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A striped pattern of snowfall and snow cover

  • Yasuaki Nohguchi (a1), Takashi Ikarashi (a1), Osamu Abe (a2) and Atsushi Sato (a2)

Abstract

A striped pattern can be seen by spraying ink on a vertical wall of a snow pit to observe the layered structure of a snow cover. This pattern is caused by variations of snowfall in time, particularly pauses in snowfall, and its structure is related to a kind of fractal. In this paper, we consider snowfall and snow cover from a viewpoint of fractals and show that the layered structure of snow cover is a record of fractals on atmospheric-turbulence phenomena through the time variation of snowfall.

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Copyright

References

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Abe, O. Nakamura, H. Higashiura, M. Numano, N. Nakamura, T. 1985 Snow depth, newly fallen snow depth and weather observed for ten winter seasons at the Shinjo Branch of the NRCDP, Yamagata, Japan (1974/75 winter to 1983/84 winter). Review of Research for Disaster Prevention 106.
Feder, J. 1988 Fractals. New York, Plenum Press.
Kawakami, S. Yoshida, E. 1988 Fractal and statistical properties of rain–rate processes. Tenki, 35, 693700. [In Japanese.]
Lovejoy, S. 1982 Area–perimeter relation for rain and cloud area. Science, 216, 185187.
Mandelbrot, B.B. 1981 The fractal geometry of nature. New York W.H. Freeman and Co.
Mandelbrot, B.B. 1986 Self–affine fractal sets. In Pietronero, L., Tossati, E., eds. Fractals in physics. Amsterdam, North–Holland, 328.
Nakaya, U. 1938 Snow. Tokyo, Iwanami. [In Japanese.]
Shimizu, H. 1965 Snow observation method. Tokyo, Japanese Society of Snow and Ice. [In Japanese.]
Wakahama, G. 1963 The infiltration of melt water into snow cover I. Low Temp. Sci., Ser. A 21, 4573. [In Japanese with English summary.]

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