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Simulations of dense-snow avalanches on deflecting dams

  • Fridtjov Irgens (a1), Bonsak Schieldrop (a2), Carl B. Harbitz (a3), Ulrik Domaas (a3) and Runar Opsahl (a3)...

Abstract

Two models simulating snow avalanches impacting retaining dams at oblique angles of incidence are presented.

First, a lumped-mass model applying the Voellmy-Perla equation is used to calculate the path of the centre-of-mass along the side of a retaining dam.

Secondly, a one-dimensional continuum model, applying depth-integrated equations of balance of mass and linear momentum, is expanded to take into account that real avalanche flows are three-dimensional. The centre-line of the avalanche path is determined by the flowing material as it progresses down the channelized avalanche path. The nonlinear constitutive equations comprise viscosity, visco-elasticity and plasticity.

Both models are calibrated by simulations of a registered avalanche following a strongly curved channel. The path and the run-up height of the avalanche on the natural deflecting dam with oblique angle of incidence as calculated by the two models, are compared with the observations made.

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References

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Simulations of dense-snow avalanches on deflecting dams

  • Fridtjov Irgens (a1), Bonsak Schieldrop (a2), Carl B. Harbitz (a3), Ulrik Domaas (a3) and Runar Opsahl (a3)...

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