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Inscriptions from the Sparta and Larissa Museums

  • Charles Crowther (a1)


This paper discusses four Hellenistic inscriptions in the Sparta and Larissa Museums recording decrees for foreign courts. New proveniences, from Krannon and Peparethos, are suggested for two of the decrees. A full restoration, based on a parallel document, is provided for the Peparethian decree. New readings and restorations are also offered for the two other decrees. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the significance of these texts for the history of the late Hellenistic period.



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1 The museum work on which this paper is based was undertaken during my tenure of School and Macmillan-Rodewald Studentships at the British School in 1986–7. The Spartan section is offered to the then Director, Hector Catling, as a long-overdue thanks offering for the patient help and good counsel from which I benefited throughout my time in Athens. I am indebted to the Greek Archaeological Service for granting me permits to study material in Greek museums and specifically to K. Gallis and E. Kourinou for allowing me to work, respectively, in the Sparta and Larissa Museums. An earlier version of this paper was read by Ph. Gauthier and I am grateful to him for his comments—as also to Ch. Habicht for his comments about the identification proposed in section I.

2 See the references in nn. 9, 27 and 30 below.

3 IG ix. 2. 507, revised by Robert, L., BCH 50 (1926), 479–82 (reprinted in Opera minora selecta i (Amsterdam, 1969), 43–4).

4 ‘Ehrung von Richter aus Metropolis’, in Στήλη. τόμος εἰς μνήμην Νιϰολάον Κοντολέοντος (Athens, 1980), 44–7; reprinted as SEG xxvii. 226; cf. Bull. Ep. 1979, 247.

5 Habicht (n. 4), 45 with n. 5–7; cf. Lejeune, M., REG 54 (1941), 73–7, and see n. 22 below.

6 Habicht (n. 4), 45 with n. 4. Damainetos is also attested as a name at Krannon in the list of Krannonians enrolled as citizens of Larissa in the late 3rd cent, on the instructions of Philip II.

7 Cf. e.g. JHS 33 (1913), 332 no. 16, 7–8, which shows a similar formulation to the present decree (ἐπι τάς ϰατὰ πόλινδίϰας ϰαὶ εὐθύνας); a provenience from Phalanna, however, seems to be excluded by that city's use of ϰοινή forms before the middle of the 2nd cent. (Habicht (n. 4), 46 with n. 12).

8 Ibid. 45.

9 Cf. CRAI (1926), 169–71, where L. Robert was able to identify a decree of Antiocheia-on-the-Maeander from a fragmentary inscription mistakenly placed in a 5th-cent. Ionian context by Waddington; Rev. Ph. 53 (1927), 109: identification of a decree of Tralles; cf. Grandjean, Y., BCH Supp. 5 (1979), 400–6, no. 4. The same procedure and prospects apply, a fortiori, to the restoration of decrees for which parallels are not immediately at hand; cf. L. Robert's remarks in Hellenica vii (Paris, 1949), 180.

10 For Arvanitopoulos' distinguished career in Thessalian archaeology, see Gallis, K., ‘A Short Chronicle of Greek Archaeological Investigations in Thessaly’, in La Thessalie. Actes de la Table-Ronde 1975 (Lyon, 1979), 510.

11 ἡ ὀλβία πρωτεύουσα τω̑ν πλουοίων Σϰοπάδων. Excavation report in PAE 1922–4, 35–38; cf. ‘Chronique des fouilles’, BCH 46 (1922), 518.

12 For the difficulties of the first season's work, see A.'sreport (n. 11), 36–7: ἡ ἀποκάλυψις (τοῦ ναοῦ) εἶναι μὲν ἐργώδης καὶ πολυδάπανος· ἀλλ᾿ ἀνταξία τοῦ κόπου καὶ τῆς δαπάνης.

13 For Pherai, see ‘Chronique des fouilles’, BCH 44 (1920), 396; 45 (1921), 529–30; 47 (1923), 524; 48 (1924), 482.

14 ‘Chronique des fouilles’, BCH 47 (1923), 524.

15 See the list of publications in McDevitt, A. S., Inscriptions from Thessaly (Hildesheim, 1970), nos. 310–23; to which can be added Ch. Habicht, Klio 52 (1970), 139–47; id., Ancient Macedonian Studies' Edson (Thessaloniki, 1981), 193–98; A. Delt. 29 (1973–4), Chr. 572; 30 (1975), 197; 31 (1976), 178.

16 Béquignon, Y., BCH 59 (1935), 71–3, no. 4, dating to late 2nd cent. (script), and using ϰοινή forms.

17 Ibid. 73 n. 1, citing PAE 1915, 172 for Arvanitopoulos's discovery at Krannon of a πλάϰα περιέχουσαν σπουδαιότατον διϰαστιὸν ψήφισμα22 στίχων σω̨ζομένων. του̑ τύπου τω̑ν ἐν Γόννοις· ὃπερ ϰατέθη ϰα ἐν τηη̢̑ Ἀρχαιολογιϰη̢̑ Συλλογη̢̑. ϰαὶ ὅπερ ἀναφέρει ναο̍ν Ἀσϰληπιου̑. ἔνθα εἰ̑χεν ἀνατεθη̑ τὸ ψήφισνα .For Béquignon's inventory of the Museum, see BCH 59 (1935), 53–4.

18 For the Φρούριον see Gallis (n. 10), 8; war damage: ‘Chronique des fouilles’, BCH 70 (1946), 384 n. 1; A. Delt. 16 (1960), Chr. 168; Gallis (n. 10), 16: transfer of the archaeological collection to the former mosque by the central market; cf. Béquignon, Y., Mélanges … Daux (Paris, 1974), 1 (lost inscriptions).

19 Others that survived, but had escaped the inventory of 1932, are reported by Béquignon, Klio 52 (1970), 17–23.

20 Habicht (n. 4), 47. The inscription from Krannon (ed. pr. of Béquignon, BCH 59 (1935), 36 no. 1; reprinted in Moretti, L., Iscrizioni storiche ellenistiche (Florence, 1975; hereafter ISE) ii. 99) is dated by the federal strategos Krateraios Didorou, for whom cf. Kramolisch, H., Die Strategen des thessalischen Bundes (Bonn, 1978), 67–8, C5 (‘spätestens 141/0’).

21 Habicht (n. 4), pl. 4b (SEG xxvii. 226) and 5 (ISE ii. 99); notice, in particular, the distinctive forms of pi and upsilon.

22 Cf. ἐγενείθει (11) with γενειθεῖ in l. 31 of ISE ii. 99; for this form, attested in only these two inscriptions, see Lejeune (n. 5), 76, and cf. Blümel, W., Die aiolischen Dialekte (Göttingen, 1982), 204, §217.

23 Cf. the series of 20 dikastic decrees from Gonnoi discussed by Helly, B., Gonnoi i (Amsterdam, 1973), 116—19; for σπανοσίτα cf. ibid. ii. 41. 15–17. A group of eight Iasian decrees from the early 2nd cent, can be connected with the evidence of economic distress and social unrest, following Philip V's Carian campaign and the severe earthquake of 199/8 BC; see my discussion in BICS 40 (1995), 91–136.

24 IG ix. 2. 461b for Λὶουν Παυσανίαιος Ματροπολίτας; Habicht (n. 15) (Klio 1970), publishes a fragment of an honorific decree found at Krannon whose origin he establishes as Metropolitan.

23 Cf. Béquignon (n. 19), 16 n. 1, for Larissa Museum Inv. 140, a stele now fragmented, but which would have measured 2.02 m. An inscription of similar size and form is noticed among the finds from Krannon, in ‘Chronique des fouilles’, BGH 47 (1923) quoted in the text above. Christian Habicht tells me that this inscription is now Inv. 766 in the Larissa Museum collection where he was able to examine it in 1967; cf. also Helly, B., l'état thessalien (Lyon, 1995), 320.

26 Theokritos, Id. XVI, 37–8; cf. Arvanitopoulos, in PAE 19221924, 36: ἐγώ τοὐλάχιοτον εἰ̑μαι πεπείσμενος ὅτιϰαὶ ἡ Κράννων θα παρουσιάση̢ ἐπιστημονιϰάς ἐπλήξεις. ώς αἱ Μυϰη̑ναι. ἐὰν προσηϰόντως ἐξαρευνηθη̢̑ ποτέ.

27 Woodward, A. M. and Robert, L., BSA 27 (19271928), 5774.

28 Woodward, A. M., BSA 15 (19081909), 78–9, no. 84: ‘further restoration of our inscription is impossible.’

29 Woodward and Robert (n. 27), 57 n. 2 (SEG iv. 472).

30 Woodward and Robert (n. 27), 72–4, no. 78. Robert's. supplements were criticized by M. Guarducci, Riv.Fil. NS 10 (1932), 84; for Robert's reply, see Hellenica 7 (Paris, 1949), 179 n. 12.

31 Ed. pr. of Giovannini, A. in Milojcic, V., Theocharis, D., Demetrias I (Bonn, 1976), 205–13.

32 The Larissaian judge Pandokos Alkota appears in a similar role in Béquignon, Y., BCH 59 (1935), 6470, no. 3. 1–43, which is securely dated by the archon year of Iason to 109/8 BC, and as a dikastagogos in a second text on the same stone (no. 3. 44–52). The text of this second document is now reprinted in W. Blümel, I. Mylasa ii. T55; in addition to Blümel's correction of 1. 45, διϰαστήριον should be read in 1. 46 for Béquignon's διϰαστήριον and ἐξαπέστελλε in 1. 49 for Béquignon's Diogenes Demetriou appears in an early ist-cent, manumission text from Larissa, IG ix. 2. 533. 10–13.

33 Notice, for example, the forms of pi, with hastae of almost equal length, theta with a complete cross-stroke, and alpha with broken cross-bar, all of which are shared by SEG xxvi. 677.

34 Cf. e.g., I. Magnesia 55. 26: ἐπὶ σωτηρίαιϰαὶ εὐτυχίαι ἀμφοτέρων πόλεων.

35 Cf. e.g.,I. Magnesia 54.25—7 [ἐπὶ σωτ]ηρίαιϰαὶ ὑγιείαι ϰαὶ ὁμονοίαι τω̑[ν τεχνι]τω̑ν [ϰ]αὶ του̑ δήμου του̑ Μαγνήτων.

36 Peek, W., AAI 59 (1934), 70–2, no. 4 (reprinted as IG xii suppl. 258).

37 IG xii suppl. 258. 9–10: σφραγισαμένους τε̑ι δημοσίαι σφραγι̑δι:cf. SEG xxvi. 677. 72 3. IG xii suppl. 258, 5: οἱ ϰατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν ἄρχοντες γινόμενοὶ cf. SEG xxvi. 677. 66—7.

38 See the references in n. 23 above.

39 IG ix. 2. 507; the decree is dated by the Thessalian federal strategos Pollichos, who is separately attested as hieromnemon at Delphi in 134/3 (FD iii. 2. 68; 213); cf. Kramolisch (n. 20), 70, C9 for this date and identification.

40 L. Robert (n.3)

41 600 Jurors, for example, in SIG 3 683; 151 in SIG 3 471; 18. in IC. iii. iv. 9.

42 Cf. e.g. SEG xii. 390 for 10 judges, 5 from Naxos, 5 from Andros; SEG i. 363, for 6 judges, two each from Miletos, Myndos, and Halikarnassos.

43 Ed. pr. of Gallis, K., AAA 5 (1972), 275–9 (fig. 1); cf. Bull. Ep. 1973, 240; corrected edition of Daux, G., ZPE 16 (1975), 37–8.

44 SEG xxvi. 677. 23–23: ἄνδρας ϰαλου̑ςϰαὶ ἀγαθοὺς τω̑ν τι[μωμένων παρ᾿ αὐτοι̑ς ϰ]αὶ πιστευομένων.

45 See Holleaux's, M. discussion of the term τιμώμενοι φίλοι in Welles, C.B., Royal Correspondence in the Hellenistic Period (New Haven, 1934), 45, 2—4 (ἐπεὶ παρὰ του̑ βασιλέως ἀπεδόθη πρόσταγμα περὶ Ἀριστολόχου τω̑ν τιμωμένων παρ᾿ αὐτωι),at Études d'èpigraphie et d'histoire grecque, iii, ed. L. Robert (Paris, 1968), 220–28. Cf. Also L. Robert's discussion of πίστιδ in a late-2nd-cent. decree of Tralies for a Mylasian court, RPh 53 (1927), 105 (reprinted in Opera minora selecta, ii (Amsterdam, 1969), 1060). The parallels between court and civic language in the late Hellenistic period are explicitly noticed by Drew-Bear, Th., BCH 96 (1972), 455 n. 135.

46 Welles (n. 45), 182 notices the absence of parallels for πίστιδ in this context in Seleucid chancellery prose and questions whether the phrase cited here has titular significance; this seems to me unnecessarily sceptical, since ἐν τιμη̑ι with which πίστιδ is conjoined certainly does have such a significance.

47 Welles (n. 45), no. 63. 7–8: πίστεως ϰαί εὐνόας ἀποδε̧[ίξεις φαν]ε̨ρ̣ὰ[σ] [ἀπ]οδείξ[α]ν̣τας.For the attribution of this letter to Orophernes' reign (158–156 BC), see Welles'commentary ibid.

48 See, e.g., Robert's, L. discussion of the style of a series of decrees of the Lycian koinon, REA 62 (1960), 325–6 (reprinted in Opera minora selecta ii. 841–2); Ph. Gauthier, Les cités grecques et leur bienfaiteurs (BCH Supp. 12, 1985), 56–8.

49 See, e.g. Reynolds, J., Aphrodisias and Rome (London, 1982), nos. 2. 5–6; 5. 5–7, with discussion on pp. 15–16.

50 Bousquet, J. and Gauthier, Ph., ‘Un juge de Xanthos à Angeira de Pisidie’, REG 106 (1993), 1223.

51 Of the four civic decrees that have survived from Peparethos, three are for foreign courts.

52 For more discussion of this point, see BICS 40 (1995), 91–136.

53 Gruen, E. S., The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (Berkeley, 1984), 110–11.

Inscriptions from the Sparta and Larissa Museums

  • Charles Crowther (a1)


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