Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Simple relations for the close-off depth and age in dry-snow densification

  • Andrey N. Salamatin (a1) and Vladimir Ya. Lipenkov (a2)

Abstract

A physical model for the snow/firn densification process (Salamatin and others, 2006) and Martinerie and others’ (1992, 1994) correlation for the firn density at the pore closure are employed to perform a scale analysis and computational experiments in order to deduce simplified relations for the close-off depth and ice age in quasi-stationary ice formation conditions. The critical snow density at which ice-grain rearrangement stops is used to take into account variability of snow structures subjected to densification. The results obtained are validated on a representative set of ice-core data from 22 sites which covers wide ranges of present-day temperatures and ice accumulation rates. A simple analytical approximation for the density–depth profile is proposed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Simple relations for the close-off depth and age in dry-snow densification
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Simple relations for the close-off depth and age in dry-snow densification
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Simple relations for the close-off depth and age in dry-snow densification
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alley, R.B. 1987. Firn densification by grain-boundary sliding: a first model. J. Phys. (Paris), 48, Colloq. C1, 249–254. (Supplément au 3.)
Alley, R.B. 1988. Concerning the deposition and diagenesis of strata in polar firn. J. Glaciol., 34(118), 283–290.
Anderson, D.L. and Benson, C.S.. 1963. The densification and dia-genesis of snow. In Kingery, W.D., ed. Ice and snow: properties, processes, and applications. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 391–411.
Arnaud, L. 1997. Modélisation de la transformation de la neige en glace a` la surface des calottes polaires: étude du transport des gaz dans ces milieux poreux. (Thse de doctorat, Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble.)
Arnaud, L., Lipenkov, V., Barnola, J.M., Gay, M. and Duval, P.. 1998. Modelling of the densification of polar firn: characterization of the snow–firn transition. Ann. Glaciol., 26, 39–44.
Arnaud, L., Barnola, J.M. and Duval, P.. 2000. Physical modeling of the densification of snow/firn and ice in the upper part of polar ice sheets. In Hondoh, T., ed. Physics of ice core records. Sapporo, Hokkaido University Press, 285–305.
Arzt, E. 1982. The influence of an increasing particle coordination on the densification of spherical powders. Acta Met., 30(10), 1883–1890.
Barnola, J.M., Pimienta, P., Raynaud, D. and Korotkevich, Y.. 1991. CO2-climate relationship as deduced from the Vostok ice core: a re-examination based on new measurements and on a reevaluation of the air dating. Tellus, 43B(2), 83–90.
Bender, M.L. 2002. Orbital tuning chronology for the Vostok climate record supported by trapped gas composition. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 204(1–2), 275–289.
Benson, C.S. 1962. Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland ice sheet. SIPRE Res. Rep. 70.
Blunier, T., Schwander, J., Chappellaz, J., Parrenin, F. and Barnola, J.M.. 2004. What was the surface temperature in central Antarctica during the last glacial maximum? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 218(3–4), 379–388.
Craven, M. and Allison, I.. 1998. Firnification and the effects of wind-packing on Antarctic snow. Ann. Glaciol., 27, 239–245.
Ebinuma, T. and Maeno, N.. 1985. Experimental studies on densification and pressure-sintering of ice. Ann. Glaciol., 6, 83–86.
Ebinuma, T. and Maeno, N.. 1987. Particle rearrangement and dislocation creep in a snow-densification process. J. Phys. (Paris), 48, Colloq. C1, 263–268. (Supplément au 3.)
Ebinuma, T., Nishimura, H., Maeno, N. and Kawaguchi, S.. 1985. A new explanation of bending of a snow density profile. Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res., 39, Special Issue, 184–188.
Ekaykin, A.A., Lipenkov, V.Ya., Petit, J.R. and Masson-Delmotte, V.. 2003. Pyatidesyatiletriy tsikl v izmeneniyah akkumulyatsii i izotopnogo sostava snega na stantsii Vostok [Fifty-years cycle in variations of snow accumulation and isotope content on Vostok Station]. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 94, 163–173. [In Russian with English summary.]
Goujon, C., Barnola, J.M. and Ritz, C.. 2003. Modeling the densification of polar firn including heat diffusion: application to close-off characteristics and gas isotopic fractionation for Antarctica and Greenland sites. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), 4792. (10.1029/2002JD003319.)
Lipenkov, V.Ya., Salamatin, A.N. and Duval, P.. 1997. Bubbly-ice densification in ice sheets: II. Applications. J. Glaciol., 43(145), 397–407.
Lipenkov, V.Ya., Ekaykin, A.A., Barkov, N.I. and Purshe, M.. 1998. O svyazi plotnosti poverkhnostnogo sloya snega v Antarktide so skorost’yu vetra [On connectionof density of surface ice layer in Antarctica with wind velocity]. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 85, 148–158. [In Russian with English summary.]
Lipenkov, V.Ya., Ryskin, O.A. and Barkov, N.I.. 1999. O svyazi mezhdu kolichestvom vozdushnykh vklyucheniy vo l’du i isloviyami l’doobrazovaniya [Relationship of number of air inclusions in ice with ice formation conditions]. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 86, 75–92. [In Russian with English summary.]
Martinerie, P., Raynaud, D., Etheridge, D.M., Barnola, J.M. and Mazaudier, D.. 1992. Physical and climatic parameters which influence the air content of polar ice. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 112(1–4), 1–13.
Martinerie, P., Lipenkov, V.Ya., Raynaud, D., Chappellaz, J., Barkov, N.I. and Lorius, C.. 1994. Air content paleo record in the Vostok ice core (Antarctica): a mixed record of climatic and glaciological parameters. J. Geophys. Res., 99(D5), 10,565–10,576.
Nishio, F. and 13 others. 2002. Annual-layer determinations and 167 year records of past climate of H72 ice core in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 35, 471–479.
Raynaud, D., Lipenkov, V., Lemieux-Dudon, B., Duval, P., Loutre, M.-F. and Lhomme, N.. 2007. The local insolation signature of air content in Antarctic ice. A new step toward an absolute dating of ice records. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 261(3–4), 337–349.
Salamatin, A.N., Lipenkov, V.Ya. and Blinov, K.V.. 1997. Reconstruction of past climatic variations of temperature on the Antarctic ice sheet surface from temperature measurements in deep boreholes at Vostok station. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 81, 141–146.
Salamatin, A.N., Lipenkov, V.Ya., Barnola, J.M., Hori, A., Duval, P. and Hondoh, T.. 2006. Basic approaches to dry snow–firn densification modeling. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 101, 3–16.
A.N., Salamatin, Lipenkov, V.Ya., Barnola, J.M., Hori, A., Duval, P. and Hondoh, T.. In press. Snow–firn densification in polar ice sheets. In Hondoh, T., ed. Physics of ice core records, Vol. 2. Sapporo, Hokkaido University Press.
Schwander, J. 1989. The transformation of snow to ice and the occlusion of gases. In Oeschger, H. and Langway, C.C. Jr, eds. The environmental record in glaciers and ice sheets. Chichester, etc., John Wiley and Sons, 53–67.
Schwander, J., Sowers, T., Barnola, J.M., Blunier, T., Fuchs, A. and Malaizé, B.. 1997. Age scale of the air in the Summit ice: implication for glacial–interglacial temperature change. J. Geophys. Res., 102(D16), 19,483–19,493.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed