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The response of a seasonal snow cover to explosive loading

  • Jerome B. Johnson (a1), Daniel J. Solie (a1) and Stephen A. Barrett (a1)

Abstract

An explosive detonation in snow produces high intensity shock waves that are rapidly attenuated by momentum spreading as the snow is compacted. Our experimental measurements and numerical calculations indicate that the maximum shock-wave attenuation in seasonal snow (250 kgm−3) is proportional to between x −1.6 and x −3 for plane waves and x−3 for spherical waves (x is the propagation distance). Outside the region of shock-compacted snow or in air over snow, stresses are transmitted as acoustic/seismic waves. Attenuation of these waves depends on snow permeability and the effective modulus of the ice frame and is proportional to about x −0.7 for plane waves in seasonal snow and to about x−1 for spherical waves in air over seasonal snow. Increasing the scaled detonation height of an explosive up to 2mkgf−1/3 above a snow cover increases the far field (scaled distances greater than about 8m kgf−1/3 snow surface pressures. Scaled detonation heights greater than about 2mkgf−1/3 have little additional effect.

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References

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