Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Sediment, glaciohydraulic supercooling, and fast glacier flow

  • Richard B. Alley (a1), Daniel E. Lawson (a2), Edward B. Evenson (a3) and Grahame J. Larson (a4)

Abstract

Glaciers often advance over proglacial sediments, which then may enhance basal motion. For glaciers with abundant meltwater, thermodynamic considerations indicate that the sediment–ice contact in the direction of ice flow tends toward an angle opposed to and somewhat steeper than the surface slope (by slightly more than 50%). A simple model based on this hypothesis yields the extent of over-ridden sediments as a function of sediment thickness and strength, a result that may be useful in guiding additional fieldwork for hypothesis testing. Sediment-floored as well as rock-floored overdeepenings are common features along glacier flow paths and are expected based on theories of glacier erosion, entrainment, transport and deposition.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sediment, glaciohydraulic supercooling, and fast glacier flow
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sediment, glaciohydraulic supercooling, and fast glacier flow
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sediment, glaciohydraulic supercooling, and fast glacier flow
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alley, R. B. 1989.Water-pressure coupling of sliding and bed deformation: I. Water system. J. Glaciol., 35(119),108118.
Alley, R. B. 1991. Sedimentary processes may cause fluctuations of tidewater glaciers. Ann. Glaciol., 15, 119124.
Alley, R. B. 1997. Water, sediment and tidewater glaciers; simplistic review and weakly constrained speculations. Byrd Polar Res. Cent. Rep. 0, 5155.
Alley, R. B., Cuffey, K. M., Evenson, E. B., Strasser, J. C., Lawson, D. E. and Larson, G. J.. 1997. How glaciers entrain and transport basal sediment: physical constraints. Quat. Sci. Rev.,16(9), 10171038.
Alley, R. B., Lawson, D. E., Evenson, E. B., Strasser, J. C. and Larson, G. J.. 1998. Glaciohydraulic supercooling: a freeze-on mechanism to create stratified, debris-rich basal ice. II. Theory. J. Glaciol., 44(148), 563569.
Alley, R. B., Strasser, J. C., Lawson, D. E., Evenson, E. B. and Larson, G. J.. 1999. Some glaciological and geological implications of basal-ice accretion in an overdeepening. in Mickelson, D. M. and Attig, J.W., eds. Glacial Processes: Past and Present. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 19. (Special Paper 337.)
Arcone, S.A., Lawson, D. E. and Delaney, A.J..1995. Short-pulse radar wavelet recovery and resolution of dielectric contrasts within englacial and basal ice of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. J. Glaciol, 41(137), 6886.
Arcone, S. A., Lawson, D. E., Moran, M. and Delaney, A.J. 2000. 12–100-MHz profiles of ice depth and stratigraphy of three temperate glaciers. In Noon, D., Stickley, G. F. and Longstaff, D., eds. GPR 2000, Eighth International Conference On Ground Penetrating Radar, 23–26May 2000, Gold Coast, Australia. Bellingham, WA, International Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 377382. (SPIE Proceedings 4084.)
Barnes, D. F. 1987 Gravity anomaly at a Pleistocene lake bed in NW Alaska interpreted by analogy with Greenland’s Lake Taserssauq and its floating ice tongue. J. Geophys. Res., 92(B9), 89768984.
Bell, M. and Laine, E. P.. 1985. Erosion of the Laurentide region of North America by glacial and glaciofluvial processes. Quat. Res., 23 (2), 154174
Bennett, M. R. 2001. The morphology, structural evolution and significance of push moraines. Earth Sci. Rev., 53(3–4), 197236.
Björnsson, H. 1996. Scales and rates of glacial sediment removal: a 20 km long, 300 m deep trench created beneath Breiðamerkurjokull during the Little Ice Age. Ann. Glaciol., 22,141146.
Blankenship, D. D., Rooney, C. R. Bentley, S.T. and Alley, R. B. 1987 Till beneath Ice Stream B. 1. Properties derived from seismic travel times. J. Geophys. Res, 92(B9), 89038911.
Boulton, G. S, Dobbie, K. E. and Zatsepin, S.. 2001. Sediment deformation beneath glaciers and its coupling to the subglacial hydraulic system. Quat. Int., 86, 328.
Brocklehurst, S. H. and Whipple, K. X.. 2002. Glacial erosion and relief production in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Geomorphology, 42(1–2)1–24.
Burbank, D. W. and 6 others. 1996. Bedrock incision, rock uplift and threshold hillslopes in the north-western Himalayas. Nature, 379(6565), 505510.
Carter, L., Neil, H. L. and McCave, I. N.. 2000. Glacial to interglacial changes in non-carbonate and carbonate accumulation in the SW Pacific Ocean, New Zealand. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol, 162(3–4) 333356
Chinn, T.J. 1996. New Zealand glacier responses to climate change of the past century. N.Z J. Geol. Geophys., 39(3), 415428.
Clark, P. U., Alley, R. B and Pollard, D.. 1999. Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet influences on global climate change. Science, 286(5442) 11041111.
Cuffey, K. and Alley, R. B.. 1996. Is erosion by deforming subglacial sediments significant? (Toward till continuity) Ann. Glaciol., 22,1724.
Cuffey, K. M., Conway, H., Hallet, B, Gades, A. M. and Raymond, C. F. 1999. Interfacial water in polar glaciers and glacier sliding at –17°C. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(6), 751754.
Ensminger, S. L, Evenson, E. B., Alley, R. B., Larson, G.J., Lawson, D. E. and Strasser, J. C.. 1999. Example of the dependence of ice motion on subglacial drainage system evolution: Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, United States. In Mickelson, D. M. and Attig, J. W, eds. Glacial Processes: Past and Present. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 1122. (Special Paper 337)
Ensminger, S. L., Alley, R. B., Evenson, E. B., Lawson, D. E. and Larson, G. J.. 2001. Basal-crevasse-fill origin of laminated debris bands at Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. J. Glaciol, 47(158), 412422.
Evenson, E. B. and 6 others. 1999. Field evidence for the recognition of glaciohydraulic supercooling. In Mickelson, D. M. and Attig, J.W., eds. Glacial Processes: Past and Present. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 2335. (Special Paper 337)
Hallet, B. 1996. Glacial quarrying: a simple theoretical model. Ann. Glaciol, 22,18.
Hallet, B, Hunter, L. E. and Bogen, J.. 1996. Rates of erosion and sediment evacuation by glaciers: a review of field data and their implications. Global Planet. Change, 12(1–4) 213235.
Hooke, R. LeB. 1991. Positive feedbacks associated with erosion of glacial cirques and overdeepenings. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull, 103(8), 11041108.
Hooke, R. LeB. and Pohjola, V A.. 1994. Hydrology of a segment of a glacier situated in an overdeepening, Storglaciaren, Sweden. J. Glaciol, 40(134), 140148.
Humphrey, N., Kamb, B., Fahnestock, M. and Engelhardt, H.. 1993. Characteristics of the bed of the lower Columbia Glacier, Alaska. J. Geophys. Res.,98(B1), 837846.
Hunter, L. E, Powell, R. D. and Lawson, D. E. 1996a. Flux of debris transported by ice at three Alaskan tidewater glaciers. J. Glaciol, 42(140), 123135
Hunter, L. E, Powell, R. D. and Lawson, D. E. 1996b. Morainal-bank sediment budgets and their influence on the stability of tidewater termini of valley glaciers entering Glacier Bay, Alaska, U.S.A. Ann. Glaciol, 22, 211216.
Iverson, N. R. 1991. Potential effects of subglacial water-pressure fluctuations on quarrying. J. Glaciol., 37(125),2736.
Kamb, B. and Echelmeyer, K.A.. 1986. Stress-gradient coupling in glacier flow: I. Longitudinal averaging of the influence of ice thickness and surface slope. J. Glaciol., 32(111), 267284.
Koppes, M. N. and Hallet, B.. 2002. Influence of rapid glacial retreat on the rate of erosion by tidewater glaciers. Geology, 30(1), 4750.
Larson, G. and Schaetzl, R.. 2001. Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes Res., 27(4), 518546.
Lawson, D. E. 1979. Sedimentological analysis of the western terminus region of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Crrel Rep. 79-9.
Lawson, D. E. 1986. Observations on hydraulic and thermal conditions at the bed of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. In Hydraulic Effects At The Glacier Bed and Related Phenomena, International Workshop, 16–19 September Interlaken, Switzerland. Zürich, ETH. Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie,6971. (Mitteilungen 90.)
Lawson, D. E. 1993. Glaciohydrologic and glaciohydraulic effects on runoff and sediment yield in glacierized basins. Crrel Monogr. 93-02.
Lawson, D. E., Strasser, J. C., Evenson, E. B., Alley, R. B., Larson, G. J. and Arcone, S. A.. 1998b. Glaciohydraulic supercooling:a freeze-on mechanism to create stratified, debris-rich basal ice. I. Field evidence. J. Glaciol., 44(148), 547562.
Meier, M. F. and Post, A.. 1987. Fast tidewater glaciers. J. Geophys. Res., 92(B9), 90519058.
Meigs, A. and Sauber, J.. 2000. Southern Alaska as an example of the longterm consequences of mountain building under the influence of glaciers. Quat. Sci. Rev., 19(14–15),15431562.
Mickelson, D. M., Clayton, L., Fullerton, D. S. and Borns, H.W. Jr. 1983.The Late Wisconsin glacial record of the Laurentide ice sheet in the United States. in Wright, H. E. Jr, ed. Late-Quaternary Environments of The United States. Volume 1. Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press, 337.
Nolan, M., Motyka, R.J., Echelmeyer, K. and Trabant, D. C.. 1995. Ice-thickness measurements of Taku Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., and their relevance to its recent behavior. J. Glaciol., 41(139), 541553. (Erratum: 42(141), 1996, p.400.)
Nye, J.F. 1951. The flow of glaciers and ice-sheets as a problem in plasticity. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 207(1091), 554572.
Nye, J. F. 1952. The mechanics of glacier flow. J. Glaciol., 2(12),8293.
Paterson, W. S. B. 1994 .The Physics of Glaciers. third edition. Oxford, etc., Elsevier.
Pearce, J.T. and 6 others. 2003. Bedload component of glacially discharged sediment: insights from the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Geology, 31(1),710.
Powell, R. D. 1990. Glacimarine processes at grounding-line fans and their growth to ice-contactdeltas. in Dowdeswell, J. A. and Scourse, J. D., eds. Glacimarine Environments: Processes and Sediments. London, Geological Society, 5373. (Special Publication 53.)
Roberts, M. J. and 7 others. 2002. Glaciohydraulic supercooling in Iceland. Geology, 30(5), 439442.
Rothlisberger, H. and Lang, H.. 1987. Glacial hydrology. in Gurnell, A. M. and Clark, M. J., eds. Glacio-Fluvial Sediment Transfer: An Alpine Perspective Chichester, etc., John Wiley and Sons, 207284.
Spedding, N. and Evans, D. J. A.. In press. Sediments and landforms at Kvíarjökull, south-east Iceland: a reappraisal of the glaciated valley landsystem. Sediment. Geol.
ten Brink, U. S., Hackney, R. I., Bannister, S., Stern, T. A. and Makovsky, Y.. 1997. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the bedrock beneath the East Antarctic ice sheet. J. Geophys. Res.,102(B12), 27,60327,621.
Tulaczyk, S. M., Kamb, B. and Engelhardt, H. F.. 2000. Basal mechanics of Ice Stream B,West Antarctica. I.Till mechanics. J. Geophys. Res.,105(B1), 463481.
Tulaczyk, S. M., Scherer, R. P. and Clark, C. D.. 2001. A ploughing model for the origin of weak tills beneath ice streams: a qualitative treatment. Quat. Int., 86(1), 5970.
Walder, J. S. 1982. Stability of sheet flow of water beneath temperate glaciers and implications for glacier surging. J. Glaciol., 28(99), 273293.
Walder, J. S. and Fowler, A.. 1994. Channelized subglacial drainage over a deformable bed. J. Glaciol., 40(134),315.
Warren, C. R. and Kirkbride, M. P.. 1998. Temperature and bathymetry of ice-contact lakes in Mount Cook National Park, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys., 41(2),133143.
Weertman, J. 1964 .The theory of glacier sliding. J. Glaciol., 5(39), 287303.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annals of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0260-3055
  • EISSN: 1727-5644
  • URL: /core/journals/annals-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed