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Errors and Corrections in Calculation of Heat Flux in Antarctic Surface Snow

  • Tokio Kikuchi (a1), Makoto Wada (a2) and Takashi Yamanouchi (a2)

Abstract

This paper describes errors and corrections in snow heat flux when it is calculated using the numerical differentiation and integration method. The data obtained by the 20th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition during GARP-POLEX in 1979 are used as a test case. Four factors are considered as causes of errors: a) temperature resolution, b) integration, c) determination of snow density and d) the deepest boundary condition. Factors a) and b) are significant in short term estimation, and the total error exceeds 90% if a daily value is calculated. The errors from a) can be reduced if the temperature is averaged over a long period, while those from b) become small in long term flux calculations. The total error can be reduced to 10% in monthly flux, while the improvement is limited by c) and d). If a constant thermal diffusivity is assumed between two levels of temperature measurement, a numerical filter which compensates for the effect of b) is composed. By using running averages in deep layers (z > 0.5 m) and the numerical filter in shallow layers (z <0.5 m), hourly flux can be calculated with errors of about 30%.

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Copyright

References

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Dairymple, P C, Lettau, H H, Wallaston, S H 1966 South Pole Micrometeorology Program; Data analysis. Antarctic Research Series 9: 13-57
Kikuchi, T 1983 Heat flux in surface snow at Mizuho Station, Antarctica: monthly values and errors. Memoirs of the National Institute of Polar Research Special Issue 29: 61-69
Mae, S, Wada, M, Yamanouchi, T 1981 The system of measurements of radiation and micrometeorological elements at Mizuho Station, East Antarctica; Installation and performance. Nankyoku Shiryo (Antarctic Record) 71: 44-57
Mellor, M 1964 Properties of snow. Cold Regions Science and Engineering Part III-AI
Munn, R E 1966 Descriptive Micrometeorology. New York, Academic Press
Narita, H, Maeno, N 1978 Compiled density from cores drilled at Mizuho Station. Memoirs of the National Institute of Polar Research Special Issue 10: 136-158
Wada, M, Yamanouchi, T, Mae, S, Kawaguchi, S, Kusunoki, K 1981 POLEX-South data, Part 2; Micrometeorological data at Mizuho Station, Antarctica in 1979. JARE Data Report 62: 321p
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Yamada, T, Hasemi, T 1974 Mizuho Kansokukyoten ni okeru hyomen sekisetsu-so no soshiki to netsu-dendoritsu to no kankei ni tsuite [On the relations between structure and thermal conductivity of snow layer near the surface at Mizuho Camp]. In Kuroiwa, D (ed) Kyokuchi Hyosho-guri no Butsuri-teki Kagaku-teki Kenkyu [Physical and Chemical Studies of Ices from Glaciers and Ice Sheets]. Sapporo, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University: 57-63
Yamanouchi, T, Wada, M, Mae, S, Kawaguchi, S 1981 POLEX-South data, Part 1; Radiation data at Mizuho Station, Antarctica in 1979. JARE Data Report 61

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