Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

National-level integrative ecological health assessments based on the index of biological integrity, water quality, and qualitative habitat evaluation index, in Korean rivers

  • Jae Hoon Lee (a1), Jeong-Ho Han (a1), Hema K. Kumar (a1), Jun-Kil Choi (a2), Hwa Kun Byeon (a3), Jaeseok Choi (a4), Jai-Ku Kim (a5), Min-Ho Jang (a6), Hae-Kyung Park (a7) and Kwang-Guk An (a1)...

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to evaluate fish guild compositions and national river health using a multi-metric model of the Korean index of biological integrity using fishes (K-IBIF) in four major Korean watersheds along with water chemistry and habitat quality. Tolerant and omnivore fish species dominated all the watersheds, and the proportions of tolerance guilds and trophic guilds reflected water chemistry and habitat quality. The number of sensitive species and insectivore species had negative correlations (r < −0.42, P < 0.01) with chemical water quality (biological oxygen demand (BOD)), while tolerant species and omnivore species had positive correlation (r > 0.27, P < 0.05) with BOD values. Physical habit conditions, based on qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI) model, indicated a “good” condition (mean = 68.9; range = 45–105) in three watersheds, except for the Yeongsan River watershed. Values of QHEI were significantly correlated (R2 > 0.4, P < 0.01) with nitrogen and phosphorus levels in all watersheds, suggesting that habitat degradation is associated with eutrophication. Model values of K-IBIF in the watersheds averaged 18.2, indicating a “fair” condition, and about 37% of all observations in K-IBIF model values were judged as a “poor” health condition, indicating severe health impairment. Overall, our data suggest that degradation of the river health was due to a combined effect of chemical pollution and physical habitat modifications. This research provides valuable information on Korean river conservation and restoration in the future.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      National-level integrative ecological health assessments based on the index of biological integrity, water quality, and qualitative habitat evaluation index, in Korean rivers
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      National-level integrative ecological health assessments based on the index of biological integrity, water quality, and qualitative habitat evaluation index, in Korean rivers
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      National-level integrative ecological health assessments based on the index of biological integrity, water quality, and qualitative habitat evaluation index, in Korean rivers
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: kgan@cnu.ac.kr

References

Hide All
[1]An, K.-G. and Lee, E.H., 2006. Ecological health assessments of Yoogu Stream using a fish community metric model. Korean J. Limnol., 39, 310319 (in Korean with English summary).
[2]An, K.-G., Jung, S.H. and Choi, S.S., 2001a. An evaluation on health conditions of Pyong-Chang River using the index of biological integrity (IBI) and qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). Korean J. Limnol., 34, 153165 (in Korean with English summary).
[3]An, K.-G., Yeom, D.H. and Lee, S.K., 2001b. Rapid bioassessments of Kap Stream using the index of biological integrity. Korean J. Environ. Biol., 19, 216269 (in Korean with English summary).
[4]An, K.-G., Kim, D.S., Kong, D.S. and Kim, S.D., 2004. Integrative assessments of a temperate stream based on a multimetric determination of biological integrity, physical habitat evaluations, and toxicity tests. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 73, 471478.
[5]An, K.-G., Lee, J.Y., Bae, D.Y., Kim, J.H., Hwang, S.J., Won, D.H., Lee, J.K. and Kim, C.S., 2006. Ecological assessments of aquatic environment using multi-metric model in major nationwide stream watersheds. J. Korean Water Qual., 22, 796804 (in Korean with English summary).
[6]APHA, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 21st edn., American Public Health Association, New York, NY.
[7]Bae, D.Y. and An, K.-G., 2006. Stream ecosystem assessments, based on a biological multimetric parameter model and water chemistry analysis. Korean J. Limnol., 39, 198208 (in Korean with English summary).
[8]Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. and Stribling, J.B., 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2nd edn., EPA 841-B-99-002, Office of Water, US EPA, Washington, DC.
[9]Binns, N.A. and Eiserman, F.M., 1979. Quantification of fluvial trout habitat in Wyoming. T. Am. Fish. Soc., 108, 215228.
[10]Boon, P.J., 2000. The development of integrated methods for assessing river conservation value. Hydrobiologia, 422, 413428.
[11]Braak, C.J.F., 1987. The analysis of vegetation–environment relationships by canonical correspondence analysis. Vegetation, 69, 6977.
[12]Brookes, A. and Shields, F.D. Jr., 1996. River Channel Restoration: Guiding Principles for Sustainable Projects, Wiley, Chichester, 433 p.
[13]Choi, J.K., Byeon, H.K. and Seok, H.K., 2000. Studies on the dynamics of fish community in Wonju Stream. Korean J. Limnol., 33, 274281 (in Korean with English summary).
[14]Choi, J.W. and An, K.-G., 2007. Fish composition and trophic guild analysis as a collection of basic data for ecosystem health assessments in Yeongsan Lake. Korean J. Limnol., 40, 546552 (in Korean with English summary).
[15]Choi, J.W., Kumar, H.K., Han, J.H. and An, K.-G., 2011. The development of a regional multimetric fish model based on biological integrity in lotic ecosystems and some factors influencing the stream health. Water Air Soil Pollut., 217, 324.
[16]Crumpton, W.G., Isenhart, T.M. and Mitchell, P.D., 1992. Nitrate and organic N analyses with second-derivative spectroscopy. Limnol. Oceanogr., 37, 907913.
[17]Desirree, D.T., David, L.P. and Gregory, D.J., 2006. Development and application of a bioindicator for benthic habitat enhancement in the North Carolina Piedmont. Ecol. Eng., 27, 228241.
[18]DIN 38410, 1990. Biological-ecological analysis of water (group M); determination of the saprobic index (M2). German standard methods for the examination of water, Part 2, Waste water and sludge, 10 p.
[19]Drake, M.T. and Pereira, D.L., 2002. Development of a fish-based index of biotic integrity for small inland lakes in Central Minnesota. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 22, 11051123.
[20]European Commission, 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal, L327, 72 p.
[21]Fore, L.S., Karr, J.R. and Conquest, L.L., 1993. Statistical properties of an index of biological integrity used to evaluate water resources. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 51, 10771087.
[22]Gore, J.A., 1985. The Restoration of Rivers and Streams, Butterworth, Stoneham, 280 p.
[23]Han, J.H., Bae, D.Y. and An, K.-G., 2007. Ecosystem health assessments of Changwon Stream as a preliminary diagnosis for aquatic ecosystem restoration. Korean J. Limnol., 40, 527536.
[24]Hughes, R.M., Heiskary, S.A., Mathews, W.J. and Yoder, C.O., 1994. Use of ecoregions in biological monitoring. In: Loeb, S.L. and Spacie, A. (eds.), Biological Monitoring of Aquatic Systems, Lewis, Chelsea, 125151.
[25]Hugueny, B.S., Camara, B., Samoura, B. and Magassouba, M., 1996. Applying an index of biotic integrity based on communities in a West African river. Hydrobiologia, 331, 7178.
[26]Hwang, S.J., Kim, N.Y., Won, D.H., An, K.-G., Lee, J.K. and Kim, C.S., 2006. Biological assessment of water quality by using epilithic diatoms in major river systems (Geum, Youngsan, Seomjin River). J. Korean Water Qual., 22, 784795 (in Korean with English summary).
[27]Karr, J.R., 1981. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries, 6, 2127.
[28]Karr, J.R. and Dionne, M., 1991. Designing surveys to assess biological integrity in lakes and reservoirs. In: Biological Criteria Research and Regulation-Proceedings of a Symposium, EP-440/5-91-005, US EPA, Office of Waters, Washington, DC, 6272.
[29]Karr, J.R., Heidinger, R.C. and Helmer, E.H., 1985a. Effects of chlorine and ammonia from wastewater treatment facilities on biotic integrity. J. Water Pollut. Con. F., 57, 912915.
[30]Karr, J.R., Toth, L.A. and Dudley, D.R., 1985b. Fish communities of midwestern rivers: a history of degradation. BioScience, 35, 9095.
[31]Karr, J.R., Fausch, K.D., Angermeier, P.L., Yant, P.R. and Schlosser, I.J., 1986. Assessment of biological integrity in running waters: a method and its rationale, Special publication 5, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL, 28 p.
[32]Kelly, M.G., Cazaubon, A., Coring, E., Dell'Uomo, A., Ector, L., Goldsmith, B., Guasch, H., Hurlimann, J., Jarlman, A., Kawecka, B., Kwandrans, J., Laugaste, R., Lindstrom, E.-A., Leitao, M., Marvan, P., Padisak, J., Pipp, E., Prygiel, J., Rott, E., Sabater, S., van Dam, H. and Vizinet, J., 1998. Recommendations for the routine sampling of diatoms for water quality assessments in Europe. J. Phycol., 10, 215224.
[33]Kelly, M.G. and Whitton, B.A., 1995. The trophic diatom index: a new index for monitoring eutrophication in rivers. J. Appl. Phycol., 7, 433444.
[34]Kim, I.S. and Park, J.Y., 2002. Freshwater fishes of Korea, Kyohaksa, Seoul, 465 p. (in Korean).
[35]Kleynhans, C.J., 1999. The development of a fish index to assess the biological integrity of South African rivers. Water SA, 25, 265278.
[36]Koizumi, N. and Matsumiya, Y., 1997. Assessment of stream fish habitat based on index of biotic integrity. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Fish. Oceanogr., 61, 144156.
[37]Kwon, Y.S. and An, K.-G., 2006. Biological stream health and physico-chemical characteristics in the Keum-Ho River watershed. Korean J. Limnol., 39, 145156 (in Korean with English summary).
[38]Lang, C. and Reymond, O., 1995. An improved index of environmental quality for Swiss rivers based on benthic invertebrates. Aquat. Sci., 57, 172180.
[39]Lang, C., l'Eplattenier, G. and Reymond, O., 1989. Water quality in rivers of Western Switzerland: application of an adaptable index based on benthic invertebrates. Aquat. Sci., 51, 224234.
[40]Lee, C.L., 2001. Ichthyofauna and fish community from the Gap Stream water system, Korea. Korean J. Environ. Biol., 19, 292301.
[41]Lee, J.H. and An, K.-G., 2007. Seasonal dynamics of fish fauna and compositions in the Gap Stream along with conventional water quality. Korean J. Limnol., 40, 503510.
[42]Lee, J.H. and An, K.-G., 2010. Analysis of various ecological parameters from molecular to community level for ecological health assessments. Korean J. Limnol., 43, 2434 (in Korean with English summary).
[43]Lee, W.O. and No, S.Y., 2006. Freshwater fishes of Korea based on characteristics: illustrated book, Jisungsa, Seoul, 432 p. (in Korean with English summary).
[44]Legendre, P. and Legendre, L., 1998. Numerical ecology (developments in environmental modelling), 2nd English edn., Elsevier, Amsterdam.
[45]Leidy, R.A. and Fiedler, P.L., 1985. Human disturbance and patterns of fish species diversity in the San Francisco Bay Drainage. Biol. Conserv., 33, 247267.
[46]Limburg, K.E. and Schmidt, R.E., 1990. Patterns of fish spawning in Hudson River tributaries: response to an urban gradient. Ecology, 71, 12311245.
[47]Lyons, J., Navarro-Perez, S., Cochran, P.A., Santana, E. and Guzman-Arroyo, M., 1995. Index of biotic integrity based on fish assemblages for the conservation of streams and rivers in west-central Mexico. Conserv. Biol., 9, 569584.
[48]Maezono, Y. and Miyashita, T., 2004. Impact of exotic fish removal on native communities in farm ponds. Ecol. Res., 19, 263267.
[49]McCune, B. and Mefford, M.J., 1999. PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data, Version 4.0, MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, OR.
[50]MOE, 2000. Standard methods for the examination of water quality contamination, 7th edn., Gwacheon, Korea, 435 p. (in Korean).
[51]MOE/NIER, 2006. Researches for integrative assessment methodology of aquatic environments (III): development of aquatic ecosystem health assessment and evaluation system, The Ministry of Environment/National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), Incheon, Korea (in Korean).
[52]MOE/NIER, 2008. The survey and evaluation of aquatic ecosystem health in Korea, The Ministry of Environment/National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, Korea (in Korean with English summary).
[53]Morley, S.A. and Karr, J.R., 2002. Assessing and restoring the health of urban streams in the Puget Sound basin. Conserv. Biol., 16, 14981509.
[54]Nam, M.M., 1996. Present status of Korean freshwater fish. In: 1996 Symposium of Korean Journal of Limnology Proc., 3145 (in Korean).
[55]Nurnberg, G.K., 1996. Trophic state of clear and colored, soft- and hard-water lakes with special consideration of nutrients, anoxia, phytoplankton and fish. Lake Reservoir Manage., 12, 432447.
[56]Ohio, EPA, 1989. Biological Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life (Vol. III): Standardized Biological Field Sampling and Laboratory Method for Assessing Fish and Macroinvertebrate Communities, Columbus, OH.
[57]Olguin, H.G., Salibian, A. and Puig, A., 2000. Comparative sensitivity of Scenedesmus acutus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa as sentinel organisms for aquatic ecotoxicity assessment: studies on a highly polluted urban river. Environ. Toxicol., 15, 1422.
[58]Plafkin, J.L., Barbour, M.T., Porter, K.D., Gross, S.K. and Hughes, R.M., 1989. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and rivers: benthic macroinvertebrate and fish, EPA/444/4-89-001, Office of water regulations and standards, US EPA, Washington, DC.
[59]Prepas, E.E. and Rigler, F.A. 1982. Improvements in qualifying the phosphorus concentration in lake water. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 39, 822829.
[60]Rankin, E.T. and Yoder, C.O., 1999. Adjustments to the index of biotic integrity: a summary of Ohio experiences and some suggested modifications. In: Simon, T.P. (ed.), Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 672 p.
[61]Raven, P.J., Holmes, N.T.H., Dawson, F.H., Fox, P.J.A., Everard, M., Fozzard, I.R. and Rowen, K.J., 1998. River Habitat Quality: The Physical Character of Rivers and Streams in the UK and Isle of Man, Environment Agency, Bristol.
[62]Rossano, E.M., 1996. Diagnosis of Stream Environments with Index of Biological Integrity, Sankaido Publishers, Tokyo.
[63]Sanders, R.E., Miltner, R.J., Yoder, C.O. and Rankin, E.T., 1999. The use of external deformities, erosion, lesions, tumors (DELT anomalies) in fish assemblages for characterizing aquatic resources: a case study of seven Ohio streams. In: Simon, T.P. (eds.), Assessing the Sustainability and Biological Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish Communities, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 672 p.
[64]Soto-Galera, E., Díaz-Pardo, E., López-López, E. and Lyons, J., 1998. Fish indicator of environmental quality in the Río Lerna Basin, México. Aquat. Ecosys. Health Manage., 1, 267276.
[65]SPSS, 2004. SPSS 12.0 KO for Windows, Apache Software Foundation, Chicago, IL.
[66]Strahler, A.N., 1957. Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 38, 913920.
[67]US EPA, 1993. Fish Field and Laboratory Methods for Evaluating the Biological Integrity of Surface Waters. EPA 600-R-92-111. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory – Cincinnati office of Modeling, Monitoring Systems, and Quality Assurance Office of Research Development, US EPA, Cincinnati, OH.
[68]US EPA, 1994. Environmental monitoring and assessment program: integrated quality assurance project plan for the Surface Waters Resource Group. 1994 activities, Rev.2.00. EPA 600/X-91/080, US EPA, Las Vegas, NV.
[69]US EPA, 1998. Lake and reservoir bioassessment and biocriteria technical guidance document, EP-841-B-98-007, US EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
[70]US EPA, 2002. Biological Assessments and Criteria, EPA 822-F-02-006, US EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
[71]Walton, B.M., Salling, M., Wyles, J. and Wolin, J., 2007. Biological integrity in urban streams: toward resolving multiple dimensions of urbanization. Landscape Urban Plan., 79, 110123.
[72]Winget, R.N. and Mangum, F.A., 1979. Biotic condition index: integrated biological, physical, and chemical stream parameters for management, Forest Service, Intermountain region, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ogden, UT.
[73]Won, D.H., Jun, Y.C., Kwon, S.J., Hwang, S.J., An, K.-G. and Lee, J.K., 2006. Development of Korean saprobic index using benthic macroinvertebrates and its application to biological stream environment assessment. J. Korean Water Qual., 22, 768783 (in Korean with English summary).
[74]Yeom, D.H., An, K.-G., Hong, Y.P. and Lee, S.K., 2000. Assessment of an index of biological integrity (IBI) using fish assemblages in Keum-Ho River, Korea. Korean J. Environ. Biol., 18, 215226 (in Korean with English summary).
[75]Yoder, C.O., 1991. The Integrated Biosurvey as a Tool for Evaluation of Aquatic Life Use Attainment and Impairment in Ohio Surface Waters, EPA/440/5-91/005, US EPA, Washington, DC, 110122.
[76]Zhu, D. and Chang, J., 2008. Annual variations of biotic integrity in the upper Yangtze River using an adapted index of biotic integrity (IBI). Ecol. Indic., 8, 564572.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed