Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Sideshows at the Center - British Campaigns in the Middle East during the Great War

  • Priya Satia (a1)

Abstract

This article places the Middle East campaigns at the heart of the effort to understand the First World War's cultural impact in Britain. By doing so, it shows that the effects typically attributed to the western front—loss of faith in technology and heroism—were mediated in important ways by lessons emerging from the Middle Eastern fronts in Palestine and Mesopotamia, where the British found their faith in technology strengthened. By incorporating that cultural legacy, we can better understand why Britons remained committed to the war and why they maintained their faith in industrial development and imperial warfare after the war had ended. The heroic image of T. E. Lawrence and of the infrastructural development undertaken by the British military in Mesopotamia bolstered faith in technology and imperialism just when the western front was revealing their darker side. The article begins with a study of the unique military tactics the British adopted in the region, shaped by particular cultural notions about a largely imaginary “Arabia”: deception, irregular warfare, and airpower were used to an unprecedented degree in these campaigns. It goes on to show how the British government strove to capitalize on the propaganda effects of these “sideshows” as they became successful. In particular, they stressed the notion that the empire could find redemption in the restoration of the ancient “cradle of civilization.” Such ideas sustained idealistic notions even as the western front unleashed a new kind of cynicism.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sideshows at the Center - British Campaigns in the Middle East during the Great War
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sideshows at the Center - British Campaigns in the Middle East during the Great War
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sideshows at the Center - British Campaigns in the Middle East during the Great War
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All

1. Hew Strachan has shown that the war was truly global from the start: Strachan The First World War, vol. 1, To Arms (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

2. Kern, Stephen, The Culture of Time and Space, 1880–1918 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983), 300301.

3. Satia, Priya, Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain's Covert Empire in the Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 289.

4. “Why is the Persian Gulf Campaign Ignored?” and “The Middle East and the War,” Times, September 10 and 22, 1915, respectively pp. 9 and 9.

5. Carruthers, Douglas, “Captain Shakespear's Last Journey,” Geographical Journal 59, no. 5 (1922): 321–44, here p. 321. On the scope and implications of the term “Arabia,” see Satia, Spies in Arabia, 13–14.

6. Fussell, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (London: Oxford University Press, 1975), ix; Leed, Eric J., No Man's Land: Combat and Identity in World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). On the limits of this cultural rupture, see Winter, Jay, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 25 ; Paris, Michael, Warrior Nation: Images of War in British Popular Culture, 1850–2000 (London: Reaktion Books, 2000), 151–85; and Watson, Janet S. K., Fighting Different Wars: Experience, Memory, and the First World War in Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). On the technological aspects of the war, see Terraine, John, White Heat: The New Warfare, 1914–18 (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1982).

7. Headrick, Daniel R., The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1940 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988). On the myth of an anti-technocratic England, see Edgerton, David, England and the Aeroplane: Militarism, Modernity and Machines (London: Penguin Books, 2013).

8. For a synthesis of the historiography, see Edgerton, David, Science, Technology and the British Industrial “Decline,” 1870–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 110.

9. Bar-Yosef, Eitan, “The Last Crusade? British Propaganda and the Palestine Campaign, 1917–18,” Journal of Contemporary History 36, no. 1 (2001): 87109 , here p. 88. On the social milieu of the officers who produced these ideas about the Middle East, see Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 2.

10. Hynes, Samuel, The Soldier's Tale: Bearing Witness to Modern War (New York: Allen Lane, 1997), 116 ; Bar-Yosef, “The Last Crusade,” 108.

11. Graves, Robert, Good-Bye to All That: An Autobiography (London: Jonathan Cape, 1929). On Lawrence, see MacKenzie, John, “T. E. Lawrence: The Myth and the Message,” in Literature and Imperialism, ed. Giddings, Robert (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991), 150–81, and the literature cited in Satia, Spies in Arabia.

12. Kern, Culture of Time and Space, 301.

13. Satia, Priya, “Developing Iraq: Britain, India and the Redemption of Empire and Technology in the First World War,” Past and Present 197, no. 4 (2007): 211–55.

14. On the colonial hero as an ideal type at the turn of the century, see Berenson, Edward, Heroes of Empire: Five Charismatic Men and the Conquest of Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011); Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 5. Captain Scott's polar adventures on the eve of the war and the contemporary adventures of a slew of travelers to the Middle East fueled British interest in this type of terrain, conceived as nearly extraterrestrial at a moment when geographers worried that little was left to “discover” on the earth. On Scott, see Jones, Max, The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). On the belated nature of this heroic exploration, see Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 2.

15. Said, Edward W., Orientalism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978).

16. Fromkin, David, A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East (New York: Avon Books, 1989); Wilson, Jeremy, Lawrence of Arabia: The Authorised Biography of T. E. Lawrence (London: Heinemann, 1989); Hughes, Matthew, Allenby and British Strategy in the Middle East, 1917–1919 (London: Frank Cass, 1999); Yapp, Malcolm E., The Making of the Modern Near East, 1792–1923 (London: Longman, 1987); Barker, Arthur J., The Bastard War: The Mesopotamian Campaign of 1914–1918 (New York: Dial Press, 1967); Hourani, Albert, The Emergence of the Modern Middle East (London: Macmillan, 1981); Fisher, John, Curzon and British Imperialism in the Middle East, 1916–1919 (London: Frank Cass, 1999); Kedourie, Elie, England and the Middle East: The Destruction of the Ottoman Empire, 1914–1921, 2nd ed. (Hassocks: Harvester Press, 1978).

17. On the origins of the tactics used on the western front, see Travers, Tim, The Killing Ground: The British Army, the Western Front and the Emergence of Modern Warfare, 1900–1918 (London: Allen and Unwin, 1987).

18. Edward Lawrence, Thomas, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom: A Triumph (1926; New York: Anchor, 1991), 615 ; Wavell, Archibald P., Allenby: Soldier and Statesman (London: George G. Harrap, 1946), 195 ; Candler, Edmund, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2 vols. (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1919), 2:80 .

19. Liddell Hart, Basil Henry, “T. E. Lawrence”: In Arabia and After (London: Jonathan Cape, 1934), 164 ; Q. L., “With the 13th Indian Cavalry Brigade in Palestine,” Journal of the Royal United Services Institute (hereafter “JRUSI”) 64/454 (1919): 232–45, here p. 245; Tuohy, Ferdinand, The Crater of Mars (London: W. Heinemann, 1929), 210 .

20. Satia, Spies in Arabia, 166.

21. Leeds University Library, Liddle Collection (hereafter “LULLC”), MES 020, Robert Stewart Campbell to his family, January 10, 1916.

22. Tillotson Clark, Arthur, To Bagdad with the British (New York: D. Appleton, 1918), 2:47–49; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:26 and 28; LULLC, MES 090 (Rolt Papers), P. J. Rolt to Liddle, December 20, 1972; Swayne, Martin, In Mesopotamia (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917), 51 .

23. Allenby to his wife, December 17, 1917, quoted in Gardner, Brian, Allenby (London: Cassell, 1965), 163.

24. Lawley, Sir Arthur, A Message from Mesopotamia (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917), 11, 34, and 9192 ; LULLC, GS 0089, doc. 2, F. S. G. Barnett to his mother, March 10, 1917; Reynardson, H. Birch, Mesopotamia, 1914–15: Extracts from a Regimental Officer's Diary (London: Andrew Melrose, 1919), 14–15 and 240–42; Army YMCA of India, “The Land of the Two Rivers,” a document reprinted many times and often found among the papers of soldiers in Mesopotamia; LULLC, GS 0993, Lt. Col. L. A. Lynden-Bell, interview with Peter Liddle, TS, October 1977; LULLC, GS 1429, Sir Reginald Savory, “Recollections,” undated TS; Clark, To Bagdad with the British, 2; LULLC, MES 082, box 1, correspondence between W. W. A. Phillips and his mother, April 1915; L. M. H., “An Arabian Night,” Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 203 (1918): 378–87, here p. 379; LULLC, EP 098, letters from Captain John Stevenson to his mother, 1917; Saumarez, James Mann to his mother, March 15, 1920, in An Administrator in the Making: James Saumarez Mann, 1893–1920 (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1921), 234 ; British Library, London, India Office Records (hereafter “IOR”), Eur. MSS, F177/21, Emily Lorimer to her mother, March 31, 1917; LULLC, GS 1162, Joseph Napier to his mother, March 9 and 18, 1917; LULLC, MES 071, Lt. L. R. Missen, essay “Written for the ‘Pelican,’ the Perse School Magazine and passed by the editor to my mother, 19 April 1917”; St. Antony's College, University of Oxford, Middle East Centre Archive (hereafter “MECA”), Hogarth Papers, doc. 2, David Hogarth to Billy, February 19, 1917.

25. LULLC, GS 0993, Lt. Col. L. A. Lynden-Bell, interview with Peter Liddle, undated TS, October 1977; Reynardson, Mesopotamia, 240–42; LULLC, GS 1429, Sir Reginald Savory, “Recollections,” undated TS; LULLC, MES 094, Army YMCA of India, “Baghdad: The City of the Caliphs,” 1918. On the selection of Baghdad as a military objective, see Morris, Peter, “Intelligence and Its Interpretation: Mesopotamia 1914–1916,” in Intelligence and International Relations, 1900–1945, ed. Andrew, Christopher and Noakes, Jeremy (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1987), 90 .

26. Jarvis, Claude S., Arab Command: The Biography of Lieutenant-Colonel F. G. Peake Pasha (London: Hutchinson, 1942), 50 ; Wavell, Allenby, 245–46.

27. Goebel, Stefan, The Great War and Medieval Memory: War, Remembrance and Medievalism in Britain and Germany, 1914–1940 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, 135–44 and 154.

28. Satia, Spies in Arabia, 80; Kitchen, James E., The British Imperial Army in the Middle East: Morale and Military Identity in the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns, 1916–18 (London: Bloomsbury, 2014).

29. MECA, Edward Kinch Papers, doc. 1/2, autobiographical notes, undated MS, p. 27; LULLC, GS 1429, Sir Reginald Savory, “Recollections,” undated TS (my emphasis); Franklin Egan, Eleanor, The War in the Cradle of the World: Mesopotamia (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1918), 74–76, 232, and 242 ; Cato, Conrad, The Navy in Mesopotamia, 1914 to 1917 (London: Constable, 1917), 17 ; Savage, Raymond, Allenby of Armageddon (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1925), 198 ; Tweedy, Owen, Gathering Moss (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1967), 6566 ; Gilbert, Vivian, The Romance of the Last Crusade (New York: D. Appleton, 1924), 111–22, 180–86, and 235; Meinertzhagen, Richard, Army Diary, 1899–1926 (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1960), 22 ; “Allenby's Crowning Mercy,” Times, December 31, 1918, 9; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:198.

30. Wavell, Allenby, 162; Edward Lawrence, Thomas, “Twenty-Seven Articles,” Arab Bulletin 60 (1917): 347–53, article 20; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 195, 339, 346, and 381; MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, file 3A, Dickson to his mother, February 17, 1915; box 1, file 4, March 13, 1916; box 2, file 1, February 14, 1916; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 137–43.

31. Liddell Hart, “T. E. Lawrence,” 237 and 341; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 143–44.

32. Camouflage and other forms of surprise and concealment were also used in Europe, particularly toward the end of the war, but not as a strategic principle. As we shall see, key Middle East personnel were sent to Europe later in the war to encourage the use of deception there (see below, p. 92).

33. Wavell, Allenby, 195; Watson, Bruce A., Desert Battle: Comparative Perspectives (Westport: Praeger, 1995), 106–8; Cox to the India Office and the government of India, May 25, 1918, quoted in Graves, Philip, The Life of Sir Percy Cox (London: Hutchinson, 1941), 223 ; Broome Witts, Frederick Vavasour, “The Passage of the Tigris at Shumran, 23rd February, 1917,” JRUSI 68/471 (1923): 447–56, here p. 447.

34. Wavell, Allenby, 235 and 187 (quoting Smith); Savage, Allenby of Armageddon, 198. Allenby also drew on certain aspects of the relief of Kimberley (in present-day South Africa) during the Boer War.

35. Edmund Dane, British Campaigns in the Nearer East, 1914–1918: From the Outbreak of War with Turkey to the Taking of Jerusalem (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1919), 2:226–27.

36. MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, file 3A, Dickson to his mother, December 29, 1914; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:111; Thompson, Edward J., The Leicestershires beyond Baghdad (London: Epworth Press, 1919), 75 ; Tuohy, The Crater of Mars, 165–66.

37. MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, 2nd booklet, Dickson to Greene, March 10, 1915.

38. Swayne, In Mesopotamia, 68; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:110–11; Tab, Black, On the Road to Kut: A Soldier's Story of the Mesopotamian Campaign (London: Hutchinson, 1917), 571 ; MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, file 3A, Dickson to his sister, March 12, 1915, and to his mother, March 6, 1915; Dane, British Campaigns in the Nearer East, 2:153, and 1:v; Cottingham Rolls, Sam, Steel Chariots in the Desert: The Story of an Armored-Car Driver with the Duke of Westminster in Libya and in Arabia with T. E. Lawrence (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937), 170.

39. MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, file 3A, Dickson to Greene, March 10, 1915; Firestone Library, Princeton University, Arab Bureau Papers, FO 882, Lawrence to Wilson, January 8, 1917, Arab Bulletin 42 (February 15, 1917), 77; Rolls, Steel Chariots in the Desert, 170.

40. MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, 1st booklet, Dickson to Greene, February 7, 1915; Liddell Hart, “T. E. Lawrence,” 245; Presland, John, Deedes Bey: A Study of Sir Wyndham Deedes, 1883–1923 (London: Macmillan, 1942), 275 ; National Army Museum, London (hereafter “NAM”), ARC 1983-12-69-10, Leith-Ross Papers, “Tactical Side,” undated TS, 4–7.

41. The National Archives, London (hereafter “TNA”), Arab Bureau Papers, FO 882, T. E. Lawrence, “The Occupation of Akaba,” Arab Bulletin 59 (August 1917): 231–32; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 385; NAM, Leith-Ross Papers, “Secret Service or Intelligence,” 11 (my emphasis); TNA, WO 287/228, Office, War, Manual of Military Intelligence in the Field (London: HMSO, 1922).

42. Tuohy, The Crater of Mars, 210–11; Meinertzhagen, Army Diary, 243 (September 30, 1918). Meinertzhagen, an intelligence officer, drew partly on ruses he had invented (also against Arabs) in East Africa.

43. MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, file 4, Dickson to his mother, March 6, 1915; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:112 and 2:25.

44. Ibid., 1:111; TNA, FO 882, T. E. Lawrence, “Military Notes,” Arab Bulletin 32 (November 1916), 480; Lawrence, “Twenty-Seven Articles,” article 22.

45. Edward Lawrence, Thomas, “The Evolution of a Revolt” [1920], reprinted in Lawrence, Oriental Assembly, ed. Lawrence, A. W. (London: Williams and Norgate, 1939), 103–34, here pp. 112–15 and 133–34; Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 629. Much of Lawrence's article reappeared in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom.

46. Lawrence, “The Evolution of a Revolt,” 112–13, 116, and 122; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 192 and 196; Lawrence to his family, February 12, 1917, in The Home Letters of T. E. Lawrence and his Brothers, ed. M. Robert Lawrence (Oxford: Blackwell, 1954), 335; Lawrence to Clayton, August 27, 1917, in Selected Letters of T. E. Lawrence, ed. David Garnett (London: World Books, 1941), 120; Liddell Hart, “T. E. Lawrence,” 375.

47. Bray, November 8, 1916, in Arabian Report no. 18, undated; Satia, Spies in Arabia, chaps. 2 and 4.

48. Storrs, circa December 1916, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 342; TNA, FO 686/6/Pt.1, Intelligence report, December 28, 1916; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:111; Presland, Deedes Bey, 179; Young, Hubert, The Independent Arab (1933; repr. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2007), 162.

49. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 195, 339, and 381; Lawrence, “Twenty-Seven Articles”; Lawrence, “The Evolution of a Revolt,” 128–31; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 340; Rolls, Steel Chariots in the Desert, 158; LULLC, MES 020, Robert Stewart Campbell to his family, January 10, 1916; Plotke, Alma J., Imperial Spies Invade Russia: The British Intelligence Interventions, 1918 (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1993), 185 ; Liddell Hart, Basil Henry, The British Way in Warfare (New York: Macmillan, 1933); Hynes, The Soldier's Tale, 121–22; Leachman, quoted in Winstone, Harry V. F., Illicit Adventure: The Story of Political and Military Intelligence in the Middle East from 1898 to 1926 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1982), 299 ; Lawrence to his family, January 31, 1917, in The Home Letters, 334.

50. Lawrence, “The Evolution of a Revolt,” 122–23 (my emphasis); Plotke, Imperial Spies Invade Russia, 185; Liddell Hart, The British Way in Warfare; Hynes, The Soldier's Tale, 121–22; Strachan, Hew, “The British Way in Warfare Revisited,” Historical Journal 26, no. 2 (1983): 447–61; Meinertzhagen, Richard, Middle East Diary, 1917–1956 (London: Cresset Press, 1959), 41 (January 10, 1938).

51. Lawrence, “The Evolution of a Revolt,” 108–9, 111, and 121; Stirling, Walter Francis, Safety Last (London: Hollis and Carter, 1953), 84 ; Kirkbride to Liddell Hart, after 1962, quoted in Mack, John E., A Prince of Our Disorder: The Life of T. E. Lawrence (Boston: Little, Brown, 1976), 239 ; Thomas Edward Lawrence, “The Suppressed Introductory Chapter for Seven Pillars of Wisdom,” in Oriental Assembly, 135–48, here p. 144; Lawrence to Stirling, September 25, 1918, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 447; Lawrence to E. T. Leeds, September 24, 1917, and to Archibald Becke, December 28, 1929, both in Selected Letters of T. E. Lawrence, 124 and 433–34. Guy Dawnay, the “brain behind the titular chief,” was a student of Greek history, a poet, and a reputed eccentric whose prototype, Compton Mackenzie avowed, “must be sought in a Trojan scene of the middle-ages . . . perhaps in the corner of a picture by Crivelli where one of those small figures of warriors in the foreground seems to have detached itself from the crowded scene of chivalry behind and to have stepped forward from the past to commune with ourselves.” Mackenzie, Compton, Gallipoli Memories (London: Cassell, 1929), 9697.

52. Lawrence to Newcombe, January 17, 1917, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 351 (my emphasis); Lawrence to Vyvyan Richards, July 15, 1918, in Selected Letters, 244; TNA, FO 882, Lawrence, “Military Notes,” Arab Bulletin 32, 1916.

53. Satia, Spies in Arabia, 156–57.

54. Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:211; Plotke, Imperial Spies Invade Russia, 41 and 171.

55. Ibid., 37; Burke, Keast, ed., With Horse and Morse in Mesopotamia: The Story of Anzacs in Asia (Sydney: A. and N. Z. Wireless Signal Squadron History Committee, 1927), 104 ; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:285–86; Tennant, John E., In the Clouds above Baghdad: Being the Records of an Air Commander (London: C. Palmer, 1920), 255 ; LULLC, GS 1429, Savory, Sir Reginald, “Recollections,” undated TS; Lionel Charles Dunsterville, The Adventures of Dunsterforce (1920; repr. London: E. Arnold, 1932), 3 and 6869 .

56. Tennant, In the Clouds above Baghdad, 38 and 60–61; TNA, AIR 2/940, Tennant to GOC RFC Egypt, December 30, 1916; TNA, AIR 1/426/15/260/3, Air Staff, “On the Power of the Air Force and the Application of that Power to Hold and Police Mesopotamia,” 1920. For more on the RFC's work in the Middle East during the war, see Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 7.

57. Tennant, In the Clouds above Baghdad, 60–61.

58. TNA, WO 158/626, Geoffrey Salmond to CGS EEF, November 12, 1916, and “Note on Egypt force to Wingate,” November 14, 1916; MECA, Dickson Papers, box 1, 3rd booklet, Dickson to Greene, February 7, 1915; Nunn, Wilfred, Tigris Gunboats: A Narrative of the Royal Navy's Co-operation with the Military Forces in Mesopotamia from the Beginning of the War to the Capture of Baghdad (1914–17) (London: A. Melrose, 1932), 90 ; Wauchope, Arthur G., With a Highland Regiment in Mesopotamia, 1916–1917, by One of Its Officers (Bombay: The Times Press, 1918), 70 ; Tennant, In the Clouds above Baghdad, 35, 38–39, and 141; TNA, FO 686/6/Pt.1, Joyce to Wilson, March 24, 1917. On the limits to using aircraft and the many lethal errors they made, see Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 7.

59. TNA, AIR 10/1001, RAF, preface to “Notes on Aerial Photography, Part II: The Interpretation of Aeroplane Photographs in Mesopotamia,” 1918; Occleshaw, Michael, Armour Against Fate: British Military Intelligence in the First World War (London: Columbus Books, 1989), 6162 . On the agents’ development of aerial photography in Egypt, see Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 189 and 198, n. 77.

60. Satia, Spies in Arabia, 159–61.

61. TNA, AIR 2/940, Tennant to GOC RFC Egypt, December 30, 1916; TNA, FO 882/VI, HRG/17/15, Pearson to Wingate, late February 1917; Dov Gavish, “Wadi Fari'a: The ‘Valley of Death’ in the Great War,” Over the Front 15, no. 4 (2000): 360–66, here pp. 362–65; Charlton, Lionel E. O., Deeds That Held the Empire: By Air (London: J. Murray, 1940), 8288 ; TNA, AIR 1/725/115/1, Salmond to a General, undated. See also Henry Robert Brooke-Popham, “The Air Force,” December 3, 1919, JRUSI 65/457 (1920): 43–70, here p. 57; Mackay, C. J., “The Influence in the Future of Aircraft upon Problems of Imperial Defence,” JRUSI 67/466 (1922): 274310 , here p. 302; Borton, Amyas E., “The Use of Aircraft in Small Wars,” JRUSI 65/458 (1920): 310–19; NAM, Leith-Ross Papers, “Tactical Side,” 8–9; Tennant, In the Clouds above Baghdad, 163. On air control, see Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 7; Omissi, David E., Air Power and Colonial Control: The Royal Air Force, 1919–1939 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990).

62. Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 550 (see also 308 and 633); Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 2.

63. Hourani, Albert, “The Myth of T. E. Lawrence,” in Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics and Culture in Britain, ed. Roger Louis, William (London: I. B. Tauris, 1995), 924 , here p. 23; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 327.

64. Chesney, G. M., “Mesopotamian Breakdown,” Fortnightly Review 102, 1917, 247–56, here p. 247; Swayne, In Mesopotamia, 17 and 51; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:33 and 176; Mesopotamia Commission Report, 9; Nunn, Tigris Gunboats, 10; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:1, 50, 72, 99, and 164; “A Truce in the Desert: Turks’ Arab Allies,” Times, March 22, 1916, 7.

65. Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:50, 72, 99, 164, 47, 56, and 102; Mesopotamia Commission Report, 37–38.

66. Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 1:1, 47, 51, 132, 111–20, 164, and 2:223–24; Gilbert, The Romance of the Last Crusade, 222.

67. Ferrers Townshend, Charles Vere, My Campaign in Mesopotamia, 2 vols. (New York: J. A. McCann, 1920), 1:1–36, here p. 19 .

68. “Mesopotamia To-Day,” Times, July 11, 1917, 7; Nunn, Tigris Gunboats, 168; LULLC, GS 1162, Joseph Napier to the Department of War Studies, Sandhurst, 1976, and to his mother, February 28, 1917; “ Dalil,” “The Campaign in Mesopotamia: The First Phase,” JRUSI 69/475 (1924): 510–26, here pp. 510–11; Rowan Robinson, H., “The Relations of Mobility and Power,” JRUSI 65/459 (1920): 572–79, here p. 579; “Battlefields of Iraq,” Times, December 12, 1923, 11; “Battlefields of Iraq II,” Times, January 18, 1924, 11.

69. Bell, Gertrude L. to Bell, Florence, September 5, 1918, in The Letters of Gertrude Bell, ed. Bell, Florence (London: Benn, 1927), 2:461–62; IOR, CPO, IEF “D,” in Malcolm, John, Sketch of the Political History of India from 1784 to the Present Date (London: Miller, 1811), chap. 1; Tab, On the Road to Kut, 111; Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 9.

70. Clark, To Bagdad with the British, 208; Wauchope, With a Highland Regiment in Mesopotamia, 65; Clark, To Bagdad with the British, 239; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:97.

71. LULLC, AIR 032, Robert Blucke to his father, June 25, 1917; Telegram from Sykes to Clayton, January 16, 1918, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 466–67; Sykes in the Observer, December 1917, quoted in Adelson, Roger, Mark Sykes: Portrait of an Amateur (London: Jonathan Cape, 1975), 246 .

72. Egan, The War in the Cradle of the World, 252; Bevan, Edwyn, The Land of the Two Rivers (London: E. Arnold, 1918), 10–11, 112, and 124–26; Robert Cecil, House of Commons debate, July 23, 1918, quoted in Wilson, Arnold T., Mesopotamia, 1917–1920: A Clash of Loyalties. A Personal and Historical Record (London: Milford, 1931), 99 ; Montagu, House of Commons debate, August 6, 1918, reported in the Times, August 7, 1918, 8.

73. Wauchope, “The Battle that Won Samarrah,” reprinted as chap. 8 of With a Highland Regiment in Mesopotamia, citation p. 85.

74. “Four Centuries of History,” review of Hemsley Longrigg, Stephen, Four Centuries of Modern Iraq (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1925), Times, January 22, 1926, 17; “A Traveller in Mesopotamia,” review of Stevens, E. S. [Ethel Stefana], By Tigris and Euphrates (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1923), Times, December 14, 1923, 8; “Britain and Mesopotamia,” Daily Telegraph, May 10, 1921; Wilkinson, R. J., “The Geographical Importance of Iraq,” JRUSI 67/468 (1922): 660–65, here p. 663; Edgerton, David, Warfare State: Britain, 1920–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 284, 312, and 317 . In India, by contrast, the signs of wartime modernization were most often viewed as a violation of the colony's romantic aura, betokening social, cultural, and political chaos.

75. Reynardson, Mesopotamia, 272.

76. Barker, The Bastard War, 42.

77. Cato, The Navy in Mesopotamia, 106 and 117.

78. Bevan, The Land of the Two Rivers, 10–11, 112, and 124–26.

79. Parfit, Joseph T., Mesopotamia: The Key to the Future (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917), 1 ; Lowthian Bell, Gertrude, “Turkish Province: The Anatolian Coast,” and “Arab Provinces: Baghdad,” in The Arab of Mesopotamia (Basra: Government Press, 1916), respectively 119–32 and 201–2, citations pp. 131 and 201–2; Bell to Hugh Bell, May 18, 1917, and to Florence Bell, November 15, 1917, in Letters of Gertrude Bell, 2:410–11 and 431–32; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:183; “A New Mesopotamia,” Guardian, December 13, 1919, 12.

80. Quoted in Swayne, In Mesopotamia, 166.

81. “The Palestine Mandate,” Guardian, June 23, 1922, 6; LULLC, GS 1429, Sir Reginald Savory, “Recollections,” undated TS; Amery at the Leeds Luncheon Club, quoted in the Times, February 9, 1926, 11.

82. Thomas Edward Lawrence, “The Changing East,” in Oriental Assembly, 87; TNA, FO 882/XIV, MIS/15/9, note by Wingate, August 26, 1915.

83. Bevan, The Land of the Two Rivers, 10–11, 112, and 124–26; Satia, “Developing Iraq,” n. 51; “A New Mesopotamia,” Guardian, December 31, 1919, 12; Reynardson, Mesopotamia, 50 and 172.

84. Lord Montagu, speech in a House of Commons debate on Indian reform, August 6, 1918, reported in the Times, August 7, 1918, 8; Curzon at the Central Asian Society, reported in the Spectator, October 16, 1920, 487; MECA, Sykes Papers, box 2, file 7, document 78, “Political Note on Our Advance in Irak,” September 17, 1917; Gertrude Bell to Hugh Bell, November 10, 1922, and to Hugh and Florence Bell, January 31, 1918, in Letters of Gertrude Bell, 2:657 and 441–44; Candler, The Long Road to Baghdad, 2:188.

85. “Lest We Forget,” Times of Mesopotamia, May 3, 1924; “The League of Nations and Mosul,” Spectator, September 12, 1925, 398; Economist, May 10, 1924, 955; LULLC, GS 0089, Barnett to his mother, October 6, 1916; Cabinet Paper on Mesopotamia, November 12, 1919; East India (Military), Cd. 7624, Parliamentary Papers, 1914–1916, 49:15; Times Trade Supplement, December 2, 1918, 206b; Davidson, Sir Nigel, “Iraq: The New State,” Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society (hereafter “JCAS”) 19, no. 2 (1932): 212–33, here pp. 212–16.

86. On the notion of empire as an interlocking economic unit, see MacKenzie, John M., Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion, 1880–1960 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), 1011 and 107.

87. Glubb, John, The Story of the Arab Legion (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1948), 19 ; Mann to his mother, January 25, 1920, in Mann, An Administrator in the Making, 206. See also the file of applications, many from war veterans, for appointment to the Mesopotamian Civil Administration, especially as political officers: IOR, L/PS/10/676, 1918–21. For the Conservative Party, opportunities for constructive work in the field of imperial development helped strengthen the commitment of the nation's youth to the empire—and to the party. See, for instance, Leo Amery's speech in the City Hall, Glasgow, at a meeting of the Junior Imperialist Union on January 21, 1926, reported in “Youth and Empire,” Times, January 22, 1926, 7.

88. Wilson, Arnold T., “Annual Dinner,” JCAS 19, no. 4 (1932): 643–52, here p. 644; Lawrence, Arnold W., ed., T. E. Lawrence, by His Friends (1937; repr. London: Jonathan Cape, 1954), 128 ; Stirling, Safety Last, 83–84.

89. Dawson, Graham, Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire and the Imagining of Masculinities (London: Routledge, 1994), 194 .

90. Dawson, Soldier Heroes, 167–83; MacKenzie, Propaganda and Empire, chap. 3; Paris, Warrior Nation, 151 and 171; IOR, Eur. MSS, C874, Ilay Ferrier, “The Trans-Desert Route,” TS, 1926; Melman, Billie, Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988), 91 ; Woolf, Virginia, Night and Day (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1948), 83 ; Graves, Lawrence and the Arabs, 57; Cox, Percy, review of Lawrence, Revolt in the Desert (London: Jonathan Cape, 1927), Geographical Journal 69, no. 6 (1927): 581–82; Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, chap. 6; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 184. On films inspired by Arabia, see Nasir, Sari J., The Arabs and the English (London: Longman, 1976), 125–48.

91. British Library, London, Wilson Papers, 52456A, Stephenson to Wilson, May 26, 1920; Thomas, Bertram, “Across the Rub ‘Al Khali,’” JCAS 18, no. 4 (1931): 489504 , here p. 489; John Philby, Harry St, “A Survey of Wahhabi Arabia, 1929,” JCAS 16, no. 4 (1929): 468–81, here p. 468; “List of Members of the CAS,” JCAS 15, no. 1 (1928): 3–39; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 184.

92. Gertrude Bell to Hugh Bell, March 11, 1925, in The Letters of Gertrude Bell, 2:725; review of Harrison, Paul W., The Arab at Home (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1924), in JCAS 13, no. 3 (1926), 279; Glen, Douglas, In the Steps of Lawrence of Arabia (London: Rich & Cowan, 1939); Jarvis, Arab Command, 141–42; Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 675; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 185–90.

93. Graves, quoted in Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory, 205; Lawrence to Graves, April 21, 1931, and Brown's note on this subject, both in Lawrence, Selected Letters, 452–453; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 187–90.

94. Charles Grosvenor, “The Subscribers’ Seven Pillars of Wisdom: The Visual Aspect,” in The T. E. Lawrence Puzzle, ed. Stephen E. Tabachnick (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984), 159–84; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 185–88.

95. Stewart, Desmond, T. E. Lawrence (London: Paladin Grafton, 1979), 233 , quoted in Dawson, Soldier Heroes, 205; Buchan to Lawrence, July 13, 1927, in Walter Lawrence, Arnold, ed., Letters to T. E. Lawrence (London: Jonathan Cape, 1962), 2021 ; Buchan, John, Memory Hold-the-Door (Toronto: Musson, 1940), 218 ; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 188–89.

96. Garnett to Lawrence, Guy Fawkes Day (November 5), 1927, and Sassoon to Lawrence, December 6, 1923, both in Letters to T. E. Lawrence, 76–78 and 155.

97. Lawrence to Graves, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 668.

98. Satia, Spies in Arabia, 188–89.

99. Henry Major Tomlinson to Lawrence, March 19, 1930, and December 5, 1928, in Letters to T. E. Lawrence, 189–93; Dawson, Soldier Heroes, 176.

100. Hynes, The Soldier's Tale, 92; Goodheart, Eugene, “A Contest of Motives: T. E. Lawrence in Seven Pillars of Wisdom ,” in T. E. Lawrence: Soldier, Writer, Legend: New Essays, ed. Meyers, Jeffrey (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989), 122 ; Liddell Hart, “T. E. Lawrence,” 447; A. W. Lawrence, T. E. Lawrence, by His Friends, 149 (Liddell Hart) and 205 (Baker); Satia, Spies in Arabia, 193.

101. Ibid., 189–94.

102. H. G. Wells to Lawrence, May 17, 1927, in Letters to T. E. Lawrence, 212; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 194–95.

103. Liddell Hart, “T. E. Lawrence,” 386; Buchan, Memory Hold-the-Door, 212; Lawrence, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 259; Winterton, quoted in Tidrick, Kathryn, Heart-Beguiling Araby: The English Romance with Arabia (London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2010); Coke, Richard, The Arab's Place in the Sun (London: Butterworth, 1929), 12 and 289 ; MECA, Glubb Papers, Iraq S. Desert (2), “On Bedu Dialect,” draft, 1926; Graves, Lawrence and the Arabs, 57; Daily News, quoted in Wilson, Lawrence of Arabia, 783; Said, Orientalism, 246; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 195–98.

104. Paris, Warrior Nation, 185; Satia, Spies in Arabia, 196–98.

105. Compagnon, Olivier, “1914–18: The Death Throes of Civilization. The Elites of Latin America Face the Great War,” in Uncovered Fields: Perspectives in First World War Studies, ed. MacLeod, Jenny and Purseigle, Pierre (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 279–95.

106. Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 7.

107. TNA, WO 158/626, Salmond, commanding Middle East Brigade, RFC to CGS, GHQ EEF, November 12, 1916; Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 7.

108. Peel, William, comment on Aylmer Haldane, “The Arab Rising in Mesopotamia, 1920,” November 29, 1922, JRUSI 68/469 (1923): 6381 , here p. 80.

109. Cawelti, John G. and Rosenberg, Bruce A., The Spy Story (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 32 ; Colls, Robert, “The Constitution of the English,” History Workshop Journal 46 (1998): 97127 , here p. 109; Satia, Spies in Arabia, chap. 9; Satia, “ Interwar Agnotology: Empire, Democracy and the Production of Ignorance,” in Brave New World: Imperial and Democratic Nation-Building in Britain between the Wars, ed. Beers, Laura and Thomas, Geraint (London: Institute of Historical Studies, 2012), 209–26.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales - English Edition
  • ISSN: 2398-5682
  • EISSN: 2268-3763
  • URL: /core/journals/annales-histoire-sciences-sociales-english-edition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed