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Review: Semen sexing – current state of the art with emphasis on bovine species

  • R. Vishwanath (a1) and J. F. Moreno (a1)


It is approaching three decades since the first public evidence of sex-sorting of semen. The technology has progressed considerably since then with a number of institutions and researchers collaborating to eventually bring this to application. The technical challenges have been quite substantial and in the early years the application was limited to only heifer inseminations. Comparable fertility of sex-sorted semen with conventional semen has been an aspirational benchmark for the industry for many years. Significant investment in research in the primary biology of sex-sorted sperm and associated sorting equipment ensured steady progress over the years and current methods particularly the new SexedULTRA-4M™ seems to have now mostly bridged this fertility gap. The dairy and beef industry have adopted this technology quite rapidly. Other animal industries are progressively testing it for application in their specific niches and environments. The current state of the art in the fundamentals of sex-sorting, the biology of the process as well as new developments in machinery are described in this review.

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Review: Semen sexing – current state of the art with emphasis on bovine species

  • R. Vishwanath (a1) and J. F. Moreno (a1)


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