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The splash function for snow from wind-tunnel measurements

  • James N. McElwaine (a1), Norikazu Maeno (a2) and Konosuke Sugiura (a3)

Abstract

In wind transport of snow, horizontal momentum is extracted from the mean wind flow and transferred to the snow grains. Upon colliding with the surface the grains can bounce and eject further grains in a process known as splashing. How efficiently the horizontal momentum is converted to vertical momentum in the splash process is the determining factor for mass-transport rates. This paper discusses wind-tunnel experiments performed to calculate the splash function for snow particles. The data are used to develop a new splash function. Particular care is taken to include correlations in the data such as between ejection velocity and ejection angle. The new splash function includes these correlations, and its parameters are related to physical properties of the bed and snow.

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References

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Araoka, K. and Maeno, N.. 1981. Dynamical behavior of snow particles in the saltation layer. Nat. Inst. Polar Res.Mem., Ser. Special Issue, 19, 253–263.
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Sugiura, K. and Maeno, N.. 2000. Wind-tunnel measurements of restitution coefficients and ejection number of snow particles in drifting snow: determination of splash functions. Boundary-LayerMeteorol., 95(1), 123–143.
Willetts, B. B. and Rice, M. A.. 1985. Inter-saltation collisons. In Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E., ed. International Workshop on the Physics of Blown Sand. Proceedings.Vol. 1. Aarhus, University of Aarhus. Institute of Mathematics, 83–100.

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