases of the period: (a) Loop handle of small coarse cup with vague traces of crusted orange slip on interior only (Plate 17b; Fig. 18, no. 29). (b) Body sherd with rectilinear decoration (parallel lines) in matt black paint on polished grey-buff ground (Plate 19a). (c) Two or three pieces of burnished or semi-burnished ware. E.H. Abundant material includes sherds of red-slipped and burnished, Urfirnis, plain and coarse wares (Fig. 19, nos. 6, 8, 13, 28). Several sauceboat fragments. A restored plain-ware cup with inverted rim and ring-base must belong to the middle of the period (Plate 19g; Fig. 19, no. 10). Its surface is smoothed and slightly mottled, varying in colour from black-brown to orange. H. c 0·058, D. c. 0·10 m. No patterned ware. M.H. Grey Minyan (Plate 17c); matt-painted ware (Plate 17c); monochrome wares (Plate 17b, top left, bottom right); Aigina ware; Red Minyan; coarse ware; Adriatic ware, two sherds; Yellow Minyan (Plate 17b, top right); Middle Minoan, one sherd. L.H. Numerous fragments of kraters, cups, bowls, and amphorae: L.H. I—II (Plate 17c), L.H. Ill (Plate 17d); see discussion below, p. 104. PG. (Plate 16c). Some possible G. scraps. C. good fifth-century Bg., including two boisai bases, one with stamped palmettes, two lekanis rim fragments, one with Bg. floral design (Plate 18a left, top and centre). Also illustrated are Bg. fragments of ? bowl with ribbing in concentric circles, kantharos handle, ?cup with fern relief pattern, and H. cup with floral design in applied white. Other sherds include a small fourth-century skyphos base, and M. to modern fragments.

93 The site is a large and impressive hill called Lithosoros, and marked as Salganeus on some maps, c. 2·5 km. west of the village of Dhrosia (formerly Khalia). Excavation by Papadakis, in 1912 (AA xxix (1914) 122–3, Arvanitopoullos, ADelt i (1915) 5556, Theochares 299, 309) produced evidence of occupation from N. to L.H. times. He found graves and traces of house- and fortification-walls; a bone tube with incised geometric design suggested Cycladic connexions. The material remains unpublished in Athens.

94 Vlikhas (sometimes also called Glifas) is a rich and impressive hill site on the western shore of the southern harbour of Chalkis and opposite Vourkos. It is terraced and has traces of an ancient circuit wall at the top. Theochares (282, 309, 311, 313) reported sherds of N. to L.H. date and later visits have confirmed this.

95 Iliad ii. 536 ff.

96 The thick spread of L.H. sherds indicates a settlement of some size at Vlikhas. In 1962 at least fifty Mycenaean kylix stems were noted on the southern and eastern slopes.

97 IG xii. 9. 165 f.; Geyer 33 f.; Welter, Challas; RE s.v. Chalkis, with map p. 2079; Philippson, I (2) 743, no. 37 with refs.; Boardman, , BSA lii (1957) 12. A full study of the topography of ancient Chalkis is being prepared by S. C. Bakhuizen of Amsterdam.

98 ADelt xvi (1960) Chron. 150.

99 The clay is good potter's clay, and brickmaking is an important industry in the region. In many places landowners have sold their soil to a depth of several metres with the result that roads and field boundaries stand high above the general level like dikes, and tree roots are exposed. The soil appears equally productive at the lower level, and vines do well in their sheltered pits.

100 Cf. Philippson, , I (2) 606, 704. Papadimitriou, , ‘Fränkische Kastelle und Befestigungen in Euboia’, Byz. Mod. Gk. Jahrbuch vii (1928/1929) 462; Powell 38.

101 Strabo 447. 9; O. Davies, Roman Mines in Europe 244; Boardman, BSA lii (1957) 27. The modern mines at Afrati in the upper part of the valley work only for λευκόλιθος On one journey in this valley in 1962 the foreman of the mines accompanied me, and pointed out a number of cuttings, many high on a nearly vertical rock face, which could be attributed to ancient miners working for copper. However, there is still no evidence for substantial ancient mining there.

102 Sherd material of C. date has been found at several sites within this area. It is hoped to publish details of this in a separate article.

103 There is a great network of medieval towers in the neighbourhood of the plain facilitating communication from Aliveri and Karavos by Velousia both south to Dystos and the Aegean shore, and north to Avlonarion and beyond.

104 Theochares, 311 notes the danger of its being smo ered by the electric works, and calls for excavation he In the course of the construction of the electric plant in early 1950s many classical antiquities were brought to li (kPetrakos, ADelt xvi (1960) 149; 17 (1961) 215–17 and 168).

105 Pottery: E.H. Mostly coarse and undecorated; one rolled rim fragment, perhaps belonging to a sauceboat, coated on both sides with a fine black Urfirnis glaze (Fig. 19, no. 15). M.H. Grey Minyan (Plate 18c); monochrome wares; matt-painted ware (Plate 18c); Yellow Minyan and Aigina ware. L.H. Numerous fragments of amphorae, kraters, cups, bowls, kylikes (Plate 18c, bottom, and 18d); also fragments of two animal figurines (Plate 18d, lower left). C. Bg. scraps.

106 For the Kastro itself, see Lazaridis, P., ADelt xvii (1961–2) 157–9 and figs. 1–2, who also refers to the medieval tower ‘Pyrgaki’ on the shore, inside the boundaries of the Electric Company.

107 Papavasileiou found only bones and a button of pyrites; some kylix sherds are also reported from here (Hankey 59; Ålin 126).

108 Pottery: Heavy coarse sherds, probably L.H. or earlier, L.H. kylix stem and foot, G. frags, with linear design, C. base frag, of good fifth-century Bg. bowl with stamped palmette.

109 Konstantinou, and Travlos, report that the stone was later taken for building purposes, PAE 1941–4, 38.

110 Pottery: Sherds of a grey ware (not unlike Minyan) and several rim fragments with N. profiles. One, coarse with grey biscuit, has a small plastic pellet added just below the lip and may be from a L.N. hole-mouthed jar. We owe this suggestion to Professor Weinberg. For a parallel from Elateia in Phokis, cf. Weinberg, , Hesperia xxxi (1962) 199, pl. 66, d, 6. E.H. A monochrome red ware (? E.H.I) is reported by Konstantinou and Travlos (op. cit.). In addition several fragments of E.H. II sauceboats were found (Fig. 19, no. 19), and other coarser sherds with profiles suggesting a similar date. No E.H. patterned ware was found. M.H. Coarse wares; Grey Minyan; monochrome wares; and Yellow Minyan, one sherd.

111 The E.H. material consists of a small collection of rather coarse sherds, gritty and poorly fired. None is decorated, except for a fragment of a crude pithos bearing a band of incised vertical chevrons on the outside of the rim. The collection is as yet too small to be of much interest. M.H. Monochrome wares; Grey Minyan (Plate 20d); coarse ware and matt-painted (Plate 20d). L.H. A few worn sherds including several kylix stems (Plate 20d).

112 From Yefira is an H. lekythos reportedly found with gold ear-rings in a heavy plain sarcophagus of coarse white marble; and from Evrima a late C. lekythos. We are in debted to Mr. S. Moundrikhas of Oxylithos for information and guidance.

113 (I) Small piriform jar. H. 0·10 m. One of three handles missing, linear design with running spirals on shoulder zone in red-brown paint. L.H. IIIA (FMP 22–23 (figs. 3–4), 363 (fig. 62, motive 50)). (2) Plain shallow cup with high loop handle. H. 0·04, D. 0·10. L.H. IIIA (FMP 48, fig. 13). (3) Double miniature alabastron with basket handle. The alabastra are straight-sided (one is fragmen tary). Decoration in red-brown paint: zigzag on shoulder, transverse lines on handle. L.H. IIIB? (Keramopoulos, A. D., ADelt iii (1917) 192, fig. 137; Furumark, , Chronology 41, 67; Stubbings, , BSA xlii (1947) 43, pl. 11, 3).

114 The depression is c. 5 m. in diameter, and has the appearance of a robbed tholos. We were informed by the nun who guided us that building stone had been removed from here in the past.

115 Two small lekythoi (one with Rf. sphinx) and a bolsal of the later fifth century B.C.

116 This is due to an incorrect reading of Papavasileiou, who places it in the vineyards of Mr. Angelis of Enoria. The son of this Mr. Angelis kindly showed Jacobsen the precise spot in his land.

117 For shape, cf. Hood, M. S. F., BSA li (1956) 9596, pl. 15a (no. 7); Sandars, N. K., AJA lxvii (1963) 132–3 (in ‘class Ei’).

118 Theochares's description and references apply to this Kastri at Potamia and not to the site at Artemision as the text implies.

119 PAE 1912, 119, figs. 2–6. The signs, which are crude and non-alphabetic, include spearheads and crosses, and somewhat resemble others found at Dreros in Crete, cf. BCH lxxxv (1961) 552.

120 The problem of the location of ancient Kyme remains unsolved. The only direct ancient reference to Kyme is in Steph. Byz., s.v. Κούμη). For a general discussion, see Geyer 79–81; RE, s.v. Kyme; Καραπᾱς, N. K., Κύμη (Athens, 1955) 715; Head, B. V., Historia Numorum2 (Oxford, 1911) 360.

121 Most significant is the foot and floor of a stemmed cup with rouletting found by W. A. MacDonald in 1963.

122 This is probably the secret passage described by Papavasileiou, and compared to another at Dystos.

123 This is a tentative suggestion and more study is needed. Such sites would include Elliniko, Ayios Vasileios, Kerinthos, Pilion, Kastri (Vlakhia), Lamari (?), Kyme, Potamia, Philagra, cf. n. 30 above.

124 Schachermeyr, , AA 1962, 175, and Ålin 127, both following a report of Theochares.

125 Cf. Pigorini, , Bollettino di Paletnologia xxx (1904) 101–4; Svoronos, J. N., ‘Leçons Numismatiques’ (Revue Belge de Num., 19081909) 25 ff.; Bosanquet, , Corolla Numismatica (1906) 359; Buchholz, H., Minoica (1958) 92115; (1959) 1–41; Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments 57; Bass, G. F., AJA lxv (1961) 271. Pigorini and Evans incorrectly referred the ingots to Chalkis harbour, and Lorimer to Kyme in Aeolis. The original report referred to Euboean Kyme, and P. Throckmorton kindly informed us that he had verified this by tracking down the sea captain responsible for the find, see Svoronos, loc. cit. 25, n. 1.

126 The monastery is in a commanding position with a view along the Euboean coast, north and south, and reach ing as far as Skyros, the Sporades, and Mt. Athos.

127 Chalkis Museum Inv. 770–82 are from here, and also 951–9, found in tombs excavated by N. Platon in 1937. at Vareza.

128 Pottery: The N. sherds include black monochrome and incised wares. The monochrome, associated by Theo-chares with Thessalian A5a ware, might better be attributed to the L.N. class common at Varka. Several N. stone tools have also been found. M.H. A few Grey Minyan fragments. L.H. Worn sherds from bowls and amphorae, some with linear decoration; one monochrome kylix stem.

129 Cf. Dio Chrysostom, Discourse 7: Εὐβοϊκὸς ἢ Κυνηγός

130 This is an imposing hill site some distance inland surmounted by the Frankish Kastro Larmena, and probably also serving as the Classical acropolis. There are traces of Hellenic walling at the Kastro, and Bg. sherds (among much later material) on the north slopes. Many ancient quarries are spread widely over the hill slopes to the north, and it is reasonable to associate the Dragon Houses, situated on the lower slopes beneath the quarries, with this extensive work. A deep vertical shaft on the mountain side south of the Dragon Houses (and towards the Kastro) suggests mining activity also.

131 Evidence of Neolithic occupation at Nea Styra is not abundant. One or two sherds, including a fragment of a cup or small bowl with an everted rim sharply set off from the body, may belong to this period (Fig. I 8, no. 25). This piece is of a somewhat gritty and slightly micaceous fabric of a rather uniformly orange-brown colour. Its exterior has been lightly polished, producing a smooth reddish-brown surface below the carination. A polished stone celt of Neolithic type reported by Blinkenberg, may also be from this site (Archäologische Studien (Copenhagen 1904) 2021, fig. 16ab; it is now in Athens, NM. Inv. 4039). The E.H. material is almost exclusively coarse and undecorated. There are, however, a few pieces coated with the typical Urfirnis glaze of E.H. II. The best of these, one of several sauceboat fragments, is thickly coated with a deep black glaze on the exterior and orange-red on the interior. Little else is worth special mention. M.H. (Plate 21a), a wide spread of Grey Minyan fragments, monochrome wares, Argive Minyan (?) (two badly worn sherds), coarse ware, and Adriatic ware.

132 These include two narrow skyphos bases with dull black glaze (fourth century B.C.).

133 Gounaropoulos (op. cit. 138–9) identified Boura as the site of the ancient Kyrnos (Hdt. ix. 105).

134 Celts from Karystos: Athens, NM, Inventory page 223, in case no. 105, nos. 401 1–17; 4011. L. 0·09 m. Purplish stone: 4012. L. 0·08 m. Broken, brown stone: 4013. L. 0·07 m. Poorly made, black: 4014. L. 0·06 m. ?Ironstone, red dish brown: 4015. Fragment of a large celt: 4016. L. 0·07 m. Green stone: 4017. L. 0·09 m. Green stone: ‘From Karystos.’

135 Schachermeyr's recent assertion that the unpublished clay pots of E.C. type in the Benaki Museum are from Karystos is quite ill-founded. Though they are possibly from Euboea, the exact provenience of these pots remains unknown.

136 Its importance as a refuge even today is reflected C 3942 by the existence of telephone facilities, in spite of the fact that there is no formal settlement there.

137 It is worth noting that a rather lengthy and well-preserved inscription (37 lines, of which 25 are complete), dating probably to the third century B.C., was found at Porto Kastri in 1963 by Jacobsen and Mr. P. Smith of the American School. It is a decree of the island of Kimo–los honouring a man from Karystos (one Charianthos) who served as judge in a Kimolian dispute of some sort. The decree stipulates that one copy of it is to be set up in the sanctuary of Poseidon Geraistios at Geraistos. It seems that this fragment very likely joins with a smaller fragment (also mentioning Poseidon Geraistios and also written in the modified Doric dialect of Kimolos) found at Porto Kastri at the end of the last century. Cf. IG xii. 9. 44.

138 Numbers in bold type refer to the catalogued sites; numbers prefixed by the abbreviation ‘no(s).’ refer to sherds illustrated in the Figures.

139 Theochares, 323–5. It may well be that this obsidian, as also that from acerarme N. levels in Thessaly, is already of Melian origin (ibid. 315).

140 Weinberg's excavations at Elateia in Phokis suggest, however, that this ware appeared later in Central Greece. Cf. Weinberg, S. S., Hesperia xxxi (1962) 179–82.

141 It is interesting that Theochares regarded an example of this ware from Pyrasos in Thessaly as a possible import from Euboea. Cf. Theochares, 288.

142 Yet it may well be related to the roughly contemporaneous ‘horned’ handles of Macedonia, Thrace, Bulgaria, and Anatolia. Cf. Heurtley, W. A., Prehistoric Macedonia 151–3 and fig. ng (no. 105); Mikov, V., Archaeology xii (1959) 93; Zervos, Ch., Naissance de la civilisation en Grèce ii. 362 (no. 511); and Mellaart, J., CAH 2 i. (ch. 18) 7. A second ‘knobbed’ handle from this site (59) will be discussed below.

143 Cf. Wace, A. J. B. and Thompson, M. S., Prehistoric Thessaly 1718, and Weinberg, S. S. in Ehrich, R. W., Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (1966) 300–1. The Euboean examples are perhaps most closely related to those recently excavated at Lerna (Caskey, J. L., Hesperia xxvii (1958) 137 and Hesperia xxviii (1959) 205) and at Kephala, Keos (permission to refer to unpublished material from Kephala was kindly granted by J. L. Caskey).

144 Examples from Kephala, Keos, also have this peculiar combination of burnishing and crusted paint. It is interesting to note that a crusted-ware jug from Lerna has a high-swung handle with a knobbed or horned appendage (Caskey, , Hesperia xxviii (1959), pl. 41b).

145 Cf. Müller, K., Tiryns iv. 79 and pl. xxvi (no. 10). This is one of the few examples of patterned Urfirnis yet known from Euboea. Theochares reported one piece of this class from Manika (35) (Theochares, 299–300 and fig. 18).

146 H. Goldman, Eutresis 83.

147 Deep soundings during the course of the current excavations at this site have brought to light other indica tions of pottery assignable to this period, but further study and excavation is needed to clarify this point fully.

148 See especially Papavasileiou, Tombs 11—17 and pls. 7–9. For Anatolian parallels, see Blegen, C. W. et al., Troy II (1950) 9 and 110, and Mellaart, J., Anatolian Studies vii 1957) 74 ff. The Cycladic jars in question must have included the two illustrated by Papavasileiou (ibid. pl. 7) with three unpierced semi-lug-handles and rather hastily incised decoration. For parallels in shape, and their probable assignment to E.H. III, see Tsountas, Ch., AE (1899) 122 and pl. 9 (no. 15); Plassart, A., Délos XI (1928) 45 (fig. 42); FMP 218–19; and Bossert, E., JdI lxxv (1960) 1215 and figs. 11—12.

149 The incised bone tube from Lithosoros, opposite Chalkis, might also be added to this list (see above, n. 93). A largely unpublished group of Cycladic objects in the Benaki Museum in Athens is said to be from Euboea, but little more is known about the circumstances of their discovery (see above, n. 135). The group includes a marble bowl, a frying-pan, and several vessels of ‘Pelos’ type. It is hoped that these pieces will soon receive proper publication.

150 At least in so far as our present evidence is concerned. Cf. Theochares, 293–4.

151 Papavasileiou, , Tombs, 15 and pl. 8 (row 1, no. 1). It was found in grave 5 along with a black burnished one-handled jug (row 1, no. 5). For a M.H. parallel for this shape, see Zygouries 131 and fig. 123.

152 Caskey, J. L., Hesperia xxix (1960) 295 ff.

153 Syriopoulos, K., προϊσγρια τής πελοποννήσου 81–85, 405; Blegen, C. W., ‘Preclassical Greece, A Survey’, BSA xlvi (1951) 22.

154 Forsdyke, E. J., ‘Minyan Ware’, JHS xxxiv (1914) 126–56; H. Goldman, Excavations at Eutresis 231; Wace, A. J. B., ‘The History of Greece in the Third and Second Millenni B.C.’, Historia ii (1953) 83; Mellaart, J., ‘The End of th Early Bronze Age in Anatolia and the Aegean’, AJA lx (1958) 9.

156 Cf. Theochares, 310–1.

156 Cf. Theochares, 298.

157 C. W. Blegen, Korakou; O. Frödin and A. W. Persson, Asine. Results of the Swedish Excavations 1922–1930; H. Goldman, op. cit.; L. Dor, J. Jannoray, H. and M. Van Effen-terre, Kirrha, étude de préhistoire phocidienne.

158 The final publication of the M.H. pottery from Lerna and from the excavation at Lefkandi at present in progress should provide us with the material needed. For reports on Lerna see J. L. Caskey, Hesperia (1954–9).

159 Buck, R. J., ‘Middle Helladic Matt-Painted Pottery’, Hesperia xxxiii (1964) 231.

160 Under the site descriptions the various M.H. wares are listed in order of predominance.

161 H. Goldman, Eutresis 167.

162 J. Dor et al., Kirrha 90–91, 95–96.

163 Theochares, 302, fig. 24.

164 N. Valmin, The Swedish Messenia Expedition; E. J. Holmberg, The Swedish Excavations at Asea in Arcadia.

165 Theochares, 302, 310.

166 D. Fimmen, Die Kretisch-Mykenische Kultur 77; J. P. Harland, Prehistoric Aigina 16–17; G. Welter, Αἴγινα 44; J. Dor et al., Kirrha 82.

167 For the divisions of matt-painted wares by Goldman and Buck, see H. Goldman, op. cit. 144–5, 167, and R. J. Buck, op. cit. 240–1.

168 Scholes, K., ‘The Cyclades in the Late Bronze Age. A Synopsis’, BSA li (1956) 23; R. J. Buck, op. cit. 301–3.

169 References cited under 77 and 78.

170 Hankey 54.

171 Papavasileiou, Tombs, figs. 23–29.

172 e.g. Desborough 225; Furumark, MP 575, stresses common elements but is mainly concerned with style.

173 Archaeological Reports 1964–5 19, fig. 22.

174 Desborough, PGP 199.

175 See footnote 72 above.

176 BSA lii (1957) 7 and Plate 1a.

177 Sherds illustrated on Plate 11b from Rovies, Plate 15b from Lef kandi, and Plate 16c from Amarynthos. Wavy bands appear to be indicative of the early stage of Protogeometric in Euboea and to precede the introduction of the compass-drawn circle; cf. ILN, 5 June 1966, p. 31 and fig. 7, for vases from tombs at Lefkandi ascribed to the eleventh century by Desborough, PPS xxxi (1965) 217.

178 Cf. remarks of Andreiomenou, op. cit. 265—6.

179 Other sources have recently been reported on the islands of Yiali and Antiparos. Cf. Georgiades, A. N., πρακΤικα τή Ακαδημίας Αθηνών xxxi (1956) 150–63, Cann, J. R. and Renfrew, C., Proceedings of the Prehistorical Society xxx (1964) 111–33, and Renfrew, C., Cann, J. A., and Dixon, J. E., BSA lx (1965), 225247.

180 D. R. Theochares, Γέρας Άντωίου Κεραμοπούλου 140 ff.

181 Our thanks are due to the Mayor, to the Secretary of Limni, Mr. Yioryios Episkopou, and to Mr. Kanoyiannis for much kind help and hospitality.

182 French, E., ‘Late Helladic IIIA1 pottery from Mycenae’, BSA lix (1964) 241 ff.

183 ‘Chalkis’ followed by a number refers to the catalogue number of pottery, L.H. in Chalkis Museum, BSA xlvi (1952) 49 ff.

184 Mycenaean IIIA and B pottery was recently fount at Pella (Tabaqat Fahil), and is in Jerash Museum.

185 Taylour, William, Mycenaean Pottery in Italy (1958) 130

186 Cf. n. 101 above.

187 Polymeropoulos, L. P., AEM ii (1936) 230 claims that Euboea is the leading source of minerals in Greece, listing iron, magnesite, lead, and marble (as well as lignite, lefkolithos, and asbestos). Equally strong claims are made by Palaiologos, D. K.AEM i (1935) 159–61, T. G. Papamanolis, Κάρυστος 115—19, and Anastasopoulos, J., Ὁδηγός Εύβοίας–Σκύρον (Athens, 1962) 8.

188 But cf. H. Michell, The Economics of Ancient Greece 12–13, 121–2; Forbes, R. J., Studies in Ancient Technology ix. 15.

189 Theochares, 304.

190 It is interesting to note that Theochares discovered a significant bronze-working establishment, datable to the E.H. period at Raima, directly opposite the Karystia, on the Attic coast (Άνασκαφὴ ἐν Άραφῆνι PAE 1951, 80). This suggests the possibility that ore was imported from Euboea at a very early period.

191 Cf. J. Boardman, The Greeks Overseas 65–66.

* Bibliography with abbreviations used in this article:

Ålin: Per Ålin, Das Ende der mykenischen Fundstätten auf dem griechischen Festland. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology I, Lund, 1962.

AEM: Άρχεῐον Εὐβοϊκῶν Μελλεῶν

Desborough: Desborough V. R. d'A., The Last Mycenaeans and their Successors. Oxford, 1964.

Desborough PGP: Desborough V. R. d'A., Protogeometric Pottery. Oxford, 1952.

FMP: Furumark A., The Mycenaean Pottery, Analysis and Classification. Stockholm, 1941.

FM: Furumark, Motive Number, FMP 236 ff.

FS: Furumark, Shape Number, FMP 585 ff.

Geyer: Geyer F., Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia (Berlin, 1903).

Hankey: Hankey V., Late Helladic Tombs at Khalkis, BSA xlvii (1952) 49 ff.

Mycenae: Wace, A. J. B., Mycenae. Princeton, 1949.

Papavasileiou, Tombs: Παπαβασιλείου, Γ.Α., Περὶ Τῶν Ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ ἀρχαίων Τάφων. Athens, 1910.

Powell: Powell B., Trips in Euboea. Unpublished papers of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens 1899, 1.

Theochares: Θεοχάρης Δ.Ρ Ἐκ Τῆς Προϊστορίας Τῆς Εὐβοίας καὶ Τῆς Σκύρου. AEM vi (1959) 279–328.

Wallace: Wallace W., ‘The Demes of Eretria’, Hesperia xvi (1947), 115.

Weinberg: Weinberg S., Remains from Prehistoric Corinth, Hesperia vi (1937) 487–524.

Zygouries: Blegen, C. W., Zygouries (1928).

In addition, the travellers and geographers whose works are listed in notes 6–8 will normally be referred to by name and page number only.

1 Hankey is responsible mainly for the sites north of Politika (1–24), for notes on others, for the appendix on the L.H. III A tomb group from Limni, and for a number of site plans and photographs. Howell contributed the notes and drawings on M.H. pottery, and the summary. Jacobsen, whose dissertation on Prehistoric Euboea was completed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1964, contributed notes, drawings, and summary on the Neolithic and E.H. pottery, survey notes on many sites (including 9, 27,36, 39, 65, 70–71, 78–79, 91–92), the section on obsidian sites, and many of the references throughout the article. Popham contributed the notes on L.H. and PG pottery with drawings and summaries, and generally guided the project with Sackett, who contributed the main body of the site survey, notes on the post-Geometric material, and generally co-ordinated the work.

Prehistoric Euboea: Contributions Toward a Survey*

  • L. H. Sackett, V. Hankey, R. J. Howell, T. W. Jacobsen and M. R. Popham...


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