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New Work at Kato Phana, Chios: the Kato Phana Archaeological Project: Preliminary report for 1997 and 19981

  • Lesley Beaumont (a1) and Aglaia Archontidou-Argyri (a2)

Abstract

The first two fieldwork seasons of the Kato Phana Archaeological Project took place in 1997 and 1998 as a collaborative venture between the British School at Athens and the Mytilene Ephorate of the Greek Archaeological Service. The work comprised archaelogical surface survey and mapping of the lower Kato Phana Valley, cleaning and planning of the sanctuary of Apollo Phanaios and geophysical testing of selected areas around the sanctuary site. This article first sets out the aims of the Project and describes earlier work at the cult centre (Geometric to Early Christian periods) by K. Kourouniotes and W. Lamb. This is followed by an account of the survey methodology and of the results gained: these include the location of Bronze Age findspots NE and SW of the cult centre and a dense concentration of sherds, tile and ancient masonry, ranging in date from the Archaic to Early Christion periods, radiating out from the sanctuary, particularly to the S and SE. To the NW, the survey also succeeded in identifying the ancient quarry site from which grey limestone blocks were cut for the sanctuary constructing. The paper concludes with an account of the geophysical testing carried out at Kato Phana, and looks forward to the next projected phase of the Project's fieldwork.

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2 Kourouniotes, K.. “Ἁνασκαφαὶ καὶ ἔρευναι ἐν Χίῳ”. Delt 1 (1915), 7285: id., Ἁνασκαφαὶ καὶ ἔρευναι ἐν Χίῳ᾽᾽ 2''. A Delt. 2 (1916). 190-212: Lamb, W.. ‘Excavations at Kato Phana in Chios’. BSA 35 (19341935). 138–64.

3 A. Dell., Chr. 1996, 1997, 1998.

4 Thanks go to all members of the 1997 Anglo-Greek team, who worked so tirelessly and cheerfully together: K. Beaufils. M. Boyd (geophysics), A. Dova (Epimeletria, 20th Ephorate). T. Flatsousi (archaeologist, 20th Ephorate), M. Kokkinophorou (draughtswoman, 20th Ephorate), A. Michael. M. Nicholson. M. (Papaconstantinou), N. Penna (Surveyor), A. Pitsikoulis (fieldwalking team leader, archaeologist 20th Ephorate), C. Sakellaropoulos. A. Stellatou. R. Sweetman (fieldwalking team leader), A. Thomas (project manager), H. Tomlinson. J. Tomlinson. R. A. Tomlinson (architectural consultant), M. Tsitimaki (architect, 20th Ephoratei. I. Tournavitou (apotheke), L. Valassi. Ch. Voyani (computer support, 20th Ephorate), H. von Wettstein (fieldwalking team leader), and the workmen of the 20th Ephorate.

5 Thanks are again due to all members of the 1998 Anglo Greek team, who worked with admirable dedication: M. Boyd (computer support), V. Çankaya (project manager). A. Dova (Epimeletria. 20th Ephorate), T. Flatsousi (archaeologist. 20th Ephorate), T. Fradgley (surveyor), A. Michael. C. Stewart (photographer), A. Thanos. M. Thomatos. J. Tomlinson. R. A. Tomlinson (architectural consultant), I. Tournavitou (apotheke), and the workmen of the 20th Ephorate.

6 Thanks are also due to John Boardman for his much valued support of the project.

7 Boardman, J.. Excavations in Chios 1952–55: Greek Emporio (BSA supp. vol. 6: London. 1967): Hood, M. S. F.. Excavations in Chios 1938–55: Prehistoric Emporio and Agio Gala i ii. (BSA supp. vols 15–16: London. 19811982: Ballance, M. et al. , Excavations in Chios 1952–55: Byzantine Emporio BSA supp. vol. 20: London 1989).

8 At some time between Kourouniotes' excavations and the present day, the chapel has been rededicated to St Marcella a local Chian saint whose main cult is celebrated at Agia Markella in the NW of the island.

9 Fustel de Coulanges, D.. ‘Mémoire sur l'île de Chio’, Archives missions scientifiques et littéraires. 5 (1856). 491: Conze, A., Philologus. 14 (1859), 156; Studniczka, F.. ‘Aus Chios’, AM, 13 (1888), 162–3, 176.

10 On Apollo Phanaios see Yalouris, N.. ‘Apollo Phanaios and the cult of Phanes’, in Boardman, J. and Vaphopoulou-Richardson, C. E. (eds). Chios. A Conference at the Homereion in Chios 1984 (Oxford. 1986). 3942.

11 Boardman, J.. ‘Chian and early Ionic architecture’, Ant. J. 39 (1959), 170–89.

12 On the commemorative inscriptions see Forrest, W. G., ‘The inscriptions of south-east Chios II’. BSA 59 (1964). 32–3.

13 The basilica was first drawn by Orlandos, A.: see his Monuments Byzantins de Chios. II (Athens. 1930). pl. 6. It is also discussed by G. A. Sotiriou in Arch. Eph. 1929. 192 and in A. Delt. 2 (1916). supplement. 28. See also Lamb n.2. 146 and pl. 28.

14 Garnett, R. and Boardman, J.. ‘Underwater reconnaissance of the island of Chios. 1934’. BSA 56 (1961). 105–6.

15 The plans of the existing state sanctuary remains at scales 1:200 and 1:100. and the topographical plans of the coastal end of the Phana Valley at scales 1:5000 and 1:2500. were prepared by N. Eradglcy of the Royal Commission for the Historical Monuments of England. The 1:20 scale plan of the visible Temple foundations was prepared by M. Kokkinophorou. draughtswoman ot the 20th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities.

16 Hood n. 7. i. 6.

17 E. Yalouris. ‘Notes on the topography of Chios’ in Boardman and Vaphopoulou-Richardson n. 101. 146. See also Yalouris's, unpublished Ph.D, thesis on The Archaelogy and Early History of Chios 47 n. 31 and ch. 4. III. 7 University of Oxford. 1976.

18 For a catalogue of these limestone and marble fragments from column bases. capitals, and drums and of architectural mouldings, see Lamb (n. 2). 142–4 and Boardman (n. 11). 173–87.

19 Cf. Jeffery, L. H.. The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (rev. edn, with Johnston, A. W., Oxford. 1990). 325.

20 Cf. Jeffery (n. 19). pl. 65. no. 47.

21 Only the lower right portion of the omega is preserved. The right diagonal of the final lambda is incompletely preserved and the trace would also be consistent with nu. or just possibly, mu.

22 We are indebted here to Stephen Lambert for his invaluable help and suggestions concerning the reconstruction of this inscription.

23 Hood in. 7 i. 1 and 6.

24 Sensitivity of the fluxgate gradiometer diminishes rapidly at depths greater than I m: see Clark, A.Seeing beneath the Soil: Prospection Methods in Archaeology (London, 1990). 78.

1 Thanks go to Richard Tomlinson for reading a draft of this article, and for his suggestions lor its improvement. Any errors remain, of course, the responsibility of the authors.

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New Work at Kato Phana, Chios: the Kato Phana Archaeological Project: Preliminary report for 1997 and 19981

  • Lesley Beaumont (a1) and Aglaia Archontidou-Argyri (a2)

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