Ackley, S. F. and Sullivan, C. W.. 1994. Physical controls on the development and characteristics of Antarctic sea ice biological communities - a review and synthesis. Deep-Sea Res., 41(10), Part 1,1583−1604.
Amon, R. M. W., Fitznar, H.-P and Benner, R.. 2001. The relationship between bioreactivity, chemical composition, and diagenetic state of marine dissolved organic matter during bacterial degradation. Limnol. Oceanagr., 46(2), 287−297.
1980. Microflora of Arctic sea ice. National Geographic Society Research Reports, 12(1),a-20.
Bertilsson, S., Stepanauskas, R., Cuadros-Hansson, R., Graneli, W., Wikner, J. and Tranvik, L.. 1999. Photochemically induced changes in bioavailable carbon and nitrogen pools in a boreal watershed. Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 19(1), 47−56.
Brandini, F. P. and Baumann, M. E. M.. 1997. The potential role of melted "brown ice" as sources of chelators and ammonia to the surface waters of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Proc. MIPR Symp. Polar Biol.
Bunch, J. N. and Harland, R. C.. 1990. Bacterial production in the bottom surface of sea ice in the Canadian subarctic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 47(10), 1986−1995.
Cox, G. F. N. and Weeks, W. F.. 1983. Equations for determining the gas and brine volumes in sea-ice samples. J. Glacial., 29(102), 306−316.
1992. Dissolved organic carbon in waters of the Polar Frontal Zone of the Atlantic Antarctic in the spring-summer season of 19881989
Mar. Chem., 37(3−4), 275−283.
Eberlein, K. and Hammer, K. D.. 1980. Automatic determination of total carbohydrates in seawater. Fresenius’J. Anal. Chem., 301(1), 17−19.
1992. The role of sea ice in structuring Antarctic ecosystems. Polar Biol., 12(1), 2−13.
Evans, C. A., O’Reilly, J. E. and Thomas, J. P.. 1987. A handbook for the measurement of chlorophyll a and primary production. Biological investigations of marine Antarctic systems and stocks. College Station, TX,Texas A& M University. (BIOMASS 8.)
Garrison, D. L. and Buck, K. R.. 1986. Organism losses during ice melting: a serious bias in sea ice community studies. Polar Biol., 6(4), 237−239.
Giannelli, V., Thomas, D. N., Kennedy, H. A., Kattner, G., Dieckmann, G S. and Haas, C.. 2001. Behaviour of dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients during experimental sea-ice formation. Ann. Glacial., 33 (see paper in this volume).
Giesenhagen, H. C., Detma, A. E., de Wall, J., Weber, A., Gradinger, R. and Jochem, F.J.. 1999. How are Antarctic planktonic microbial food webs and algal blooms affected by melting of sea ice? Microcosm simulations. Aquat. Microb. EcoL, 20(2), 183−201
Gleitz, M. and Thomas, D. N.. 1993. Variation in phytoplankton standing stock, chemical composition and physiology during sea-ice formation in the southeastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. EcoL, 173(2), 211−230.
Gleitz, M., van der Loeff, M. M. R., Thomas, D. N., Dieckmann, G. S. and Millero, F. J.. 1995. Comparison of summer and winter inorganic carbon, oxygen and nutrient concentrations in Antarctic sea ice brine. Mar. Chem., 51 (2), 81−91.
Gleitz, M., Grossmann, S., Scharek, R. and Smetacek, V.. 1996. Ecology of diatom and bacterial assemblages in water associated with melting summer sea ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Antarct. Sci., 8(2), 135−146.
Grossmann, S. and Dieckmann, G. S.. 1994. Bacterial standing stock, activity, and carbon production during formation and growth of sea ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 60(8), 2746−2753.
Grossmann, S, Lochte, K. and Scharek, R.. 1996. Algal and bacterial processes in platelet ice during late austral summer. Polar Biol.,16(8), 623−633.
Gunther, S., Gleitz, M. and Dieckmann, G. S.. 1999. Biogeochemistry of Antarctic sea ice: a case study on platelet ice at Drescher Inlet, Weddell Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 177(1), 1−13.
Haas, C., Rebhan, H., Thomas, D N. and Viehoff, T.. 1996. Sea ice. In
Miller, H. and Grobe, H., eds.
The Expedition ANTARKTIS-XI/3 of RV Polarstern in 1994.
Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 29−43. (Report 188/96.)
Haas, C., Thomas, D. N., Steffens, M. and Bareiss, J.. 1998. Physical and biological investigations of sea ice. In Jokat, W. and Oerter, H., eds.
The Expedition ANTARKTIS-XV of RV Polarstern in 1997: report of leg ANT-XIV/3. Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 18−30. (Report 267/96.)
and 10 others.
1999. Multidisciplinary ice tank study shedding new light on sea ice growth processes. EOS, 80(43), 507, 509,513.
Helmke, E. and Weyland, H.. 1995. Bacteria in sea ice and underlying water of the eastern Weddell Sea in midwinter. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 117(1−3), 269−287.
Herndl, G. J., Muller-Niklas, G. and Frick, J.. 1993. Major role of ultraviolet-B in controlling bacterioplankton growth in the surface layer of the ocean. Mature, 361 (6414), 717−719
Junge, K., Krembs, C., Deming, J.W., Stierle, A. and Eicken, H.. 2001. A microscopic approach to investigate bacteria under in situ conditions in sea-ice samples. Ann. Glacial., 33 (see paper in this volume).
Kahler, P., Bjornsen, P. K., Lochte, K. and Antia, A.. 1997. Dissolved organic matter and its utilization by bacteria during spring in the Southern Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Ser. II, 44(1−2), 341−353.
Kattner, G and Becker, H.. 1991. Nutrients and organic nitrogenous compounds in the marginal ice zone of Fram Strait. J. Mar. Syst., 2(3−4), 385−394.
Krembs, C. and Engel, A.. 2001. Abundance and variability of microorganisms and TEP across the ice-water interface of melting first-year sea ice in the Laptev Sea (Arctic). Mar. Biol., 138(1), 173−185.
Kuosa, H., Norrman, B., Kivi, K. and Brandini, F.. 1992. Effects of Antarctic sea ice biota on seeding as studied in aquarium experiments. Polar Biol., 12(3−4), 333−339.
Lara, R. J. and Kattner, G.. 1994. Humic substances in the nitrogen cycle of polar waters. A comparison between the Arctic and Antarctic. In
Senesi, M. and Miano, T. M., eds.
Humic substances in the global environment and implications on human health. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V, 799−804.
Leppäranta, M. and Manninen, T.. Unpublished. The brine and gas content of sea ice, with attention to low salinities and high temperatures. Helsinki, Finnish Institute of Marine Research. (Internal Report 2.)
Melnikov, I. A. and Pavlov, G. L.. 1978. Characteristics of organic carbon distribution in the waters and ice of the Arctic Basin. Oceanology, 18(1−2), 163−167
Mopper, K., Zhou, X., Kieber, R.J., Kieber, D.J., Sikorski, R.J. and Jones, R. D.. 1991. Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic carbon and its impact on the ocean carbon cycle. Mature, 353(6339), 60−62.
Pakulski, J. D. and Benner, R.. 1994. Abundance and distribution of carbohydrates in the ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr, 39(4), 930−940.
Palmisano, A. C. and Garrison, D. L.. 1993. Microorganisms in Antarctic sea ice. In
Friedmann, E. I. , ed.
Antarctic microbiology. New York, etc., Wiley-Liss Inc., 167−218.
Perovich, D. K.
1993. A theoretical model of ultraviolet light transmission through Antarctic sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 98(C12), 22,579−22,587.
Porter, K. G. and Feig, Y. S.. 1980. The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnol. Oceanogr., 25(5), 943−948.
Prézelin, B. B., Moline, M. A. and Matlick, H. A.. 1998.
Icecolors ’93: spectral UV radiation effects on Antarctic frazil ice algae. In
Lizotte, M. P. and Arrigo, K. R., ed., Antarctic sea ice: biological processes, interactions and variability. Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 45−83. (Antarctic Research Series 73.)
Qian, J. and Mopper, K.. 1996. Automated high-performance, high-temperature combustion total carbon analyzer. Anal. Chem., 68(18), 3090−3097.
Raymond, J. A., Sullivan, C.W. and DeVries, A. L.. 1994. Release of an ice-active substance by Antarctic sea ice diatoms. Polar Biol, 14(1), 71−75.
Smith, R. E. H., Gosselin, M., Kudoh, S., Robineau, B. and Taguchi, S.. 1997. DOC and its relationship to algae in bottom ice communities. J. Mar. Syst., 11(1−2), 71−80.
Thomas, D. N. and Gleitz, M.. 1993. Allocation of photoassimilated carbon into major algal metabolite fractions: variation between two diatom species isolated from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biol, 13(4), 281−286.
Thomas, D. N., Lara, R. J., Eicken, H., Kattner, G. and Skoog, A.. 1995. Dissolved organic matter in Arctic multi-year sea ice during winter: major components and relationship to ice characteristics. Polar Biol, 15(7), 477−483.
Thomas, D. N.
and 7 others.
1998. Biological soup within decaying summer sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. In
Lizotte, M. P. and Arrigo, K. R., eds.
Antarctic sea ice: biological processes, interactions and variability
Washington, DC, American Geophysical Union, 161−171. (Antarctic Research Series 73.)
Thomas, D. N., Kennedy, H., Kattner, G., Gerdes, D, Gough, C. and Dieckmann, G. S.. 2001. Biogeochemisty of platelet ice: influence on particle flux under land fast sea ice during summer at Drescher Inlet, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biol
Wedborg, M., Hoppema, M. and Skoog, A.. 1998. On the relationship between organic and inorganic carbon in the Weddell Sea. J. Mar. Syst., 17(1−4), 59−76.
Weissenberger, J., Dieckmann, G., Gradinger, R. and Spindler, M.. 1992. Sea ice: a cast technique to examine and analyze brine pockets and channel structure. Limnol. Oceanogr, 37(1), 179−183.
Williams, P.J. LeB.
1995. Evidence for the seasonal accumulation of carbon rich dissolved organic material, its scale in comparison with changes in particulate material and the consequential effect on net C/N assimilation ratios. Mar. Chem., 51(1), 17−29.
Williams, P. M. and Druffel, E. R. M.. 1988. Dissolved organic matter in the ocean: comments on a controversy. Oceanogr. Mag.,1(1) 14−17.