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Mythological childhood: a male preserve? An interpretation of classical Athenian iconography in its socio-historical context1

  • Lesley Beaumont (a1)

Abstract

The birth and childhood of the Greek male gods and heroes are themes well documented in classical Athenian art and myth. By contrast, contemporary Athenian iconography and mythology are remarkably empty of references to the birth and infancy of the female heroes and female gods, or alternatively present the newborn goddesses as adult women. This article seeks to shed light on the apparently missing childhood phase of the goddesses and heroines, by examining the evidence of fifth-century Athenian iconography in its socio-historical context. Consequently, in the case of the goddesses, it is proposed that the female child figure represented a state of being incompatible with the nature and manifestation of divinity. It is further suggested that the mythological heroines enter classical Athenian art and myth only once they have attained puberty, because it is at this point that their potential for relations with the male gains significance. And just as was the case with their mortal female counterparts, it is this capacity for interaction with the male sex that makes them of interest to society.

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2 Winckelmannsprogramm, 10 (1885).

3 Archäologische Zeitung, 43 (1885).

4 Die Geburt der Götter in der griechischen Kunst der klassischen Zeit (Jerusalem, 1979).

5 Geburt und Kindheit des Gottes in der griechischen Mythologie (Winterthur, 1957).

6 Baltimore and London, 1990.

7 On the iconography of the young Dionysos see LIMC iii, Dionysos pp. 478–82, pls 376–81; Arafat, K., Classical Zeus (Oxford, 1990), 3950; Schefold, Gött. 27–41; Brommer, GV 16–19; Loeb, Geb. 28–59, 286–300; Aebli, D., Klassischer Zeus (Munich, 1971), 108–24; Zanker, P., Wandel der Hermesgestalt in der attischen Vasenmalerei (Bonn, 1965), 7780; Metzger, Repr. 101–10, pls 8–9; Cook, A. B., Zeus, iii (Cambridge, 1940), 7989; Greifenhagen, A., ‘Kindheitsmythos des Dionysos’, RM 1931, 2743; Philippart, H., ‘Iconographie des Bacchantes d'Euripide’, RB Arch. 9 (1930), 1130; Heydemann, H., Dionysos' Geburt und Kindheit (Winckelmannsprog. 10; 1885).

8 Berkeley 8.3316: ARV 1343.1, 1681, 1691; Add. 367.

9 Bonn 1216.19: ARV 796.3. Boston 95.39: ARV 533.58; Para. 384; Add. 255. Monash: Charles Ede Ltd, Pottery from Athens, 5 (Jan. 1979), no. 22; Johnston, A. W., Trademarks on Greek Vases (1979), Cat. 19B. 6a. Athens, National Museum (Acropolis) 819 (G203): ARV 351.2.

10 Louvre MNB 1695 (G188): ARV 508.1, 1657; Add. 252. Paris, Cab. Méd. 440: ARV 252.51; Add. 203. Ferrara 2737 (T381): ARV 589.3, 1660: Para. 393: Add. 264. New York L1982. 27.8: The Vatican Collections: The Papacy and Art (New York, 1983), 190. Athens Nat. Mus. (Acrop) 325: ARV 460.20: Para. 377: Add. 244.

11 London E492: ARV 619.16; Add. 270. Moscow, Pushkin II 1b 732: ARV 618.4; Para. 398: Add. 270. Palermo 1109: ARV 630.24: Para. 399. Rome, Villa Giulia 49002 (Fig. 1): ARV 1067.8; Para. 447: Add. 325. Once Hamilton: Cook, A. B., Zeus ii (Cambridge, 1925), 245.

12 Rome, Villa Giulia 1296: LIMC v, Hermes 368a, pl. 229. Louvre G478: ARV 1156.17: Add. 337. Once Vienna, Prince Reuss: Robert, C., Archaeologische Hermeneutik (1919), 340, fig. 262.

13 Vatican 16586 (559): ARV 1017.54, 1678; Para. 440; Add. 315. Once Liverpool, Foster, : FR iii. 302–6, fig. 146.

14 Athens, Kyrou 71: LIMC v, Hermes 371a, Ino 10, pl. 441.

15 New York x. 313. 1: ARV 623.69; Add. 271. Naples Stg 283: ARV 1080.3; Add. 327. Once Roman market (Bassegio): Greifenhagen, A., Alte Zeichnungen nach unbekannten griechischen Vasen (Munich, 1976), no. 18, fig. 31. Hermitage, St 2007: Metzger, Repr. 107–10, pl. 9. Vienna 736: ARV 1551.17, 1698; Add. 388. Louvre CA 2961: LIMC iii, Dionysos 698.

16 Hermitage St 1792: ARV 1476.1: Para. 496: Add. 381. Once Hamilton: ARV (1476.1), 1525.4: Add. 385.

17 Oxford 1956.355: LIMC iv, Demeter 389, pl. 590; v, Iakchos 8.

18 New York 06.1021.144: ARV 1107.10; Add. 330. Louvre G366: ARV 585.28.

19 On the iconography of the child Zeus see further Arafat (n. 7), 62–3; Schefold, , Gött. 23–7; Brommer, , GV 42; Loeb, , Geb. 106–12; Cook (n. 7), 927–38; Wernicke, K., ‘Die Kindheit des Zeus’, AZ 43 (1885), 229–32.

20 Vatican 16582: ARV 369.6, 1649; Para. 367: Add. 224. Berne, private collection: LIMC v, Hermes 242b, pl. 220. Tübingen 1600 (E106) (Fig. 2): ARV 974.27: Add. 309. On the iconography of the infant Hermes see LIMC v, Hermes; Schefold, , Gött. 46–8; Blatter, R., ‘Hermes, der Rinderdieb’, AK 14 (1971), 128–9, pl. 40; Zanker (n. 7), 60–4; Frankel, M., ‘Hermes als Kind’, AZ (1885), 151–2.

21 Once Sandford Graham: Metzger, Rech. 34 no. 2 and pl. 14. 1. Tübingen S/10 1666 (E183): ARV 1477.7; Para. 496; Add. 381. Athens, Fethiyc Djami 1961.VAK.790: Metzger, Rech. 37 no. 17, pl. 16. 2. Hermitage, St 1792: ARV 1476.1, 1695; Para. 496; Add. 381. Istanbul: LIMC iv, Ge 28, pl. 98. Malibu, Getty 81.AE.213: Robertson, M., Getty Vases, 5 (1991), 7598. I list here only vases showing the divine Eleusinian child Ploutos. There existed also, of course, Kcphisodotos' bronze group of Eirene with the child Ploutos as the straightforward personification of wealth. On the iconography of the Eleusinian Ploutos see further Schefold, Gött. 64–5: Grossman, B., The Eleusinian Gods and Heroes in Greek Art (Ph.D.; Washington, 1959).

22 Antwerp, private collection: LIMC ii, Asklepios I. On the iconography of the infant Asklepios see further Burn, L., The Meidias Painter (Oxford, 1987), 71, 100 cat. M33, pl. 46; Schefold, , Gött. 57–8, fig. 70; Cramers, D. with Simon, E., ‘Ein neues Werk des Meidias-Malers’, AA 1978, 6773.

23 Berlin F2212: ARV 730.8; Add. 283.

24 Paris, Cab. Méd. 306: ABV 572.7; Pera. 294; Add. 137. Bergen VK 62.115: Para. 294. On the iconography of the infant Apollo see further LIMC ii, Apollo; Schefold, , Gött. 42–6; Palagia, O., Euphranor (1980), 36–9; Loeb, Geb. 13, 195 n. 7; Kahil, L.-G., ‘Apollo and Python’, in Mélanges offerts à K. Michalowsky (Warsaw, 1966), 483–90; Schreiber, T. H., Apollo Pythoktonos (Leipzig, 1879).

25 Once Hamilton, now lost (Fig. 3): LIMC ii, Apollon 995, drawing on p. 302. See also Palagia (n. 24).

26 British Museum E182: ARV 580.2: Para. 392: Add. 263. Munich 2413: ARV 495.1, 1656; Para. 380; Add. 250. Palermo 2365: ARV 1339.3; Add. 367. Berlin F2537 (Fig. 4): ARV 1268.2, 1689; Add. 356. Richmond 81.70: LIMC iii, Eos 124; iv, Erechtheus 11, pl. 632. Leipzig T654: ARV 585.35, 1660: Add. 263. See also Cleveland 82.142: LIMC iii, Attike 5, pl. 14.

27 Athens, 3rd Ephoreia A8922: LIMC iv, Eunoe 1, pl. 26. Louvre 980.020: LIMC iii, Danae 70; iv, Erechtheus 30, pl. 633.

28 British Museum E372: ARV 1218.1: Add. 349. Louvre CA 681: LIMC iv, Erechtheus 35, pl. 634. Athens, Nat. Mus. (Acrop) 396: ARV 1 628.1. Athens, Nat. Mus. (Acrop) 433: ARV 1 216.10. On the iconography of the birth and childhood of Erichthonios see further LIMC iv, Erechtheus; Arafat (n. 7), 51–8, 188; Brulé, P., La Fille d'Athènes (Paris, 1987), ch. 1; Schefold, , Gött. 4857; Loeb, , Geb. 165–81, 334–44; Brommer, , VGH 262; Metzger, H., ‘Athéna soulevant de terre le nouveau-né’, in Ducrey, P. (ed.), Mélanges d'histoire ancienne et d'archéologie offerts à Paul Collart (Lausanne, 1976), 295303; Bérard, C., Anodoi (Rome, 1974), 34–8; Aebli (n. 7); Cook (n. 7), 181–8.

29 On the mythology and iconography of the birth and early life of Herakles see LIMC iv, Herakles pp. 728–9, 827–32; Schefold, , Urk. 129–35; Brommer, F., Herakles, ii (1984), 17; Flacelière, P. and Devambez, P., Hérakles: images et recits (1966), 1727, 72–8; Robert, C., Die griechische Heldensage (1920), 422675.

30 Louvre G192 (Fig. 5): ARV 208.160, 1633; Para. 343; Add. 195. Perugia 73: ARV 516; Add. 253. Leipzig T3365: ARV 559.151. New York 25.28: ARV 1110.41; Add. 330.

31 Munich, Kleinkunst 2426: ARV 189.76, 1632: Para. 341: Add. 189.

32 Boston 66.206: ARV 291.18; Para. 356; Add. 210. Athens, 3rd Ephoreia A5300 (inv. 0.18): LIMC iv, Herakles 1672. Paris, Cab. Méd. 811: ARV 829.45; Add. 294. Ferrara 26436 (T961): ARV 889.161; Para. 428; Add. 302. Munich 2646: ARV 437.128, 1653; Para. 375; Add. 239. Bologna 271: ARV 590.7; Add. 264. Boston, Herrmann: LIMC iv, Herakles 1670. New York 06.1021.165: ARV 1651. Schwerin KG708: ARV 862.30, 1672: Para. 425: Add. 298.

33 Louvre G229: ARV 289.3, 254.4, 1642; Add. 210. Padula T xliii: ARV 1642.5 bis; Add. 210. Basle, Cahn HC 479: LIMC iv, Herakles 1675, pl. 558. Oxford 1890.26 (v322): ARV 627.1; Add. 271. Munich 6026 (WAF 2398): ARV 1446.3. On the iconography of Hyllos see further LIMC v, Hyllos I; Brommer, F., Herakles, ii (1984), 133–4: Beazley, J. D., ‘Herakles torna a casa’, Apollo (Salerno) 1 (1961), 21–6.

34 British Museum E494: ARV 1079.3, 1682; Add. 326. Vienna IV 1144: ARV 1188; Add. 341. Taranto 52399: ARV 1337.4; Add. 366. Hermitage 43f: ARV 1346.1; Add. 368. Hermitage II. 1867/68.964 (33a): ARV 1408.1; Add. 374. New York 12.231.2: ARV 319.6: Para. 358; Add. 214.

35 New York 37.11.23: ARV 131. 7; Para. 477; Add. 362. Tübingen S/10 1610: LIMC i, Alope 1, pl. 432. Louvre G457: ARV 1254.80, 1562; Para. 469; Add. 355.

36 On the iconography of Triptolemos see Schwarz, G., Triptolemos (Grazer Beiträge suppl. 2; 1987); Raubitschek, I. K. and Raubitschek, A. E., ‘The mission of Triptolemos’, Hesp. Suppl. 20 (1982), 109–17; Schefold, , Gött. 5864; Dugas, C., ‘La mission de Triptolème’, Recueil C. Dugas (Paris, 1960), 123–9; Grossman (n. 21); Cook, A. B., Zeus, i (Cambridge, 1914), 211–37. Problems in interpretation of the adolescent figure posed by Attic red-figure vase-painting are the subject of a forthcoming article by the present author. See also Kleijwegt, M., Ancient Youth: The Ambiguity of Youth and the Absence of Adolescence in Greco-Roman Society (Amsterdam, 1991).

37 Kansas 31.80: ARV 1248.8; Add. 353.

38 Basle BS 432: Para. 472; Add. 177.

39 There also exist many more red-figure scenes in which the identification of a boy figure as Ganymede seems likely but cannot be proven. On the iconography of the boy Ganymede, and for lists of vases on which he is represented, see Arafat (n. 7), 66–76, 189–91; LLMC iv, Ganymedes; Kempter, G., Ganymed: Studien zur Typologie, Ikonographie und Ikonologie (Ph.D.; Würzburg, 1980); Kaempf-Dimitriadou, S., Die Liebe der Götter in der attischen Kunst des 5. Jh. v. Chr. (AK 11, Beiheft; 1979); Schefold, , Gött. 211–18; Mayo, P. C., Amor spiritualis et cornalis: Aspects of the Myth of Ganymede in Art (Ph.D.; New York, 1967); Sichtermann, H., ‘Zeus und Ganymed in Früklassischer Zeit’, AK 2 (1959), 1015.

40 Malibu, Getty 80.AE.154: LLMC iv, Hélène 336 bis, pl. 352. Malibu, Getty 83.AE.362, 84.AE.80 and 85.AE.385: LIMC iv, Hélène 277, pl. 341. Berlin 2280 and 2281 and Vatican: ARV 19.1 and 2; Add. 153. Louvre G152: ARV 369.1, 1649; Para. 365; Add. 224. Vienna, University 53 C 23–25, 20: ARV 314.1; Add. 213. Athens, Nat. Mus. (Acrop) 212: LIMC ii, Astyanax I, 17, pl. 684. Berlin F2175: ARV 246.11; Add. 202. Rome, Villa Giulia 3578: ARV 290.9, 1642; Add. 210. Boston 59.178: ARV 590.11; Para. 394; Add. 264. Bologna 268 (Fig. 6): ARV 598.1; Para. 394; Add. 265. Florence 73140: ARV 586.51, 1660: Add. 263. Naples 2422: ARV 189.74, 1632; Para. 341; Add. 189. On the iconography of the death of Astyanax see LIMC ii, Astyanax I; Laurens, A. F., ‘L'enfant entre l'épée et le chaudron: contribution à une lecture iconographique’, DHA 10 (1984), 214–19; Rühfel, H., Das Kind in der griechischen Kunst (Mainz, 1984), 4558; Touchefeu, O., ‘Lecture des images mythologiques: un exemple d'images sans texte, la mort d'Astyanax’, in Lissarague, F. and Thelamon, F. (eds), Image et céramique grecque (Rouen, 1983), 21–9; Zindel, C., Drei vorhomerische Sagenversionen in der griechischen Kunst (Ph.D.; Basel, 1974); Brommer, , VGH 393–5; Mota, C., ‘Sur les représentations figurées de la mort de Troilos et de la mort d'Astyanax’, RA 49 (1957), 2544; Wiencke, M. I., ‘An epic theme in Greek art’, AJA 58 (1954), 285306 and pls 55–64.

