Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Characteristics of basal ice at Engabreen, northern Norway

  • Peter Jansson (a1), Jack Kohler (a2) and Veijo A. Pohjola (a3)

Abstract

Subglacial intakes in a tunnel system underneath Engabreen, northern Norway, provide access to the underside of a 200 m thick glacier. Detailed observations and measurements were made in several ice tunnels melted out along the glacier bed. A 20–200 cm thick basal sediment layer is overlain by clean glacier ice. Stratigraphy is complex, with alternating sediment-rich and sediment-free layers, and pervasive shearing. Throughout the basal ice are numerous spheroidal water pockets, which increase in both size and degree of elongation with distance from the bed. Ice cores were retrieved from ice-tunnel walls for sediment, cation and isotope analysis. Our observations and measurements provide evidence for both accretion in and water movement through the basal ice. This supports the modification to classical regelation theory proposed recently by Lliboutry in which water flow in the vein network is required to achieve net accretion of regelation layers.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Characteristics of basal ice at Engabreen, northern Norway
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Characteristics of basal ice at Engabreen, northern Norway
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Characteristics of basal ice at Engabreen, northern Norway
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Brown, G.H., Sharp, M.J, Tranter, M., Gurnell, A.M and Nienow, P.W. 1994. Impact of post-mixing chemical reactions on the major ion chemistry of bulk meltwaters draining the Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. Hydrological Processes, 8(5), 465-480.
Hubbard, B. and Sharp, M., 1993. Weertman regelation, multiple refreezing events and the isotopic evolution of the basal ice layer, J. Glaciol., 39(132), 275-291.
Knight, P.G. and Knight, D.A. 1994. Correspondence. Glacier sliding, regelation water flow and development of basal ice. J. Glaciol, 40(136), 600-601.
Knight, P.G., Sugden, D.E and Minty, C.D. 1994. Ice flow around large obstacles as indicated by basal ice exposed at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. J. Glaciol., 40(135), 359-367.
Lawson, D.E. 1979. A sedimentological analysis of the western terminus region of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. CRREL Rep. 79-9.
Lliboutry, L. 1993. Internal melting and ice accretion at the bottom of temperate glaciers. J. Glaciol., 39(131), 50-64.
Østrem, G., Haakensen, N. and Melander, O. 1973. Atlas over breer i Nord-Skandinavia Norges Vassdrags - og Elektrisitetsvesen. Hydrologisk Avdeling. Meddelelse 22.
Robin, G. de Q. 1976. Is the basal ice of a temperate glacier at the pressure melting point? J Glaciol., 16(74), 183-196.
Sharp, M., Jouzel, J. Hubbard, B. and Lawson, W. 1994. The character, structure and origin of the basal ice layer of a surge-type glacier. J. Glaciol., 40(135), 327-340.
Souchez, R.A. and Groote., J.M. de 1985. δ D–δ18O relationships in ice formed by subglacial freezing: paleoclimatic. implications, J Glaciol., 31(109), 229-232.
Souchez, R.A. and Lorrain, R.D. 1978. Origin of the basal ice layer from Alpine glaciers indicated by its chemistry. J. Glaciol., 20(83), 319-328.
Souchez, R.A. and Lorrain, R.D. 1991. Ice composition and glacier dynamics, New York, Springern-Verlag.
Weertman, J. 1957. On the sliding of glaciers, J. Glaciol., 3(21), 33-38.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed