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I.—Excavations At Sparta, 1907: §10.—Inscriptions 1

  • Marcus Niebuhr Tod, H. J. W. Tillyard and A. M. Woodward

Extract

The beginning of Damonon's votive slab, which was found by Leake in the Monastery of the Holy Forty ("Αγιοι Τεσσαράκοντα or Σαράντα) and is now in the Sparta Museum, is one of the best known and oftenest discussed of early Laconian inscriptions.

The following are the chief references. Leake, Travels in the Morea, ii. 521 and Plate 71 (end of vol. iii.). A better copy, Dressel and Milchhöfer, Ath. Mitt. ii. 318. Facsimile in Roehl, I.G.A. 79 and Imagines2 x. n. 16, p. 28 ; Fick, Bezz. Beiträdge, iii. 121 ff.; Collitz-Bechtel, iii. 4416 ; Roberts, Introd. to Gk. Epigr. i. n. 264 ; Tod, Sparta Mus. Cat. n. 440. (Other references, none of them of much importance, are given by Tod and Roehl, ll. c.)

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1

I wish to thank Mr. A. M. Woodward for a number of suggestions of which he has most generously allowed me to avail myself in the present article. Mr. Woodward had the advantage of visiting Sparta in the autumn of 1907, when he made several discoveries in connection with the inscriptions, which were then in the Museum. I have acknowledged his chief contributions as they occur.

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page 179 note 1 Paus. iii. 20. 2. For the meaning of Γαιάοχος cf. Roberts, op. cit. n. 264. Γαιαόχω is of course genitive.

page 180 note 1 The finding of a Panathenaic vase on the site (cf. p. 150) can hardly affect the conclusion here drawn.

page 180 note 2 This is no doubt the meaning of τω̑ι αὐτω̑ (=ἑσυτου̑) τεθρίππωι cf. Roberts, l.e.

page 180 note 3 Paus. iii. 20. 5.

page 180 note 4 Cf. Roberts, ibid.

page 181 note 1 Steph. Byz. Λιθήσιος· δ ᾿Απόλλων ἐν τῳ̑ Μαλέᾳ (λίωῳ) προσιδρνμένος ἐκει̑ From this S. Wide (Lak. Kulte, 71) gathers that A. Lithesius had a shrine on Malea, but other views are held: cf. Roscher, Lex. s.v. ‘Lithesios.’ The matter is really uncertain.

page 181 note 2 Wide, op. cit. 71; B.C.H. i. 357.

page 181 note 3 Wide, 70; B.C.H. ibid.

page 181 note 4 Cf. Wide, op. cit. 91.; Roscher, s.v. ‘Maleatas.’ [Pausanias mentions a shrine or altar of Apollo Maleates at Sparta (iii. 12. 8). He is also known at Troezen, (I.G. iv. 950 , 1. 31).–A.M. W.]

page 181 note 5 On these words cf. Roberts' note, op. cit. p. 265. Pausanias (vi. 2. 2) says that ‘foals’ were not entered at Olympia until 384. But the text is rather uncertain (cf. Frazer's note ad loc.), and of course they might have run in races elsewhere in Greece long before that date.

pasge 181 note 6 Ahrens, Dial. Dor. 323, has only ὤν and ἐών in pres. part. [Other forms of this participle ἰών from εἰμί are given by van Herwerden (Lexicon, s.v. εἰμί) He quotes ἰόντας, etc., from Orchomenos, but nothing parallel from Laconia.–A.M.W.]

page 181 note 7 I.G.A. 70.

page 181 note 8 I.G.A. 75. Made during Helot Revolt of 464 ff.

page 182 note 1 Cf. Roberts, op. cit. No. 265 a. The other manumission documents, ibid, b, c, d, are later.

page 182 note 2 Xen. Hell. ii. 3. 10.

page 182 note 3 Thuc. iv. 132.

page 182 note 4 Cf. Roberts, ibid.

page 183 note 1 The numbering in each group of inscriptions is carried on from the last year's article. All measurements are given in metres.

page 183 note 2 [A late word used by Nonnus, D. 26. 204.—A.M.W.]

page 188 note 1 The numbering is carried on from B.S.A. xii. 476.

page 189 note 1 Cf. Boeckh, , C.I.G. i. p. 611.

page 189 note 2 S.M.C. Introd. § 18.

page 190 note 1 Mr. A. J. B. Wace has kindly helped in the restoration of this inscription: to him I owe 11. 4, 5.

page 190 note 2 Boeckh and others thought of M. Aurelius' Parthian war; but Wolters has clearly proved their reference to Caracalla's. Cf. S.M.C. 245.

page 191 note 1 B.S.A. xii. 316; cf. Strabo, viii. 5. 5; Herodian, iv. 8. 3. There was a certain humour in Caracalla's act in founding a Λόχος Πιτανάτης when Thucydides, correcting Herodotus, declared that such had never existed (cf. Thuc. i. 20. 3, Hdt. ix. 53).

page 191 note 2 Travels in the Morea, iii. Plates, No. 72.

page 191 note 3 Cf. B.S.A. xii. 404.

page 192 note 1 S.M.C. No. 205.

page 192 note 2 B.S.A. xii. 347.

page 192 note 3 The τύπος ξύλινος κεραίδων at Delos (B.C.H. 1882, p. 48, 1. 172) seems to have been a stamp of this sort.

page 193 note 1 As may have been the case at Elatea (Paris, Élatée, 116). Paris supposes that single bricks bore parts of an inscription, which, when the bricks were built into the wall in proper order, would read continuously (ib. 117), but there is no sign of this at Sparta. Other examples of stamped bricks are given by Paris, ib. 110; Richardson, ap. Waldstein, , Argive Heraeum, i. 218. 4; cf. B.S.A. xii. 344 ff. Most of them contain the word δημόσιος and often the contractor and the Eponymus.

page 193 note 2 I am unable myself to see any trace of the Εὐάμερος (B.S.A. xii. 346) on the fourth side of this brick, which appears as the reading in the inventory.

page 195 note 1 I can find no parallel for this form anywhere.

page 200 note 1 There hardly seems sufficient evidence for dating 2482 to the age of Aurelius, as was MrTillyard's, view (B.S.A. xii. p. 377 ), for Menecles, the patronomus who was κάσεν to the victor, is probably the man of that name who belongs to the year 97 or 98 A.D., and Eudamus may well have been contemporary: further, in spite of the bad lettering, it is not certain that Sosinicus must be M. Aurelius Sosinicus, nor that Primus must be a late second century name.

page 201 note 1 Vide Tod in S.M.C. Introd. § 22.

page 201 note 2 Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian, pp. 59, 70, 71. But vide postscript to this article.

page 202 note 1 For his career vide Klebs. Prosopographia Imperii Romani, s.v. Ti. Cl. Appius Atilius Bradaa Regillus Atticus.

page 203 note 1 Vide Le Bas-Foucart, 174; B.S.A. xii. p. 463, No. 17. The Alcastus, in B.S.A. xii. p. 372 , No. 32, is grandson of the Alcastus of our present inscription; as such he appears also in C.I.G. 1351.

page 206 note 1 An inscription from Delos enables Dürrbach to prove that this fell in the year 111/2 of the Attic calendar (B.C H. 1904, p. 180).

page 206 note 2 Weber (Untersuchungen zur Gesch. d. Kais. Hadrianus, p. 188, note 671) thinks that Hadrian's tenure of the patronomate must be dated to a year when he was present at Sparta, but there is no reason why he should not have held such a magistracy in his absence.

page 212 note 1 X. pp. 63–77.

page 213 note 1 A second copy of this list is inscribed on a stone at Parori, , Ath. Mitt. ii. 435 , No. 6.

page 215 note 1 Arch. Aufsätze, ii. p. 659 (= B.S.A. x. 69, No. 9). The inscription suffered severely in the fire which destroyed the first Sparta Museum and the relief perished: see Le Bas-Foucart, Explication, p. 100.

page 215 note 2 Furtwängler, ap. Roscher, i. p. 1172.

page 215 note 3 Cf. S.M.C. Nos. 201, 202, 203, 356.

page 215 note 4 Alcman, fr. 5: Pindar, , Nem. x. 56 : Homer, , Il. iii. 243 , Od. xi. 301.

page 215 note 5 Plutarch, De frat. amore, ad init.

page 215 note 6 S.M.C. p. 113, Fig. 14.

page 215 note 7 S.M.C. No. 588, Fig. 68.

page 215 note 8 Hdt. v. 75; cf. Rawlinson's note ad loc.

page 215 note 9 S.M.C. p. 116.

page 218 note 1 Or possibly the line is drawn in at each end, asin No. I, 1. 5 (above), and there is no word lost between ὠβάς and ὡ̑ν

1 I wish to thank Mr. A. M. Woodward for a number of suggestions of which he has most generously allowed me to avail myself in the present article. Mr. Woodward had the advantage of visiting Sparta in the autumn of 1907, when he made several discoveries in connection with the inscriptions, which were then in the Museum. I have acknowledged his chief contributions as they occur.

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