41 Boston 13.200: ARV 247.1; Para. 350; Add. 202. Hermitage 1549 (St 1357, B642): ARV 228. 30, 1637; Para. 347, 510; Add. 199. Hermitage 1602 (St 1723, B637): ARV 360.1, 1648; Para. 364, 512; Add. 222. Malibu, Getty, Bareiss 350: LIMC iii, Danae 45. Syracuse 23910: LIMC iii, Danae 55. Princeton, Clairmont: ARV 924.35; Add. 305. Tübingen S/10 1561 (E109): ARV 736.120; Add. 283. Athens, Agora P29612: LIMC iii, Danae 57. Providence, Rhode Island 25.084: ARV 697.18; Add. 280. Toledo 69.369: LIMC i, Akrisios 5, pl. 343. New York 17.230.37: ARV 498.1, 1656; Para. 381; Add. 251. Boston 03.792: ARV 1076.13; Para. 449; Add. 326. Ferrara 818 (T503 VT): ARV 231.79, 1637; Para. 347; Add. 200. Oxford 1917.62: ARV 1018.75, 1678: Add. 315. Knossos, Strat. Mus.: ARV 1019.85. Bonn 1216.53: ARV 1181.20; Add. 340. Private collection: LIMC iii, Danae 46. On the iconography of the infant Perseus see further LLMC i, Akrisios; iii, Danae; Oakley, J., ‘Danae and Perseus on Seriphos’, AJA 86 (1982), 111–15, pls 12–13; Schefold, , Urk. 97100; Brommer, , VGH 272–3; Schauenburg, K., Perseus in der Kunst des Altertums (Bonn, 1960), 712; Clairmont, C., ‘Danae and Perseus in Seriphos’, AJA 57 (1953), 92–4; Howe, T. H., ‘Illustrations to Aischylos' tetralogy on the Perseus theme’, AJA 57 (1953), 269–75, pl. 76; Luschey, H., ‘Danae auf Seriphos’, BA Besch. 24–6 (19491951), 26–8; Cook (n. 7), 455–9; Woodward, J. M., Perseus (1937), 323, 60–2, 66, 76; Engelmann, R., ‘Danae und Verwandtes’, ÖJh 12 (1909), 165–71.

42 Louvre G186 (Fig. 7): ARV 207.140, 1633; Add. 194. Copenhagen 6328: ARV 283.4; Add. 208. Athens, Nat. Mus. (Acrop.) 328: ARV 460.19; Add. 244. Louvre G3: ARV 53.1; Add. 162. Berlin F4220: ARV 61.76, 1700; Add. 165. On the iconography of the young Achilles see further Beazley, J., Development of Attic Black-figure (California, 1986), 910; LIMC i, Achilleus I, pp. 40–2, 45–7, 53–4; Rühfel (n. 40), 59–74; Beck, F. A. G., Album of Greek Education (Sydney, 1975), 912; Kemp-Lindemann, D., Darstellungen des Achilleus in griechischer und römischer Kunst (Berne and Frankfurt, 1975), 718; Brommer, , VGH 330–1; Johansen, K. Friis, ‘Achille bei Chiron’, in Dragma: Festschrift Nilsson (Lund, 1939), 181205.

43 Louvre Cp964 (G138): ARV 365.61, 1580, 1596, 1606, 1648; Add. 223. New York 75.2.27 (GR593): ARV 1159.2; Add. 337. Ferrara 2738 (T311): ARV 593.41, 602, 1660: Para. 394; Add. 264. Bologna 153: A. Zannoni Scavi della Certosa (1876), 198, pl. 50, no. 25. Vienna 1773: ARV 972.2; Para. 435; Add. 309. On the iconography of Oinopion see further LIMC iii, Dionysos IX; Schefold, Held. 22–3; Gött, 30–1; Magi, F., ‘Oinopion’, ASA n.s. 1–2 (1942), 63, pls 1–15.

44 British Museum E382: ARV 632; Add. 272. Berlin 3974: LIMC i, Agamemnon 13, pl. 192. Salonika 34. 263: ARV 1473.1. Athens, Kerameikos 2712: ARV 1313.6, 1690, 1708; Add. 362. On the iconography of the Orestes–Telephos story see further Keuls, E. C., ‘Clytemnestra and Telephus in Greek vase painting’, in Descoeudres, J.-P., Εὐμουσία: Studies … Cambitoglou (Sydney, 1990), 8794; LIMC i, Agamemnon II. c; Brommer, , VGH 471–2; Bauchhenss-Thüriedl, C., Der Mythos von Telephos in der antiken Bildkunst (Würzburg, 1971); Webster, T. B. L., Monuments Illustrating Tragedy and Satyr Play (BICS suppl. 20; 1967), 145, 164–5; Beazley, J. D. and Caskey, L. D., Attic Vase Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, iii (1963), 54–7; Metzger, H., ‘Apollon Lycien et Télèphe’, in Mélanges Picard, ii (RA 30; 1949), 746–51; Séchan, L., Etudes sur la Tragédie grecque (1926), 120–7, 503–18.

45 Hermitage W755 (B1845, St 1650): ARV 605.64; Para. 513; Add. 267. Boston 03.798: ARV 1011.16; Para. 440; Add. 314. Syracuse 18421: ARV 1075.7; Para. 449; Add. 326. Berlin, Charlottenburg F2395 (Fig. 8): LIMC i, Amphiaraos 27, pl. 559. On the iconography of Alkmaion and the departure of Amphiaraos see further LIMC i, Alkmaion; Amphiaraos; Brommer, , VGH 476–7; Delcourt, M., Oreste et Alcméon (1959), 3191.

46 Krakow 1225: ARV 1121.17; Add. 331. Rome, Villa Giulia: ARV 1343 (a). Possibly also British Museum E246: CVA British Museum 6, pl. 100.2. On the iconography of the Lykourgos–Dryas theme see Schefold, , Held. 186–8; Brommer, , VGH 503–4; Trendall, A. D. and Webster, T. B. L., Illustrations of Greek Drama (London, 1971), iii. 1, 13–16; Beazley, J. D., Greek Vases in Poland (1928), 44–6; Séchan (n. 44), 63–79.

47 Munich 26381 and 9191: ARV 456.1, 1654; Add. 243. Louvre G147: ARV 472.211, 1654; Para. 378; Add. 246. Basel, Cahn 599: Sparkes, B. A., in Boulter, C. (ed.), Greek Art: Archaic into Classical (1985), 31–3 and pl. 36. Rome, Villa Giulia 3579: ARV 514.3. On the iconography of the Itys story see Schefold, Held. 42–3; Sparkes, 29–33 and pls 34–6; Brommer, , VGH 269–70.

48 Paris, Cab. Méd. 372: ARV 987.4; Para. 437; Add. 311.

49 Boston 01.8097: ARV 785.2; Para. 418; Add. 289. Possibly also Reggio Calabria 12939a-b: ARV 619.11 bis; Add. 270.

50 British Museum D5 (white-ground): ARV 763.2, 772: Add. 286.

51 On the iconography of the birth of Athena, and for lists of representations, see Arafat (n. 7), 32–9; LIMC ii, Athena I, 985–90; Schefold, , Gött. 1923; Held, 12–20; Brommer, , GV 10; Loeb, , Geb. 1427; Aebli (n. 7), 83–8. For the ancient literary sources concerning the birth of Athena see LIMC ii, p. 985.

52 On the iconography of the birth of Aphrodite, and for lists of representations, see Arafat (n. 7), 30–2; LIMC ii, Aphrodite; Schefold, , Gött. 7585; Brommer, , GV 12; Loeb, , Geb. 60105; Bérard (n. 28), 153–60; Aebli (n. 7), 130–33; Devereux, G., ‘La naissance d'Aphrodite’, in Pouillon, J. and Maranda, P. (eds), Echanges et communications; mélanges offerts à Claude Lévi-Strauss, ii (Paris, 1970), 1229–48; Simon, E., Der Geburt der Aphrodite (Berlin, 1959). For the ancient literary sources concerning the birth of Aphrodite see LIMC ii, pp. 2 and 113.

53 On the iconography of the infant Artemis see LIMC ii, Artemis.

54 Palagia (n. 24), 36–9. Strabo (xiv. 1. 20) also records at Ephesos a statue group by Skopas which depicted a standing Leto holding a sceptre and accompanied by Ortygia, who carried Leto's children.

55 Berlin F1837: ABV 509, no. 121, 703; Para. 248; Add. 127. Beazley further compares this piece to the scene on an unpublished red-figure skyphos fragment by the Lewis Painter in Reggio Calabria (ARV 973.3 bis).

56 Mommsen, H., CVA Berlin 5, 58.

57 Brauron Museum 531: LIMC ii, Artemis 1263.

58 Paris, Seillière (Fig. 13): ARV 604.51, 1661; Add. 267.

59 ARV 604.51.

60 On the iconography of the death of the Niobids see LIMC ii, Artemis, section IX. 3. 1; Schefold, , Gött. 159–70: Cook, R. M., Niobe and her Children: An Inaugural lecture (1964).

61 Louvre G341: ARV 601.22; Para. 395; Add. 266.

62 A. D. Trendall in LIMC ii, Arkas; Schefold (n. 60); Cook (n. 60).

63 On the iconography of Arkas see LIMC ii, Arkas.

64 For lists of the Attic red-figure representations see Loeb, , Geb. 185–92, 345–52: Brommer, , VGH 514–15: Metzger, , Repr. 28, 277–86: Beazley, J. D., Etruscan Vase-painting (1947), 3942, with addenda to his list in Caskey and Beazley (n. 44), 70–3: Chapoutier, F., ‘Léda devant l'oeuf de Nemesis’, BCH 66–7 (19421943), 121: Kekulé, R., ‘Die Geburt der Helena aus dem Ei’, SB Berl. 22 (1908), 691703.

65 Berlin F2430 (Fig. 11): LIMC iii, Enorches 1, pl. 562.

66 For baby girls on choes with regular topknot hairstyle see e.g. Athens, Nat. Mus. 1739 (Fig. 14) and 14532: Van Hoorn, G., Choes and Anthesteria (Leiden, 1951), figs. 278–9.

67 See LIMC iii, Enorches.

68 Caskey and Beazley (n. 44), 72. See also LIMC iv, Hélène 3. Note that Helen emerging from the egg, often as a small but fully developed woman, is a subject found in 4th-cent. south Italian red-figure: see LIMC iv, Hélène. We, however, are concerned with Attic iconography.

69 Berlin 2317: ARV 972.1.

70 Smith, H. R. W., Der Lewismaler (1939), 1011.

71 Kiel University B538: LIMC v, Iphigeneia 1, pl. 466 and drawing on p. 708.

72 Palermo N1 1886: ARV 446.226; Add. 241.

73 On the iconography of Iphigeneia see further LIMC v, Iphigeneia: Kahil, L., in Kahil, L. and Linant de Bellefonds, P., Religion, mythologie, iconographie (1991), 183–96.

74 On the equation between death and marriage see Seaford, R., ‘The tragic wedding’, JHS 107 (1987), 106–30: Jenkins, I., ‘Is there life after marriage? A study of the abduction motif in vase-paintings of the Athenian wedding ceremony’, BICS 30 (1983), 137–45: Foley, H. P., Arethusa, 15 (1982), 168–73: Redfield, J., ‘Notes on the Greek wedding’, Arethusa, 15 (1982), 188–91: Brelich, A., Paides et parthenoi (Rome, 1969), 242–9.

75 The death of Polyxena appears on a fragmentary cup by Makron, Louvre G153: ARV 460.14; Add. 244. Also on a Megarian bowl, Athens, Nat. Mus. 14624: Hausmann, U., Hellenistische Reliefbecher (1959), 36 no. 25, pls 35–7.

76 On the iconography of Pandora see LIMC i, Anesidora: LIMC vii, Pandora.

77 British Museum D4 (Fig. 15): ARV 869.55; Para. 426; Add. 299.

78 Works and Days, 60–85; Theogony, 571–89.

79 See e.g. Athens, Nat. Mus. 1739 and 14532 (references in n. 66).

80 On the krateriskoi see Sourvinou-Inwood, C., Studies in Girls' Transitions (Athens, 1988); Kahil, L., ‘Autour de l'Artémis attique’, AK 8 (1965), 2033; ead., ‘Rites et Mystère’, AK 20 (1977), 86–98; ead., ‘Le cratérisque d'Artémis et le Brauronion de l'Acropole’, Hesp. 50 (1981), 252–63.

81 Stele of Xanthippos: London, British Museum 628 (Fig. 16). Clairmont, C., Classical Attic Tombstones (1993), i. 630. Stele of Mynnia: Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum 71.AA.121; Clairmont, ii. 718.

82 Bologna 268 (Fig. 6): ARV 598.1; Para. 394; Add. 265. Ferrara T936: ARV 601.18, 1661; Para. 395; Add. 266.

83 Vienna 3710: ARV 380.171, 1649; Para. 366; Add. 277.

84 JHS 101 (1981), 221–2. I am grateful here for the generous help and stimulating comments of Susan Woodford, received via a personal communication of 15 Dec. 1994.

85 See e.g. Tht. 197 e; Rep. 441 a–b; Gorg. 464 d and 502 e; Soph. 234 b–c; Euthd. 299 d; Phlb. 14 d.

86 Sec e.g. EE i. 1215 b 23–4; ii. 1219 b 5a.

87 Golden, M., Ant. Cl. 54 (1985), 91104. See further, on the social status of and attitudes towards children, id., Children and Childhood in Classical Athens (Baltimore and London, 1990), esp. 1–12.

88 On the representation of slaves as diminutive adult figures see Kästner, U., ‘Bezeichnungen für Sklaven’, in Welskopf, E. C. (ed.), Soziale Typenbegriffe im alten Griechenland und ihr Fortleben in den Sprachen der Welt, iii (Berlin, 1981), 307; Himmelmann, N., Archäologisches zum Problem der griechischen Sklaverei (Weisbaden, 1971).

89 See e.g. Rep, iv. 431 c.

90 See e.g. EE i. 1214 b 30; vii. 1238 a 33; NE vii. 1154 b 10; Pol. vii. 1323 a 33; Probl. xxx. 14. 957 a 43.

91 See e.g. Ep. viii. 355 c; Rep. iv. 431 c.

92 On the status of, and attitudes towards, women in 5th-cent. Athens see Schmitt-Pantel, P. (ed.), A History of Women (1992); Cohen, D., G&R 36 (1989), 315; Hunter, V. J., Echos du monde classique, 33 (1989), 3948; Just, R., Women in Athenian law and Life (1989); Cantarella, E., Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity, trans. Fant, M. B. (1987); Peradotto, J. P. and Sullivan, J. P. (eds.), Women in the Ancient World (1984); Gould, J., JHS 100 (1980), 3859; Pomeroy, S. B., Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity (1975); Gomme, A. W., CP 20 (1925), 125.

93 See e.g. N. Loraux, in Schmitt-Pantel (n. 92), 11–44: Pomeroy (n. 92), 1–16.

94 Homeric Hymn to Delian Apollo, 123–5; Hesiod, , Theogony, 492–3; Sophokles, , Ichneutae, 271–2.

1 This article grew out of research carried out for my doctoral thesis, The Iconography of Divine and Heroic Children in Attic Red-figure Vase-painting of the Fifth Century BC (University of London, 1992). I should like to acknowledge the help of Sarah Currie, John Prag, and Alan Johnston, all of whom read drafts of this article and offered many helpful and stimulating suggestions for its improvement. The following abbreviations are used throughout:

Add. = T. H. Carpenter, Beazley Addenda (2nd edn; Oxford, 1989)

Brommer, GV = F. Brommer, Göttersagen in Vasenlisten (Marburg, 1980)

Brommer, VGH = id., Vasenlisten zur griechischen Heldensage (3rd edn; Marburg, 1973)

Loeb, Geb. = K. H. Loeb, Die Geburt der Götter in der griechischen Kunst der klassischen Zeit (Jerusalem, 1979)

Metzger, Rech. = H. Metzger, Recherches sur l'imagerie athénienne (Paris, 1965)

Metzger, Repr. = id., Les Représentations dans la céramique attigue du IVe siecle (Paris, 1951)

Schefold, Gött. = K. Schefold, Die Göttersage in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst (Munich, 1981)

Schefold, Urk. = id., Die Urkönige, Perseus, Bellerophon, Herakles und Theseus in der klassischen und hellenistischen Kunst (Munich, 1981)

Schefold, Held. = id., Götter und Heldensagen der Griechen in der spätarchaischen Kunst (Munich, 1978)

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